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Laboratory Experiment for Second Order Filter

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Experiment 2

Understanding the characteristics of filters.

Understanding the advantages of active filters.

Kennedy G., Electronic Communication Systems, McGRW-Hill,

Third Edition, 1994,

D. Roddy and J. Coolen, Electronic Communications, Prentice Hall

of India, 1995.

Young Paul H., Electronic Communication Techniques, Merrill

Publishing Company, Third Edition 1990.

Haykin Simon, Communication Systems, John Wiley, 4th Edition,

2001.

Filters, which exist t every w here in communication systems, are desi gned

to pass a specified band of frequencies while attenuating all signals

outside thisband.

Filters are usually classified according to filtering range, frequency

response in pass band, and circuit component. Classified by fi ltering

range, there are four types of fi lters: low-pass, high-pass, band-pas s, and

band-reject filters.

Analog Communication Laboratory 2-1

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

Butterworth and Chebyshev filters. According to circuit component,

they are active and passive filters.

Passive filters are the circuits ts that ccontain only passive components

(res istors, induc tors and capacitors) connected in such a way that they

will pass certain frequencies while rejecting others .Active fi lters,

which are the only type covered in this chapter, employ active

components (transistors or operational amplifiers) plus resistors,

inductors and capacitors. Active filters are widely used in modern

communication sys tems, because they have the following advantages:

1. Because the transfer function with inductive characteristic can be

achieved by particular circuit design, resistors can be used instead of

inductors.

2. The high input impedance and low output impedance of the

operational amplifier means that the filter circuit is excellent in

isolation characteristic and suitable for cascade.

3. Because active components provide amplification, therefore active

filters have gain.

In the following sec tions, we will foc us on the characteristics of the

second-order low-pass and high-pass ac tiv e fi lters.

A low-pass filter is an electronic circuit that has a constant

output voltage from dc up to a cutoff frequency. As the

frequency increases above the cutoff frequency, the output

voltage is attenuated. The cutoff frequency, also call ed the 0.707

fre quency, the 3dB frequenc y, or the corner frequency, is the

frequency where the output voltage is reduced to 0.707 times its

pass \band value.

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

called inverting integrator or Mi ll er integrator. Its transfer function can

be expressed b

(2-1)

Where

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

order l o w - pass fi lter T h erefore, a second-order low-pass f i lt er can

be easily const ruct e d b y cascading two Mill er integrators w ith an

inverting amplifier.

The block diagram of second-order low-pass filter, shown in Fig. 2-2 is

consisted of two Miller integrators, a unity-gain inverting amplifier and adder.

Therefore, the transfer function is

(2-2)

diagram, a practical second-order low-pass filter is indicated in Fig. 2-3. In

this circuit, the operational amplifier U1: A performs the functional

combination of the adder and the first Miller integrator in Fig. 2-2. If

(2-3)

Comparing Eqs. (2-2) to (2-3), we yield

( 2-4 )

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

(2-5)

(2-6)

In the circuit of Fig. 2-3, the components R, R2, R3, C1 and U1:A form the

Miller integrator with the function of weighted adder. The adder is used to

add the input signal to the feedback signal from the U1:C output. The

combination of R4, C2 and U1:B is the second miller integrator and the

combination of R5, R6 and U1:C is a unity-gain inverting amplifier. Since this

circuit design satisfies the Butterworth criteria, the response curve in its pass

band is flat and no ripple.

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

Second-Order High-Pass Filter

The frequency response of a second-order high-pass filter is opposite to that of

a second-order low-pass filter. A high-pass filter attenuates the output voltage

for all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. Above the cutoff frequency,

the magnitude of the output voltage is constant. The block diagram of Fig. 2-4

is a second-order high-pass filter constructed by two Miller integrators, an

inverting amplifier and two adders. Its transfer function can be given by

(2-7)

This is a general form of second-order high-pass filters. Following this block

diagram, a practical second-order high-pass filter is indicated in Fig. 2-5.

Analog Communication Laboratory 2-6

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

Comparing these two figures, the U1:A performs the functional combination

of the first adder and Miller integrator. The U1:B performs the

functional combination of the second adder and the unity-gain inverting

amplifier. If

(2-8)

And if R1R4=R2R3,then

(2-9)

Comparing Eqs. (2-7) to (2-9), we yield

(2-10)

(2-11)

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

(2-12)

In the circuit of Fig. 2-5, the components of R1, R3, R7, C1 and U1: A

are connected as the first Miller integrator with the function of weighted

adder. The adder is used to add the input signal to the U1:C output signal. The

second adder, constructed by R2, R4, R5 and U1:B, is used to add the input

signal to the U1:A output signal. The components R6, C2 and U1: C forms

the second Miller integrator circuit. Since this circuit design satisfies the

Butterworth criteria, the response curve in its pass band is flat and no ripple.

All of filter circuits discussed above are second-order filters. If desired,

higher order filters can be constructed by connecting these filters in cascade

and modifying component values to meet Butterworth or Chebyshev criteria. The

operational amplifier, used in our experiment circuits, is the LM348 that

includes four OP AMPs and has the unity-gain bandwidth of 1 MHz. To

improve the response in the band of high frequencies, the OP AMP LM318 can

be used instead of LM348 in second-order high-pass filter circuit. The

LM318 has the unity-gain bandwidth of 15MHz.

1. Module KL-92001

2. Module KL-93001

3. Oscilloscope

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

connect plugs in J1 and J2 to set C 1 = C2 = 0.001µF.

2. Connect a 100mVp-p, 10Hz sine wave to the input (I/P). Using the

oscill oscope, observe the output signal and record the outp ut

amplitude in Table 2-1.

3. Observe and record the output amplitudes in Table 2-1 for input

frequencies of 100Hz, 1KHz, 2KHz, 5KHz, 8KHz, 10KHz,

20KHz,50KHz and 100KHz .

4. Calculate each voltage gain for each input frequency and record the results

in Table 2-1.

5. Using the results of Table 2-1, sketch Bode Pl ot of voltage gain in

Fig. 2-6.

6. Remove the connect plugs from J1 and J 2 and then insert them in J3

and J4 to set C 3 =C 4 =0.01µF.

7. Observe and record the output amplitude in Table 2-2 for input

frequencies of 10Hz, 100Hz, 200Hz, 500Hz, 800Hz, 1 KHz, 2

KHz, 5 KHz, 10 KHz and 100 KHz.

8. Calculate each voltage gain for each input frequency and record the results

in Table 2-2.

9. Using the results of Table 2-2, sketch Bode pl ot of voltage gain in

Fig. 2-7.

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

1. Locate Second Order HPF circuit on Module KL-93001. Insert

connect plugs in J1 and J2 to set C 1 = C2 = 0.0047 µF.

2. C onnect a 100mVp-p, 10Hz, sine wave to input (I/P).U sing the oscill

oscope, observe the output signal and record the outp ut

amplitude in Table 2-3.

3. Observe and record the output amplitude in Table 2-3 for input

frequencies of 100Hz, 1 KHz, 2 KHz, 5 KHz, 8 KHz, 10 KHz, 20

KHz, 50 KHz and 100 KHz.

4. Calculate each voltage gain for each input frequency and record the results

in Table 2-3.

5. Using the results of Table 2-3, sketch Bode pl ot of voltage gain in

Fig. 2-8.

6. Remove the connect plugs from J1 and J 2 and then insert them in J3

and J4 to set C 3 =C 4 =0.015µF.

7. Observe and record the output amplitude in Table 2-4 for input

frequencies of 10Hz, 100Hz, 200Hz, 500Hz, 800Hz, 1 KHz, 2

KHz, 5 KHz, 10 KHz and 100 KHz.

8. Calculate each voltage gain for each input frequency and record the results

in Table 2-4.

9. Using the results of Table 2-4, sketch Bode pl ot of voltage gain in

Fig. 2-9.

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

Table 2-1

(C1 = C2 = 0.001µF)

Fig.2-6

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

Table 2-2

(C1 = C2 = 0.01µF)

Fig.2-7

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

Table 2-3

(C1 = C2 = 0.0047µF)

Fig.2

-8

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

Table 2-4

(C1 = C2 = 0.015µF)

Fig.2-9

Exp# 2: Second Order Filters

2.5 QUESTIONS:

2. In Fig.2-5, if R1 R 4 =R 2 R3, C 1 =C 2 =C and R 5 =R 6 =R7, derive the

transfer functi on of Eq. (2-9).

3. What are the advantages of active filters with OP Amps?

4. Inspec ting Eqs. (2-5) and (2-11), which of the c omponents can you

change easily to v ary the bandwidth of fi lter?

5. If we want to c hange the bandwidth of the fi lter of Fig. 2-3 to 5 KHz,

what capacitance values of C 1 and C2 should be?

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