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This article investigates how participants in broadcast news interviews dis-play


their orientations to a social distribution of knowledge regarding news- worthy
events and actors. Interviewers treat the nature, grounds, and limits of
interviewees¶ knowledge as accountable matters. The article employs single-case
and quantitative analyses to show that, in and through the design of their
questions, interviewers distinguish between (i) interviewees as subject-actors
who are responsible for direct, first-hand knowledge of their own conduct; and (ii)
interviewees as commentators who, on the basis of indirect, second-hand
knowledge, are entitled to opinions about third par- ties' conduct. This distinction
serves as a basis for the production of inter- viewees' responses as talk that
expresses either matters of fact or points of opinion. The article examines how
these aspects of question design establish relevancies for interviewees' responses
and, ultimately, shape news content.

- () 0 Mass media, epistemology, conversation analysis, evidentiality,


interaction.
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Much current work on organizational knowledge, intellectual capital,


knowledge-creating organizations, knowledge work, and the like rests on a
single, traditional understanding of the nature of knowledge. We call this
understanding the "episte- mology of possession," since it treats knowledge as
something people possess. Yet, this epistemology cannot account for the
knowing found in individual and group practice. Knowing as action calls for an
"epistemology of practice." Moreover, the epistemology of possession tends to
privilege explicit over tacit knowledge, and knowledge possessed by individuals
over that possessed by groups. Current work on organizations is limited by this
privileging and by the scant attention given to knowing in its own right.
Organizations are better understood if explicit, tacit, individual and group
knowledge are treated as four dis- tinct and coequal forms of knowledge (each
doing work the others cannot), and if knowledge and knowing are seen as mu-
tually enabling (not competing). We hold that knowledge is a tool of
knowing, that knowing is an aspect of our interaction with the social and
physical world, and that the interplay of knowledge and knowing can generate
new knowledge and new ways of knowing. We believe this generative dance
between knowledge and knowing is a powerful source of organizational
innovation. Harnessing this innovation calls for organizational and technological
infrastructures that support the interplay of knowledge and knowing. Ultimately,
these concepts make pos- sible a more robust framing of such epistemologically-
centered concerns as core competencies, the management of intellectual capital,
etc. We explore these views through three brief case studies drawn from recent
research.

- () 0 Knowledge; Epistemology; Practice


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In this article, we examine the way citizens' descriptions of troublesome


occurrences in reports to emergency dispatch personnel are vulnerable to
suspicion and doubt. The vulnerability of description in these cases involves
callers' categorization of, visual or aural access to, and involvement in the
reported "trouble." It is through displays of what we term practical epistemology
- displays of how one has come to know about a particular event - that these
vulnerabilities emerge and are tested and negotiated in the request for and
dispatch of emergency assistance. (Conversation analysis, language in
institutional settings, pragmatics) It is common for members of society to speak
of events they have witnessed or have been involved in, happenings that often
occur at some remove in time and space from the occasion of their telling.
Sacks (1972a:329-32) argued that there are systematic resources for producing
and recognizing the depiction of an activity or occurrence as a "possible
description," a portrayal of a real event that can be appreciated by recipients
without first-hand knowledge. 

¿Descriptions achieve their currency by depicting matters that, given the place
of their occurrence and the categories of persons involved in their production,
could have occurred in the manner described. In the absence of reason to doubt,
everyday descriptions are usually accepted as veridical for the purposes at hand.

Not every candidate description is accepted on its face, however. Doubts can
emerge and, depending on he practical issues at stake, the offered ac- count may
be subject to review and assessment and pressed for clarification, elaboration, or
reformulation. Moreover, such issues are not solely the offspring of doubt;
descriptions play different roles in various social circum- stances and are therefore
subject to shifting requirements for completeness, detail, and supporting evidence
(Pomerantz I983). We refer to the assortment of demand encountered by
descriptions across settings as vulnerabilities, in- tending by that term to collect
for study the desiderata of the members' activity of doing description. We are
concerned here with the investigation of the vulnerabilities of a particular class
of descriptions, those involved in reporting troublesome occurrences to the
police - descriptions that necessarily raise issues of categorization, visual and/or
aural access to the event, and involvement in the reported trouble. We argue that
in response to these issues participants orient to displays of a practical
epistemology - just how, on this occasion, one has come to know about this
particular event.

Displays of practical epistemology are assemblies of various features of the


problematic event: what one has actually seen or heard (the empirical materials of
the event), the "definition" or categorization of the event as a particular kind of
problem or trouble (e.g., as a "fight," "murder," "break-in," and so on), and the
status of caller visa is the event (e.g., as a witness, victim, or intercessory third
party).2 Our concern in this article is with the interactional accomplishment of
epistemological displays - what we term callers' stance toward the troubles
they report.

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In information systems, most research on knowledge management assumes that


knowledge has positive implications for organizations. However, knowledge is a
double-edged sword: while too little might result in expensive mistakes, too much
might result in unwanted accountability. The purpose of this paper is to highlight
the lack of attention paid to the unintended consequences of managing
organizational knowledge and thereby to broaden the scope of IS-based
knowledge management research. To this end, this paper analyzes the IS
literature on knowledge management. Using a framework developed by Deetz
(1996), research articles published between 1990 and 2000 in six IS journals are
classified into one of four scientific discourses. These discourses are the
normative, the interpretive, the critical, and the dialogic. For each of these
discourses, we identify the research focus, the metaphors of knowledge, the
theoretical foundations, and the implications apparent in the articles representing
it. The metaphors of knowledge that emerge from this analysis are knowledge as
object, asset, mind, commodity, and discipline. Furthermore, we present a paper
that is exemplary of each discourse. Our objective with this analysis is to raise IS
researchers' awareness of the potential and the implications of the different
discourses in the study of knowledge and knowledge management.

- () 0 Epistemology, knowledge.

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The article refers to the discovery and utilization of new practical means of
materialization of didactic objectives in order to form new competences and skills
and implicitly develop a new approach of the information and communication
technology, both for the teaching staff and students. The utilization of new
information and communication techniques in educational field is a realively
recent issue in the European Union's states and represents a phenomenon in
incipient phases for us. It would increase the efficiency of the educational system
without involving pedagogical practice on an exclusive basis; still, this
introduction should be supported by appropriate equipment and adequate teacher
training. Our work is based on a sociological questionnaire applied to senior high
school students, as well as undergraduate and master graduate students of Dimitrie
Cantemir University, Mures district, Romania. The study emphasizes the
opportunities students have as a result of using the new ways of research and
communication and the impact of using them in the educational process.


- () 0 Communication technology; educational system; skills and


competences

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The concept of risk communication has come to comprise more than conveying
technical or scientific information to the public. It can also include newer forms
such as public participation, joint decision making, and two-way dialogue forums.
Previous discussions on risk communication have distinguished between two
different approaches, namely the democratic versus the technical one. In the
present paper, it is argued that despite these recent attempts to widen the scope
and objectives of risk communication, risk communication is primarily, in most
cases, a relationship between unequal parties. This inequality is analyzed through
a threefold distinction of asymmetries in terms of communicative initiative,
informational privilege, and risk influence. A preliminary model for
understanding the different inequalities in the risk communication situation is
developed.


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This essay explores some rhetorical paths of thought connecting the discipline of
English Studies and Speech Communication. I focus on the rhetoric of science
during two periods of disciplinary development: the use of scientific rhetoric to
articulate new disciplinary identities in the 1910s and the debates over the
rhetorical study of science in the 1990s. The transition from the former to the
latter period was significantly affected by what might be called a rhetorical
hermeneutics developed around 1960 by Chaim Perelman, Hans Georg Gadamer,
and Thomas Kuhn. The establishment of Composition Studies provides an
example of the changed rhetorical context for disciplinary legitimating in the late
twentieth century. The main purpose of this rhetorical history is to encourage
renewed dialogue among rhetoricians studying Literature, Composition, and
Communication.

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This paper examines electronic mail in organizational communication. Based on


ideas about how social context cues within a communication setting affect
information exchange, it argues that electronic mail does not simply speed up the
exchange of information but leads to the exchange of new information as well. In
a field study in a Fortune 500 company, we used questionnaire data and actual
messages to examine electronic mail communication at all levels of the
organization. Based on hypotheses from research on social communication, we
explored effects of electronic communication related to self-absorption, status
equalization, and uninhibited behavior. Consistent with experimental studies, we
found that decreasing social context cues has substantial deregulating effects on
communication. And we found that much of the information conveyed through
electronic mail was information that would not have been conveyed through
another medium.
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The relationship between epistemology and the sociology of knowledge is


discussed. It is asserted that epistemology is logically basic to the sociology of
knowledge. Epistemology in turn has to be founded in the analysis of the
nonformalized logic inherent in everyday language. The relationship between
epistemology and the sociology of knowledge is discussed and exemplified, first,
by an analysis of the concept of false consciousness. If discussed in an
epistemological context, it is argued, the analysis of false consciousness leads to
unsolvable difficulties, whereas its treatment as a sociological problem of
knowledge is adequate. A second illustration contrasts the two approaches and
involves an analysis of the Neo-Kantian foundations of Durkheimian and
Weberian sociology. Finally, attention is directed towards Habermas's theory of
communicative action. Whereas Habermas tries to abandon epistemological
problems and give his theory a sociological anchoring, it is argued that a theory of
language and communication must make its point of departure from an
epistemological analysis in order to avoid an abstractive fallacy. 




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Male and female Stripe-backed Wrens (Campylorhynchus nuchalis) have


repertoires of learned, stereotyped calls that are specific to same-sex relatives in
cooperatively breeding family groups. Consequently, they are potential cues
for recognizing group membership and sex during social interactions. Here I
describe the use of these calls for social communication in this species. Males call
much more frequently than females within a group's territory, and dominant birds
call more often than subordinates. In playback experiments, males responded to
their own-group calls by producing matching call types, and called at relatively
high rates following simulated territorial intrusions by neighboring birds. These
vocalizations appear to function primarily in maintaining social bonds within a
group and in recognizing group identity during interactions with other groups.

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Complexity of communication is one of the important factors that


distinguishes multilateral negotiation from its bilateral cousin. We investigate
how the communication configuration affects a three-person coalition negotiation.
Restricting who can communicate with whom strongly influences outcomes, and
not always in ways that current theory anticipates. Competitive frictions,
including a tendency to communicate offers privately, appear to shape much of
what we observe. Our results suggest that parties with weaker alternatives
would benefit from a more constrained structure, especially if they can be the
conduit of communication, while those endowed with stronger alternatives
would do well to work within a more public communication structure that
promotes competitive bidding.

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Logical positivists describe certain classes of propositions as analytic or synthetic.


Their position could be unassailable if they left the matter at that. Unfortunately
they add a rider to the effect that all propositions are one or the other. Pseudo-
propositions, being neither one nor the other, are described as nonsense. The
above rider itself appears to fall into neither class and an immediate objection
may be made to the positivist's standpoint on the ground that it commits him to
nonsense by his own definition. A securer standpoint can be adopted by
describing three classes of proposition: analytic, synthetic and mixed. The
statement that any proposition belongs to one of three classes is then a mixed
proposition of the third kind and involves no contradiction


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This article provides a conceptual history of science mass communication, which


is seen as divided into the scientific literacy and interactive science traditions. The
origins of the ideas that underlie the scientific literacy and interactive science
traditions, as well as some of the issues researchers have raised, are introduced.
The author argues the two traditions are not mutually exclusive, although the
interactive tradition is a response to the applied problems within the scientific
literacy model. It is argued that the pace of research might be accelerated if there
were a more comprehensive collaboration among science communication, health
communication, and risk communication scholarship.

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The weaknesses in compulsory school science education are summarized and used
to explain the lower than desired uptake of post-compulsory courses and the lack
of interest in matters scientific by the general public. Against the background of a
model for interactive science communicationš which addresses these weaknesses
and which focuses on the key theme of Äthe social aspects of science
/technologyš, two approaches to improved provision are presented. The first is the
use of Äcontext-basedš courses within formal provision. The second is the much
greater use of informal provision, namely that made through museums zoos and
botanical gardens, TV, the internet., newspapers and magazines, books. The
challenges to be faced in using these two broad approaches, namely: the nature of
science, of technology, and the relation between hem; the treatment of risk; the
treatment of contemporary issues, are evaluated. Finally, ways to bring about
these desirable changes are summarized.

- () 0 interactive science communication, context-based courses, media.

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Two issues are addressed. First is the matter of just what type of information can
be derived from observing a facial expression of emotion. Seven different emotion
domains are described. Then problems inherent in the terms expression and
communication are described as they apply to facial behavior. In this context the
argument that the face just signals about interactive not emotional phenomena is
shown to be a false and misleading dichotomy.

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The aim is to outline general differences in two academic cultures,


considering historic perspectives: German µKommunikationswissenschaft¶ with its
roots in µPublizistik-¶ and µZeitungswissenschaft¶ and French µSciences de
l¶information et de la communication¶ with its roots in semiotics and cultural
views on communication. There are different internal and external (societal and
political) means which influenced the development of communication studies and
theories in each of the two countries. The Sciences de l¶information et de la
communication (SIC) gained their academic acceptance in France in 1975 which
under international comparison was late. One strong external moment of the
instutionalization of SIC was the political aim to modernize the French University
for the so called µinformation society¶. The French researchers developed their
own focus. Semi-pragmatics and social constructivism are two basic theoretical
orientations which, after the end of the limiting structuralistic paradigm of the
1960ths, lead to a fruitful connection of the analysis of the micro and the meso-
level of communication processes. Thus, Pragmatics and Symbolic interactions
played an important role in French SIC much earlier than in Germany.


- () 0 History of communication studies, French Sciences de l¶information


et de la communication, German Kommunikationswissenschaft, communication
theories, Social constructivism.

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Cryptic protective mechanisms and the conspicuousness required to communicate


result in a conflict of opposing selection. In the Red-necked Nightjar
(Caprimulgus ruficollis) a nocturnal bird, the use of a restricted signaling strategy
provides an appropriate balance between these two selection forces. Conspicuous
white wing and tail bands may have been favored by sexual selection in this
species. We studied the variation of visual signals and found conspicuousness to
be closely related to sex and age, being much higher in males and adults. This
variation allows an individual to identify the reproductive status of conspecifics,
providing sexual selection a basis to select these visual signals in this and other
nocturnal bird species. We believe that a relationship between restricted signaling
strategy and sexually selected visual signals may occur in nocturnal species that
use visual communication.

 
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In sociohistorical inquiry, no epistemology prevails as a widely accepted account
of knowledge. Positivism yet retains its defenders. As alternatives, both
structuralist and hermeneutic challenges to science are undermined as foundations
of knowledge by their own accounts, yielding the postmodern loss of certitude.
Conventionalism, rationalism, and realism have been proposed as "local
epistemologies" under the new conditions, and on a broader level, pragmatic and
transcendental theories of communication substitute for epistemology classically
conceived. As yet, these contending developments do not resolve the crisis of
sociohistorical knowledge.

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940-945.

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Bolton, G, E., Chatterjee, K., McGinn, K. (2003). How Communication Links


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Cook, S, D, N., Brown, J, S. (1999). Bridging Epistemologies: The Generative


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Ekman, P. (1997). Should We Call it Expression or Communication? £


Y
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Emeritus. (2008) Science Communication: Towards a Proper Emphasis on the


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Florea, C. (2010). An approach to the didactic activity involving the use of new
information and communication technology. (Capera). à
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Hall, J, R. (1990). Epistemology and Sociohistorical Inquiry in comunications.


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Halsbury, E. (1959). EPISTEMOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION THEORY.


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34 (131), 289-307.

Israel, J. (1990). EPISTEMOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE.


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Y33 (1), 111-128.

Jordan, J. (2003). Communication with Shared Call Repertoires in


the Cooperatively Breeding Stripe-Backed Wren.  Y 'Y 'Y

! Y74 (2), 166-171.

Logan, R. (2001). Science Mass Communication Its Conceptual History. Y


 
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http://sass.caltech.edu/events/Logan2001.pdfY
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and communication studies.  
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Practical epistemology in citizen calls to the police. 3 YY
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19 (4), 465-492. Rescatado de
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Roth, A, L. (2002). Social epistemology in broadcast news interviews. 3 Y


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