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ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

The argumentative essay can be characterized like a writing in which position is taken
on a thematic, an opinion or a problematic determined, sustains this position through
arguments and it is acceded to conclusions. In this way, the object of an argumentative
essay is something susceptible of discussion; or in other words, in the argumentative
essay it is not against the problem of the truth or the falsification, but rather against the
problem of the credibility.

The argumentative essay does not try to prove an absolute truth as but to value
arguments in favor of a position taking. In this way, it does not interest to try if one is
against true an undeniable or contestable truth in terms of/false, interests to reconstruct
the conditions of internal consistency and the solidity of a speech1.

In this way, the idea of the credibility, understood like the internal consistency of the
writing, goes beyond the support in sources, talks about the condition of the writing for
conforming all articulated and a coherent one (a system), in which the different
components play a role based on an argumentative intention.

ELEMENTS OF THE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

1. Delimitation of a Thematic Field. The argumentative essay is placed in a specific


semantic field, this must delimit the thematic field that takes care, and show relevance,
I reach and limits of the same.

2. Taking of Position. The central characteristic of the argumentative essay is the


position taking that writes the text raises a point of view on the thematic one in
discussion; otherwise we will be against another type of text. With base in the position
taking, and considering the audience to whom the text goes, the type of arguments is
selected. Of another side, the taking of position (or thesis) can be conformed by an
opinion, a judgment against a situation X, a valuation, a theory that is wanted to
defend, a procedure that is wanted to evaluate.

3. Arguments. In order to support the thesis, or the theses, raised are due to
present/display arguments. An argument can be made up of an affirmation, an opinion,
a theory… and for reasons support that it. The reasons that support the arguments can
be conformed by examples, comparisons, and definitions.

4. Counter-arguments. Since the argumentative essay presents/displays arguments


in support of a thesis or taking of position, it is important to evaluate the possible
counter-arguments associated to the thesis that is developed. In this way it will be
counted on a better level of argumentative consistency.

5. Argumentative plan. It is necessary that the different elements from the


argumentative essay are organized following a plan or plot axis. The existence of a plot
plan defines the type of sequence (structure/superstructure) argumentative. Some
examples of argumentative sequences can be2:

1 http://essayinfo.com/essays/argumentative_essay.php
2 http://www.studygs.net/wrtstr4.htm
• Delimitation of the thematic field - Taking of position - Arguments - Examples -
Conclusion.

• Conclusion - Delimitation of the thematic field - Taking of position - Arguments -


Comparisons.

• Taking of position - Conclusion - Delimitation of the thematic field - Arguments -


Examples - Support in a theory.

• Arguments - Support in a theory - Arguments - Examples - Delimitation of the


thematic field - Taking of position – Conclusion

If a plot plan does not exist it could be in front of a listing of unconnected arguments; or
it will be possible to be in front of a text in which the conclusion does not derive from
the arguments and the raised thesis. In this way, the type of nexus, semantic and
logical, existing between both components defines the level of coherence of the text.

6. Conclusions/implications. In the argumentative essay the development of the


position taking and the exposition of arguments, generally, lead to a conclusion (or
conclusions) or to implications. The conclusion must logically derive from the thesis
and the arguments. Nevertheless, it is possible that in some cases the conclusions do
not consider of explicit way, are tests that leave into the hands of the reader the
elaboration of the conclusions and implications

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

- Consistency in the terms. It is required that the used basic concepts in the
argumentation are used with connotations that are not contradictory, ambiguous or
confused. If the concepts deserve a explanation, must occur, can be through footnotes
of page, between scripts, parenthesis or through direct or indirect references.

- To mention. The appointments are elements keys in the writing of the argumentative
essay, not only like supports of the credibility and legitimacy of the arguments, or as
supports of the argumentative plan, but like construction of the conceptual universe in
which it is developed, and like signal of configuration of intertextual relations.

- Adjustment to the audience. This aspect implies that the production of the
argumentative essay is necessary to anticipate the type of interlocutor (reader) what
supposes to select to a type of lexicon and a type of arguments and, even, ways to
argue.

- No contradiction. It is important to write down that, for the case of the


argumentative essay, we spoke of contradictions concerning the statements, not to
empirical or ethical contradictions. We could define the contradiction at the textual and
the need in the letter does not affirm and deny the same statement, unless the
presentation of a contradiction become part of a strategy of argument, but in this case
that contradiction must be overcome in the development of writing
- The examples. The example is a useful resource to support the argumentations but
they are not a necessary condition. It can have argumentative tests that do not require
examples; and other that count on too many examples without argumentative function.

- The comparisons. Another argumentative resource is the comparison, but like the
case of the examples, the use of this resource, in case it is considered necessary, must
occur with argumentative function.

- Linguistic Resources. The argumentative test must guarantee that explicit nexuses
between their different elements exist.

REQUIREMENTS OF FORM AND BOTTOM OF THE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

FORM REQUIREMENTS:

- Idiomatic correction: Free of errors of morfosintaxis, typesetter spelling and score,


and errors.
- Style: It will use a natural style, with simple words, without falling in the vulgar thing;
the language will have to be formal, cultured, without being searched carefully.
- Structure: It is made up of five parts3:

1) Introduction: One or two paragraphs, those serve stops:


a) to present/display the reader the subject on which turns the test, indicating the
diverse ones positions that usually are taken against the controversy
b) To clearly indicate the thesis that the author tries to defend or to demonstrate.

2) Clarification: One or two paragraphs in which the key terms of the test are defined,
that is to say, the concepts which they constitute the essence than the author wants to
demonstrate.

3) Reasons: One to three paragraphs, in which the author will present/display the main
reasons (one by paragraph), in favor of the thesis, can include explanatory examples.

4) Objections: Two paragraphs, in first will set out the main reasons that exist against
the thesis, in the second, the author will try to refute them, demonstrating that the
propose thesis is most reasonable.

5) Conclusion: A paragraph, in which the author will make a summary of the thesis
and the reasons presented/displayed to favor.

3 http://www.roanestate.edu/owl&writingcenter/owl/argument.html
BOTTOM REQUIREMENTS:

- Organization of the contents: The ideas must have a logical relation; the thesis will
be clearly discernible. The author will have to avoid the following errors:

1) Disorder: The ideas are presented/displayed confusedly.

2) Repetition of ideas: When the same idea is expressed with different words, several
times throughout the test.

3) Overloaded paragraphs: When the paragraph contains more than a main idea

4) Unwarranted paragraphs: When the paragraph does not contain any main idea but
an idea of support to the exposed thing in another paragraph, reason why it would not
have to exist but separately to be annexed to this one.

- Clarity: The expressed ideas will be of easy understanding. The author will avoid the
following errors:

1) The dark: when it is impossible or difficult to include/understand what the author


means.

2) Indefinite key word: When certain words whose understanding is necessary for the
work have been defined clearly.

3) Ambiguity: When the text (or a word) is lent to more than an interpretation

4) Vagueness: When little precise words or expressions are used.

- Concision: The writing will go directly to the grain and it will not make wanderings
unnecessary. The author would avoid the following errors.

1) Digression: When the test leaves the subject illegally.

2) Logorrhea: When the text is extended unnecessarily.

- Quality of the reasoning: The author of the test will avoid committing the following
errors:

1) Inconsistency: When the author also contradicts itself

2) Unsustainable assertions: When question are unproven ideas as if they were


found and not try to justify them.

3) Tendentiousness: When a part inquires into the facts, while another part is hidden,
with the intention to favor a certain position.
UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS
ENGLISH VIII COURSE

“ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY”

TEACHER:
LIC. JULIO A. RAMIREZ

COURSE:
ENGLISH VIII

STUDENTS:
KAREN STEPHANI CAMPOS RIVAS
ADRIANA MARGARITA CARRANZA VALENCIA
ILIANA MERCEDES GRIJALVA CASTRO
ELENA PATRICIA FUNES
ROBERTO MANUEL MARIONA
MARTHA MARCELA SALGUERO

GROUP:
02