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.

LEAK

DETECTION

Introduction

Introduction

Ideal vacuum chamber

What would an IDEAL vacuum chamber look like?

– Stable wall surfaces

– NO leaks

– only source of gas is the gas delivery system(process in the chamber)

• In a REAL vacuum system, there can be other sources of gas besides the gas delivery system.

What problems can these other gas sources cause?

– significantly increase the pump down time.

– contaminants in the system.

Leak in vacuum systems

• Loading the unwanted gasses to the vacuum system and then pressure increasing in the system is known as leak.

• Leak a big problems in vacuum techniques and leak detection is a big challenge .

• In practice there are two main aspect of leak detection:

(1) Testing the components and (2) Testing completed systems

Types of leaks

• There are 2 kinds of leak in the vacuum system (1): Real leak When the gasses passes from atmosphere into the vacuum system

(2) Virtual leak When the gasses or vapors load or deliver to the system by

(a) Desorption the gasses from chamber`s wall and components

(b) Trapped spaces

Gas Sources

• The three main ways that undesired gasses can get into a vacuum system and the pressures increases:

Leaks( Vertual leak and Real leak)

Outgassing

Backstreaming

Gas Sources

• Leaks (Real)

a crack or hole in the vacuum system drawing molecules from the surrounding atmosphere into the work chamber

• dirty/worn/damaged/impro perly-seated seals (90%+)

• cracked or porous welds

• cracks or flaws in the chamber walls

• loose components such as feed-throughts

• the migration of gas through the wall material or O-ring

the chamber walls • loose components such as feed-throughts • the migration of gas through the

Gas Sources

• Leaks (Virtual)

– apparent leaks caused by release of trapped gas inside the system

• threaded fastener cavity

• flange connections and contacts – Vented screws are used to eliminate virtual leaks.

• threaded fastener cavity • flange connections and contacts – Vented screws are used to eliminate

Gas Sources

Outgassing: the natural evolution of species inside the chamber, at low pressure, contributing to the gas load

Sublimation of solid chamber surfaces

Desorption from the walls of physically adsorbed molecules

Out-Diffusion of gas that has been absorbed into the grain boundaries of the metal

Vaporization of liquids or solids in the chamber

gas that has been absorbed into the grain boundaries of the metal – Vaporization of liquids

Gas Sources

When is outgassing likely to occur?

– after chamber clean

– after being open to atmosphere

• The polar nature of water molecules causes them to persistently adsorb to chamber surfaces in many layers due to hydrogen bonding. These layers can take a very long time to outgas.

How can outgassing be reduced?

– Wear gloves during cleaning • fingerprints are disastrous to a vacuum system! • ONE fingerprint can take several hours to outgas in a high vacuum system!

– Thoroughly remove all liquids and residues before closing

– use correct materials for seals, cleaning, etc.

How does vapor pressure affect outgassing?

Gas Sources

Backstreaming:

– an ideal pump only removes molecules and does not give any back

– real pumps “repeat” some gasses back into the system • oil from diffusion pumps and rotary vane pumps

– oil-based pumping systems are designed with anti-suckback valves, and cold traps to minimize backstreaming

– this is the primary reason for the gradual replacement of oil-based pumps with “dry” pumps

Gas Sources

Permeation Diffusion Real Leaks Virtual Outgassing Backstreaming
Permeation
Diffusion
Real
Leaks
Virtual
Outgassing
Backstreaming
Gas Sources Permeation Diffusion Real Leaks Virtual Outgassing Backstreaming
Gas Sources Permeation Diffusion Real Leaks Virtual Outgassing Backstreaming

Trapped Volumes

Trapped Volumes
Trapped Volumes
Trapped Volumes

Vented Screw

Vented Screw

Double O ring sealed shafts

Vacuum
Vacuum

Atmosphere (760 torr)

Double O ring sealed shafts Vacuum Atmosphere (760 torr)
Double O ring sealed shafts Vacuum Atmosphere (760 torr)
Double O ring sealed shafts Vacuum Atmosphere (760 torr)

Real leak and virtual leak curves

.

P

Real leak and virtual leak curves . P t R e a l l e a
Real leak and virtual leak curves . P t R e a l l e a
Real leak and virtual leak curves . P t R e a l l e a

t

Real leak

t t
t
t

Virtual leak

Leak present in vacuum system

Methods of leak detection

• There is two methods for detection of the leak: searching gas is inside (I) or out side (O) the system

Searching gas P out gauge (O) P in
Searching gas
P out
gauge
(O)
P
in

P in <p ou t

P in >p out

detector (I) leak Searching gas
detector
(I)
leak
Searching gas
gas P out gauge (O) P in P in <p ou t P in > p

Chamber

Soap bubbles

.

Soap bubbles . leak He or Air Soap bubbles (I) It is possible to obtain higher

leak

He

or

Air

Soap bubbles (I)

It is possible to obtain higher sensitivities using liquids of lower surface tension

Discharge tube Test

.

Discharge tube Test . leak chamber Discharge Tube pump
Discharge tube Test . leak chamber Discharge Tube pump

leak

chamber

Discharge Tube

Discharge tube Test . leak chamber Discharge Tube pump

pump

Day spray Test

Dye spray

Day spray Test Dye spray pump leak

pump

Day spray Test Dye spray pump leak
Day spray Test Dye spray pump leak

leak

.

Spark Test

spark Probe
spark
Probe

pump

.

Palladium barrier leak detector

Thermal

cathode

Vacuum chamber

.

H 2 Plalladium plaet - +
H
2
Plalladium
plaet
-
+

+

. Palladium barrier leak detector Thermal cathode Vacuum chamber . H 2 Plalladium plaet - +
. Palladium barrier leak detector Thermal cathode Vacuum chamber . H 2 Plalladium plaet - +

Thermal

cathode

_

. Palladium barrier leak detector Thermal cathode Vacuum chamber . H 2 Plalladium plaet - +
. Palladium barrier leak detector Thermal cathode Vacuum chamber . H 2 Plalladium plaet - +

Halogen detector

+

.

_ filament Vacuum
_
filament
Vacuum

Halogen gassesHalogen detector • + . _ filament Vacuum + Platinum plate chamber _

+

Halogen detector • + . _ filament Vacuum Halogen gasses + Platinum plate chamber _

Platinum plate

Halogen detector • + . _ filament Vacuum Halogen gasses + Platinum plate chamber _

chamber

_

Leak covering by tape

• Leak covering (O)

leak H
leak
H
tape L leak
tape
L
leak

A suspected leak can be covered over with

a

tape .

If

a leak present then

a fall of pressure will be observed.

Using thermal conductivity gauge as a leak detector (trace gas detection)

conductivity gauge as a leak detector (trace gas detection ) Thermal conductivity gages Carbon dioxide As

Thermal

gauge as a leak detector (trace gas detection ) Thermal conductivity gages Carbon dioxide As the

conductivity

gages

Carbon

dioxide

As the thermal conductivity varies for different gases, an apparent change in the pressure is seen when different gasses is directed over the leak

Useful gas: Helium, Oxygen, Argon, CO2

Using Ionisation gauge and Ion pump as a leak detector

• The ion gauge current and ion pump current dependent on the gas properties.

• Chang in the ion current can be seen by using different tape of gasses or liquids over the suspected leak.

Useful safe gasses are: He, Co 2 , Ar

• Useful safe liquids are Aceton, isopropyle alchohol

Using Mass spectrometers as a leak detector

Mass spectrometers is a excellent leak detector.

leak

Mass spectrometers is a excellent leak detector . leak Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test (O) Mass
Mass spectrometers is a excellent leak detector . leak Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test (O) Mass
Mass spectrometers is a excellent leak detector . leak Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test (O) Mass

Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test (O)

Mass spectrometer

chamber
chamber
He
He

He

He source

detector . leak Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test (O) Mass spectrometer chamber He He source He

He

detector . leak Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test (O) Mass spectrometer chamber He He source He

Mass spectrometer film

Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test (I)

HeHe Chamber ALCATEL SIMS 180TD+
HeHe
Chamber
ALCATEL
SIMS 180TD+

Leak rate

• Leak rate is measured by standard cubic centimeter/sec (std. cc/sec). • Although the leak rate in vacuum system is very low, but it is a big challenge in the vacuum techniques.

Leak rate of 1 x 10 -1 std cc/sec

Leak rate of 1 x 10 - 1 std cc/sec

Leak rate of 1 x 10 -3 std cc/sec

Leak rate of 1 x 10 - 3 std cc/sec

Leak Rates over Time

LEAK RATES

10

-1 STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/10 SEC

10

-3 STD CC/SEC --- 3 CC/HOUR

10

-5 STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/DAY

10

-6 STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/2 WEEKS

10

-7 STD CC/SEC --- 3 CC/YEAR

10

-9 STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/30 YEARS

Permeation may occur <1X10 -8 std cc/sec

Permeation may occur <1X10 - 8 std cc/sec

Why Helium is used for leak detection

Why Helium is used for leak detection

HELIUM

• Helium is very light and small

• Low concentration in air (0.0005%)

• Permits dynamic testing

• Permits non-destructive testing

• Helium is safe

Why Helium?

• LLooww BBaacckgkgrorouundnd (5(5--2200 PPPMPM))

• IneInertrt

• SSafeafe

• LLighightt

• LLooww CCoosstt

Ne F H K r ? He N
Ne
F
H
K
r
?
He
N
O Cl
O
Cl
A r
A
r

Xe

Ine Ine rt rt • S S afe afe • L L igh igh t t

Why A Helium Leak Detector?

• HigHighh SeSennssititivivitityy

• WWididee RRaanngege

• ReRelialiableble

• QQuauanntititatativtivee

• DynDynaamicmic TTeesstingting

Re Re lia lia ble ble • Q Q ua ua n n ti ti ta
SIMS 180TD+
SIMS 180TD+

Helium Leak Testing: Vacuum Mode

• The “hard” vacuum test procedure measures the package’s increasing leak rate arising from all sources within the sample.

• This method enables the barrier performance of seals to be quantified.

Helium Test Methods “Hard” Vacuum Helium Pre-Filled Samples

This method is good for vacuum equipments leak testing

1E-2 mbar SIMS 180TD+
1E-2 mbar
SIMS
180TD+

Helium Leak Testing: Sniffer Mode

• Individual packages containing helium can be checked for leaks using a pencil-sized vacuum collector (sniffer) attached to a helium leak detector.

• The rate of gas sampling (flow rate) is set at 1cc/second; enabling a (ambient pressure) leak rate to be measured in ppm, or in cc/second.

• The sniffer mode test procedure is “site-specific” in that the probe collects helium escaping within ~ 1/8” of the leak site.

Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test

HeHe 1 00 % He
HeHe
1
00
%
He
Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test HeHe 1 00 % He ALCATEL SIMS 180TD+ This method is
ALCATEL SIMS 180TD+
ALCATEL
SIMS 180TD+
Helium Leak Methods Sniffing Test HeHe 1 00 % He ALCATEL SIMS 180TD+ This method is

This method is good for package`s leaks

Answer this question before taking any further actions for solving leak problems

1-Has the pressure in the system changes since yesterday? 2-can any section of the vacuum system be isolated? 3-Has the gauge calibration been checked? 4-Are there any vapors present? 5-Has a real leak been established even though not found? 6-Can you tolerate the leak that has been established? 7-Have you used some different type of cleaning material after the last exposure to the atmosphere? 8-Have you add to or modified the interior of the vacuum system? 9-Is there any evidence of an air leak from an RGA spectrum with peaks corresponding to masses 14, 28, 32?