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FREEDOM

1 mark

How can we check religious intolerance in our society? Give two

points.

Religious intolerance is incompatible with democracy. It can be

avoided by:

 Promoting secular education and values.

 Giving equal respect and right to religious minorities.

What is apartheid?

An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the

Republic of South Africa involves political, legal and economic

discrimination against non-whites.

Give two examples of how the Indian states promote positive

liberty.

Two examples of how the Indian states promote positive liberty

are:
 Free and compulsory education to all children upto the age

of 14 years.

 Free polio drops campaign run by the government.

Define Pluralism as a value.

Pluralism refers to peaceful co-existence and acceptance of

diversity. This diversity may be in the form of religion, language

and ethnicity. Pluralism is a central value in liberal political

thought.

What do you mean by social constraints? Give two examples.

Social constraints are those which originate from society as a result

of social inequality practiced in the form of caste system, racism

and gender discrimination.

Name the authors of the following books:

 Ramayana Retold - Aubrey Menon

 The Satanic Verses - Salman Rushdie

What do you mean by censorship?

Censorship refers to the use of state or group power to control

freedom of expression, such as passing laws to prevent media

from being published or propagated.


Identify the leader who gave the following quote:

“For me real freedom is freedom from fear and unless you can

live free from fear you cannot live a dignified human life”.

The above quote is given by Aung San Suu Kyi, a nationalist

leader from Myanmar.

Give two examples of external controls on individual freedom?

Two examples of external controls on individual freedom are:

 Domination by a colonial power.

 Use of force by the recognised government.

What are civil liberties?

Civil liberties are rights and freedoms that protect an individual

from the state. These set limits on the government, so that its

agents cannot abuse power or interfere with lives of citizens.

Define liberalism.

A political doctrine favouring autonomy, freedom of the

individual and economic theory of free market is called liberalism.

Give two examples of social constraints in the Indian society.

Two examples of social constraints in the Indian society are:


 Caste discrimination.

 Gender distinctions that deny equal dignity

and opportunities to women.

Name the authors of the following books:

 Freedom from fear - Aung San Suu Kyi

 Long Walk to Freedom - Nelson Mandela

Mention any two segregationist policies followed in South

Africa against the black population.

The two segregationist policies followed in South Africa against

the non-whites were:

 Separate townships for the non-whites.

 Non-whites were denied access to public transport.

What does the term “free society” means?

A free society is one that enables all individuals to pursue their

interests with a minimum of social constraints. It permits the

exercise of the individual powers of reason and judgments.


2 marks

What is freedom?

Freedom refers to desire of an individual and society to be free

from external control.

It has a broad range of application from total absence of restraints

to merely a sense of not being unduly hampered. Freedom is

important both for an individual and society. It provides

conditions and opportunities to the individuals to express

themselves freely and protects culture and future of the societies.

What does freedom of religion imply?

Freedom of religion is one of the fundamental rights of the Indian

Constitution, which implies that all the citizens have the right to

adopt and preach religion of their choice. The state should not

interfere, unless it is necessary. The role of state comes only when

a person or a group compels others to accept their religion. At the

time of religious conflict, intervention of state is required only to

establish peace.

Mention the leader who fought against apartheid in South

Africa.
Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid regime in South Africa.

He launched a struggle against the segregationist polices of the

white regime, which resulted in the humiliations, hardships and

police brutalities of the blacks. He spent twenty-eight years in jail

and was successful in getting liberties for black people, which

ultimately led to the establishment of Republic of South Africa.

Who advocated '' Freedom of Expression ‘‘?

J.S. Mill and Voltaire advocated '' Freedom of Expression ''.

1. Freedom of expression is of great importance and should not

be restricted.

2. Society must try to protect it at every cost.

3. In the words of Voltaire, “I disapprove of what you say but I

will defend to death your right to say it”.

4. J.S. Mill was a strong advocate of ‘Freedom of Expression”,

which should not be restricted at any cost.

How many types of constraints prevail in the societies?

Two types of constraints prevails in the societies; external and

internal.

External Constraints are those constraints, which are imposed by

force, e.g. laws imposed during apartheid in South Africa.


Internal Constraints are the results of social and economic

inequalities.

What does 'reasonable restrictions' imply?

Reasonable restrictions imply that the limited restrictions should

be imposed, which would not harm the freedom of individuals to

a large extent. In Indian constitution emphasis is placed on

“Reasonable Restrictions”. Need of an hour is to impose limited

restrictions without causing inconvenience to others.

Mention the author of “Freedom from fear”.

Aung San Suu Kyi is the author of “Freedom from fear”.

1. Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violence has been a source of

inspiration for Aung San, who is fighting for the freedom of the

people of Myanmar.

2. In her book, “Freedom from fear” she says: “For me real

freedom is freedom from fear and unless you can live free from

fear you cannot live a dignified life”.

Define fatwa.
A legal opinion, decree or ruling issued by an Islamic lawyer.

Scholars sometimes issue fatwas to validate or negate the

permissibility arrangement action.

Is there any difference between freedom and liberty?

Liberty and freedom are used synonymously and inter-

changeably, but many political thinkers have made a distinction

between the two. The major differences between the two are:

 Freedom refers to a situation, while liberty symbolises a state

of mind.

 Liberty is used in legal and political contexts, freedom is

philosophical and used in more general terms.

What is utilitarianism? Name two thinkers who propounded this

theory.

Utilitarianism emphasised that actions and institutions should be

judged by their contribution to utility, which is measured by

calculating the relative contribution to happiness or pleasure, as

opposed to pain. The aim of government should thus be 'the

greatest happiness of the greatest number'. The theory was

propounded by Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill.


How is the role of state different under conditions of positive

and negative liberty?

Negative liberty connotes freedom as the absence of external

constraints and non-interference while positive liberty lays stress

on providing more and more opportunities in order to improve

conditions of life. The former lays stress on “laissez faire” state

where the government should not interfere. The latter says that the

state creates positive conditions for the development and growth

of individual’s potential.

Read the quote below and answer the questions

given:

“I disapprove of what you say but I will defend to death your

right to say it”.

Who gave the above quote?

The above quote is by French enlightenment thinker Voltaire.

What does the quote tell you about the author?

The quote suggests that the author is liberal, open-minded and

respects other person’s right to freedom of speech and expression,

even in case of disagreement.


4 marks

State the relationship between Law and Liberty?

Liberty and law are not opposed to each other. Some of the

thinkers are of the opinion that the sovereignty of the state is

expressed through law. But in order to prevent harm to others,

laws impose restrictions on the liberties of men. The nature of

relationship between law and liberty is a controversial issue.

Excessive or oppressive laws affect or restrict liberty. Unrestricted

liberty might curtail freedom of others. That is why laws and

liberty are complimentary to each other.

Mention the ways to safeguard liberty.

The important ways to safeguard liberty are:

1. Decentralization of power - concentration of power with the

government leads to dictatorship, which would affect the

participation of citizens in the decision-making. It is important that

the power should be decentralized at different levels, i.e. central,

state and district level.

2. Fundamental rights - In democracies, fundamental rights

are incorporated in the constitutions, which governments are not

empowered to deny its citizens.


3. Separation of powers - The separation of powers among

different organs of the government, i.e. executive, legislature and

judiciary is useful in safeguarding the liberties of the people.

Write a note on the ''Harm Principle''.

1. Freedom is an important aspect of human life.

2. Only special circumstances should lead to constraints on

freedom.

3. Constraints should be based on “Harm Principle”.

4. In the words of J.S. Mill, “--- the only purpose for which

power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized

community against his will is to prevent harm to others”.

5. He distinguished between “Serious Harms” and “Minor

Harms”.

6. Minor Harms: Playing loud music should only lead to social

disapproval from other residents.

7. Serious Harms: When actions cause serious harms to others,

then legal intervention is sought.

Write a note on the '' Negative Liberty ''.

In '' Negative Liberty'' emphasis is laid on '' Freedom from ''.


Advocates of Negative liberty, J.S. Mill, Voltaire seek to provide

“an area of non-interference” in which an individual can act

unobstructed by others.

In the words of Voltaire, “I disapprove of what you say but I will

defend to death your right to say it”.

J.S. Mill was a strong advocate of ‘Freedom of Expression”, which

should not be restricted at any cost.

1. Freedom of expression is of great importance and should not

be restricted.

2. Society must try to protect it at every cost.

Mention Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose's view on freedom.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was of the opinion that freedom is not

related to the political independence.

In his words, “----- by freedom I mean all round freedom. i.e.,

freedom for the individual as well as for society; freedom for the

rich as well as for the poor; freedom for women; freedom for

individuals and for all classes. This freedom implies not only

emancipation from political bondage but also equal distribution of

wealth, abolition of caste barriers and social inequalities-------”. He


laid emphasis on the overall development of an individual and the

society.

J.S Mill offers freedom of expression even to those who espouse

ideas that appear ‘false’ or ‘misleading’. What are his arguments

in support of this?

John Stuart Mill, a political thinker and an activist in the

19th century Britain, offered a passionate defence of freedom of

expression. His argument that even those who espouse ‘false’ or

‘misleading’ ideas have freedom of expression based on the

following points:

 No idea is completely false. A false idea may also have an

element of truth.

 Truth does not emerge by itself. It is only through a conflict

of opposing view that truth emerges.

 This conflict of ideas is valuable not just in the past but is of

continuing value for all times. It is only when we oppose in to

opposing views that we can be sure that this idea is trustworthy.

 No idea is completely true at all times or completely false at

all times. A society that completely suppresses all ideas that are

not acceptable today runs the danger of losing the benefits of what

might turn out to be of very valuable knowledge.


“By freedom, i.e., freedom for the individual as well as for

society; freedom for the rich as well as for the poor; freedom for

men as well as for women; freedom for all individuals and

classes. This freedom implies not only emancipation from

political bondage but also equal distribution of wealth, abolition

of caste barriers and social iniquities and destruction of

communalism and religious intolerance”.

Name the leader who gave the above quote.

The above quote is given by Subhash Chandra Bose.

Identify the four types of freedom that he is referring to and give

examples of each from the excerpt.

The four types of freedom that he is referring to are:

 Political freedom from colonialism

 Economic freedom, i.e., freedom from want and deprivation

 Social freedom from caste system, gender discrimination,

racism

 Religious freedom by eliminating the dangers

of communalism.

Is the restriction on what to wear is justified in all cases or only

in some cases? When does it constitute a constraint on freedom?


Choosing what to wear is an expression of one’s freedom and

should not be restricted. However, it is justified in certain cases

like in schools and in a cricket team. Here uniform gives unity,

sense of identity and promotes team spirit among its members.

However, in cases such as issue of fatwa against Sania Mirza for

her style of dress during the game, by an Islamic cleric, is not

justified. In a secular democratic country, like India, where state

and religion are separated, religious leaders have no authority to

issue decrees on dress.

Distinguish between classical and modern liberalism.

Classical liberalism dominated the world political and economic

order from 17th to 19th century. The main supporters of classical

liberalism were Adam Smith and John Locke. Classical

Liberalism supports free market, limited government involvement,

capitalist society and individualism and individual property

rights.

The 20th century saw the advent of modern liberalism. The main

supporters of modern liberalism / neo-liberalism are Amartya Sen,

John Rawls. Modern Liberalism supports:

 Government involvement to regulate the economy

 Welfare state with privatisation and liberalisation


 Mixed economy (socialism and capitalist) and free trade.

Briefly discuss any one aspect of liberalism that you approve

and one that you disapprove?

Liberalism is a political doctrine favouring autonomy and freedom

of the individual and economic theory of free market. The

following are the features of liberalism, I admire:

 Liberal value of tolerance, which upholds the right of every

person to express his/her opinions / beliefs.

 In liberalism, the individual occupies the centre-stage and

individual liberty is given priority; however, this may conflict with

common social good.

One aspect of liberalism that I disapprove is: Liberalism favours

free market and minimal role for the state. This may lead to

economic inequalities in society and class divide. Modern day

liberalism seeks to have a liberal-welfare model of state to protect

the interest of the weaker sections.

Mention the key features of liberalism as an economic doctrine.

Modern day liberalism is commonly described by the term Neo-

liberalism. Neo-liberal economy is a market driven economy that

maximise the role of the private business sector in determining the


political and economic priorities of the state. The state only

provides guidelines for the conduct of business and protects the

interest of the weaker sections. The following are some of the

features of neo-liberal economy:

 Rule of the market.

 Privatisation and liberalisation of the economy.

 Reducing the role of state in economy.

Swaraj is both ‘rule of the self’ and ‘rule over self’. Discuss.

The term Swaraj incorporates within it two words – Swa (self)

and Raj (rule). His understanding of Swaraj as ‘rule of the self’ and

‘rule over self’ is highlighted in Gandhi’s work ‘Hind

Swaraj’. Swaraj as “rule of the self” implies liberation from

external domination, self responsibility and capacities for self-

realisation from institutions of dehumanisation. Swaraj as “rule

over self” means freedom as a value at social-collective level. It

refers to understanding the real self in relation to society and

community; not indulging vices like corruption and seeking

material benefits for the self alone.


6 marks

Write a note on ''liberty, equality and fraternity''.

The term liberty is derived from the Latin word 'liber'. Liber means

freedom. Liberty implies freedom form restraints, infact complete

freedom to do anything one desire. Emphasis is laid by the

supporters of liberty on the fact that no restraints should be

imposed on the individual actions. Freedom is essential for the

progress of the society and any curtailment on freedom could lead

to underdevelopment.

The famous slogan of French revolution “liberty, equality and

fraternity” was used to transform France from an ''Absolute

Monarchy'' to a ''Republic''. Liberty, equality and fraternity are

connected to each other. Infact liberty is the basis of equality and

fraternity. Equality commonly refers to an ideal of equal treatment.

Fraternity is no more a political goal, now its goal is to instantiate

in the wider community, the feeling of brotherhood for each other,

which is impossible without ''greater equality'', with emphasis on

the overall development of individuals.


Write a note on the relationship between the rules and

constraints.

Rules and regulations impose certain constraints on the freedom of

an individual.

1. Constraints provide conditions for individual’s development

2. Constraints refer to a state of being restricted or confined

within prescribed bounds.

3. In order to resolve disputes, societies are in need of a

mechanism.

4. Legal and political restraints are important to combat

differences of opinions.

5. At times people are in favour of strong law to protect their

freedom.

6. J.S. Mill, in his essay, ‘on liberty’, emphasized on the limited

use of constraints.

7. Constraints should be based on the “Harm Principle”.

8. In his words, “---the principle is that the sole end for which

mankind are warranted individually or collectively in interfering

with the liberty of action of any of that number is self-protection

that the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised

over any member of a civilized community against his will is to

prevent harm to others”.


9. Without positive restriction we can’t expect an ideal society,

in which all have rights and opportunities to develop as an ideal

citizen.

Write a note on the '' Positive Liberty''.

In '' Positive Liberty '' emphasis is laid on the ''Freedom to”.

1. Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Gandhi are advocates of positive

liberty.

2. Relationship of an individual with the society was

emphasized.

3. Emphasis was laid on the limited constraints to improve

material, political and social conditions of an individual.

4. Material: One should have adequate material resources to

pursue one’s needs and desire.

5. Political: People should have opportunities to participate in

decision making and play an active role in the formulation of laws.

6. Social: One must have access to education to enhance

intellect and lead a comfortable life.

7. Advocates of positive liberty recognize the importance of

society.

8. An individual can only be free in a society, which plays an

important role in his development.


9. Limited constraints are important to improve material,

political and social conditions of an individual.

According to J. S Mill, freedom is the most important

requirement for a rational person. Analyze.

J.S Mill contends that autonomy and self mastery are something

inherently desirable and that are possible only if there is great deal

of negative liberty, meaning that individuals ought to be allowed

the freedom to develop their own talents and invent their own life-

styles. Hence, he makes a strong case for negative liberty,

regarding a liberal society and liberal state to be complimentary.

However, he accepts reasonable interference on part of a society to

restrict individual liberty in order to prevent harm to other people.

He supports individuality on the grounds that creative and

rational individuals contribute to the great advances in society and

this was possible only if they are allowed to function freely. He

regards liberty of conscience, liberty to express and to publish

one’s opinion, liberty to live as one pleases and freedom of

association as essential for a meaning life and for the pursuit of

one’s good.
Read the excerpt below and answer the questions

given:

“The principle is that the sole end for which mankind are

warranted individually or collectively in interfering with the

liberty of action of any of that number is self-protection that the

only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over

any other member of a civilized community against his will is to

prevent harm to others.”

Who is the political thinker? Which principle is he talking

about?

The above excerpt is from J.S Mill’s book ‘On Liberty’. Mill was a

liberal-utilitarian, who passionately defended freedom of the

individual. He is referring to the harm principle.

Under what conditions, an individual can rightly exercise his

powers over others?

According to Mill, as long as the actions of the individual concern

him/her alone, he/she should be left free and there should be no

restrictions on his freedom. But if the actions of an individual

negatively affect others, then the state and society can intervene to

protect the common good and freedom of other members of the

society.
Discuss the two types of actions that are referred to.

Mill distinguishes between two kinds of actions – self regarding,

i.e., those that concern the individual alone and other regarding,

i.e., individual actions that affect others. The state can intervene

only in the latter category.

Is banning of books justified in a democracy? What do bans

fundamentally reflect?

Banning of books is clearly a violation of freedom of speech and

free press. Every time a book is banned, people lose the chance to

gain knowledge from that work of literature. There have been

several instances of book banning in India – Satanic Verses by

Salman Rushdie, Lajja by Tasleema Nasrin. The citizen’s outlook

on the world becomes narrower as they lose access to an insightful

point of view. As J.S Mill argues, every idea has an element of

truth and cannot be rejected as completely false. Therefore, it

should be left to the people to decide whether they want to read

that piece of literature or not. In a democracy where people are

free to make their own choices, such bans reflect insecurity, fear

and intolerance on the part of those who support bans. Banning

the entire book is undemocratic and curtails the freedom of speech


and expression of the author. It should be left to the people to

decide whether they want to read that piece of literature.

Banning is an easy solution for short term since it meets the

immediate demand but is very harmful for long-term prospects of

freedom in a society as it may become a habit.