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c c


c  is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly.
While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically
the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with low quality preparation and
served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away.

Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating, or fast
food restaurants (also known as ë 

ë. Franchise operations which
are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant
from central locations.

The capital requirements involved in opening up a fast food restaurant are

relatively low. Restaurants with much higher sit-in ratios, where customers tend to sit
and have their orders brought to them in a seemingly more upscale atmosphere may be
known in some areas as fast casual restaurants.


The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is closely connected with urban
development. In Ancient Rome cities had street stands that sold bread and wine. A
fixture of East Asian cities is the noodle shop. Flatbread and falafel are today ubiquitous
in the Middle East. Popular Indian fast food dishes include vada pav, panipuri and dahi
vada. In the French-speaking nations of West Africa, roadside stands in and around the
larger cities continue to sell²as they have done for generations²a range of ready-to-
eat, char-grilled meat sticks known locally as O   .

  c c  

The concept of fast food pops up during 1920s.The 1950s first witnessed their
rapid proliferation. Several factors that contributed to this explosive growth in 50¶s were:
(1ë America¶s love affair with the automobiles.
(2ë The construction of a major new highway system.
(3ë The development of sub-urban communities.
(4ë The baby boom subsequent to world war second.
³Fast-food chains initially catered to automobile owners in suburbia.


Fast food outlets are

 providers, often with a "drive-through"
service which allows customers to order and pick up food from their cars; but most also
have a seating area in which customers can eat the food on the premises. People eat
there more than five times a week and often, one or more of those five times is at a fast
food restaurant.

Nearly from its inception, fast food has been designed to be eaten "on the go",
often does not require traditional cutlery, and is eaten as a finger food. Common menu
items at fast food outlets include fish and chips, sandwiches, pitas, hamburgers, fried
chicken, French fries, chicken nuggets, tacos, pizza, hot dogs, and ice cream, although
many fast food restaurants offer "slower" foods like chili, mashed potatoes, and salads.


Although fast food often brings to mind traditional American fast food such as
hamburgers and fries, there are many other forms of fast food that enjoy widespread
popularity in the West.

Chinese takeaways/takeout restaurants are particularly popular. They normally

offer a wide variety of Asian food which has normally been fried. Most options are some
form of noodles, rice, or meat.

Sushi has seen rapidly rising popularity in recent times. A form of fast food
created in Japan. sushi is normally cold sticky rice served with raw fish. Pizza is a
common fast food category in the United States, with chains such as Domino's Pizza,
Sbarro and Pizza Hut. Menus are more limited and standardized than in traditional
pizzerias, and pizza delivery, often with a time commitment, is offered.

Fish and chip shops are a form of fast food popular in the United Kingdom, Australia
and New Zealand. Fish is battered and then deep fried.The Dutch have their own types
of fast food. A Dutch fast food meal often consists of a portion of French fries .


I n the United States alone, consumers spent about US$110 billion on fast food in
2000 (which increased from US$6 billion in 1970ë. The National Restaurant Association
forecasted that fast food restaurants in the U.S. would reach US$142 billion in sales in
2006, a 5% increase over 2005. In comparison, the full-service restaurant segment of
the food industry is expected to generate $173 billion in sales.


Today, more than 10 million workers are employed in the areas of food
preparation and food servicing including fast food in the world.

Employees are the backbone of the fast food industry. Proper training is crucial
to the orderly and quick service customers expect. Yet, employee turnover can be as
high as 200% per year. With such a turnover, owner-operators of franchise and non-
franchise restaurants have the daunting task of constantly training an entirely new
workforce. Policies and procedures need to be explained to each new employee.


In 2006, the global fast food market grew by 4.8% and reached a value of 102.4
billion and a volume of 80.3 billion transactions. In India alone the fast food industry is
growing by 40% a year. McDonald's is located in 120 countries and on 6 continents and
operates over 31,000 restaurants worldwide.
KFC is located in 25 countries. Subway has 29,186 restaurants located in 86 countries,
Pizza Hut is located in 26 countries, Taco Bell has 278 restaurants located in 12
countries besides the United States.


Tran¶s fats which are commonly found in fast food have been shown in many
tests to have a negative health effect on the body.

The fast food consumption has been shown to increase calorie intake, promote
weight gain, and elevate risk for diabetes. The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention ranked obesity as the number one health threat for Americans in 2004. It is
the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States and results in
400,000 deaths each year.

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The percentage share held by foodservice of total consumer expenditure on food
has increased from a very low base to stand at 2.6% in 2001. Eating at home remains
very much ingrained in Indian culture and changes in eating habits are very slow
moving with barriers to eating out entrenched in certain sectors of Indian society.. The
growth in nuclear families, particularly in urban India, exposure to global media and
Western cuisine and an increasing number of women joining the workforce have had an
impact on eating out trends.
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Fast food is one of the world¶s largest growing food type. India¶s fast food
industry is growing by 40% a year and is expected to generate a billion dollars in sales
by 2005.The multinational segment of Indian fast food industry is up to Rs. 6 billion, a
figure expected to zoom to Rs.70 billion by 2005. By 2005, the value of Indian dairy
products is expected to be Rs.1, 00,000 million. In last 6 years, foreign investment in
this sector stood at Rs. 3600 million which is about one-fourth of total investment made
in this sector. Because of the availability of raw material for fast food, Global chains are
flooding into the country.

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aë Dominated by McDonalds having as many as 75 outlets.
bë Domino¶s pizza is present in around 100 locations.
cë Pizza hut is also catching up and it has planned to establish 125 outlets at the
end of 2005.
dë Subways have established around 40 outlets.
eë Nirulas is established at Delhi and Noida only. However, it claims to cater
50,000 guests every day.

Major players in fast food are:

The main reason behind the success of the multinational chains is their expertise in
product development, sourcing practices, quality standards, service levels and
standardized operating procedures in their restaurants, a strength that they have
developed over years of experience around the world. The home grown chains have in
the past few years of competition with the MNCs, learnt a few things but there is still a
lot of scope for improvement.

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   : gender roles are now changing. Females have started working outside.
So, they have no time for their home and cooking food. Fast food is an easy way out
because these can be prepared easily.
 *  +         consumers are becoming more
sophisticated now. They do not want to prepare food and spend their time and energy in
house hold works. They are building their confidence more on µready to eat and easy to
serve¶ kind of foods
' *people have no time for cooking. Because of emergence of working
women and also number of other entertainment items. Most of the time either people
work or want to enjoy with their family.
  * + emergence of double income group leads to increase in
disposable income. Now people have more disposable income so they can spend easily
in fast food and other activities.
, - ,* working women have no time for cooking, and if they have then also
they don¶t want to cook. Because they want to come out of the traditionally defined
gender roles. They do not want to confine themselves to household work and
upbringing of children¶s.
&  ++   India being a second largest country in terms of population
possesses large potential market for all the products/services. This results into entry of
large number of fast food players in the country.
.        with the economic liberalization of 1991, most of
the tariff and non tariff barriers from the Indian boundaries are either removed or
minimized. This helped significantly the MNC¶s to enter in the country.
$  /   : increase in consumption of pizzas, burgers and other type of
fast foods.

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      *+       0    0    -  
Generally, Hindus avoid all foods that are believed to inhibit physical and spiritual
development. Eating meat is not explicitly prohibited, but many Hindus are vegetarian
because they adhere to the concept of ahimsa. Those seeking spiritual unity may avoid
garlic and onions. The concept of purity influences Hindu food practices. Products from
cows (e.g., milk, yogurt, ghee-clarified butterë are considered pure. Pure foods can
improve the purity of impure foods when they are prepared together. Some foods, such
as beef or alcohol, are innately polluted and can never be made pure. But now, Indians
are switching to fast food that contain all those things that are considered impure or
against there beliefs. Some traditional and fundamentalist are against this
transformation of food habit and number of times they provoke their counterparts to
revolt against such foods. And that is what happened when McDonald¶s decided to
enter the complexity of Indian business landscape, counting only on its ‰

without any apparent previous cultural training.
#*+  1 +  Glasses, silverware, plates and
cloth napkins are never provided with fast food. Instead, paper plates and napkins,
polyurethane containers, plastic cups and tableware, drinking cartons or PET
(polyethylene terephthalateë bottles are used, and these are all disposable. Many of
these items are tossed in the garbage instead of being recycled, or even worse, merely
thrown on the ground. This burdens nature unnecessarily and squanders raw materials.
In order to reduce soil and water pollution, government now emphasis more on the
usage of bio-degradable products.
  * *+Most of new industries will be capital intensive and may
drive local competitors, which have more workers, out of business.
'   +    Repatriation of profits is another area of concern for Indian
economy. As when multinational enters the any countries, people and government hope
that it will increase the employment rate and result in economic growth. However, with
the multinational operation, host country experiences these benefits for a short time
period. In long run neither employment increases (because of capital intensive nature of
MNC¶së nor it increases the GDP or GNP because whatever MNC¶s earn they repatriate
that profit back to their home country.

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# /  *   +   government is legislating laws in order to
keep check on the fast food industry and it is emphasizing more on the usage of bio-
degradable and environment friendly products. But associated with this issue is the
problem that fast food player faces - the cost associated with the environment friendly
product. They cost much higher than the normal products that companies uses for
packaging or wrapping their products.

A   0    .+      *+   * 2 / To
balance a society¶s expectation regarding environment with the economic burden of
protecting the environment. Thus, one can see that one side pushes for higher
standards and other side tries to beat the standard back, thereby making it a arm
wrestling and mind boggling exercise.


I. Studies have shown that a typical fast food has very high density and food with
high density causes people to eat more then they usually need. \
II. Low calories food: Emphasis is now more on low calorie food. In this line
McDonald has a plan to introduce all white meat chicken Mcnuugget with less fat
and fewer calories.

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$ -      3 fast food outlets in India target children¶s as their major
customers. They introduce varieties of things that will attract the children¶s attention and
by targeting children¶s they automatically target their parents because Children¶s are
always accompanied by their parents.
&0/ * ** * Because of the large number of food retail outlets
and also because of the tendency of customer to switch from one product to other, this
industry faces low level customer commitment.
     / There is continuous improvement in the
technology as far as fast food market in India is considered. The reason behind that is
food is a perishable item and in order to ensure that it remain fresh for a longer period of
time. Earlier, Indian people prefer eating at home but now with the change in trend there
is also need for improvement and up gradation of technology in food sector.
      *    * -  Fast food outlets are introducing
varieties of products in order to cater the demands of each and every segment of the
market. They are introducing all categories of product so that people of all age, sex,
class, income group etc can come and become a customer of their food line.

The success of fast foods arose from the changes in our living conditions:
1. Many women or both parents now work
2. There are increased numbers of single-parent households
3. Long distances to school and work are common
4. Usually, lunch times are short
5. There's often not enough time or opportunity to shop carefully for groceries, or
to cook and eat with one's family. Especially on weekdays, fast food outside
the home is the only solution.