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1

Subsea in
Sixty Minutes!

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


2

SUBSEA SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Umbilical
PLEM
Tree UTA

Jumper

Manifold Jumper Control Pod


Flying Leads

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


Why Subsea? 3

Drivers
Drivers for
for Using
Using Subsea
Subsea Systems
Systems

l
l Economics: production may not justify the CAPEX for a
platform.

l
l Field reservoir areas may not be reached by delineated
drilling from surface wells.

l
l The water depth may be too great to use a surface well
platform.

l
l Early Production: fast-track development is required.

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


SUBSEA SYSTEMS 4

Advantages/
Advantages/ Disadvantages
Disadvantages

l
l Advantages
- Eliminate or reduce CAPEX of platform
- Cost burden transferred from CAPEX to OPEX
- Construction cycle is conducive to fast-track projects
- Suitable to phased projects

l
l Disadvantages
- Complex hardware
- Inaccessible for maintenance and repair.
- Intervention is expensive and complex

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5

Field
Configurations

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SUBSEA EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS 6

Satellite
Satellite Well
Well Systems
Systems

l
l Individual wells
are tied directly
to a host facility.
l
l Tiebacks can be
single or multiple
wells.
l
l Hosts can be
SWP, TLP,
SPAR, FPS,
FPSO, etc.

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


SUBSEA EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS 7

Template
Template Manifold
Manifold Systems
Systems

l
l Wells are drilled and
completed through
template manifold.
l
l Central drilling center.
l
l Well targets reached via
directional drilling.
l
l May have satellite wells
tied back to manifold.

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


FIELD CONFIGURATIONS 8

Well
Well Cluster
Cluster Systems
Systems

l
l Wells
Wells are
are drilled
drilled in
in
close
close proximity
proximity and
and
produce
produce through
through aa
common
common manifold.
manifold.
l
l Batch
Batch drilling
drilling and
and
completion
completion are
are
common.
common.
l
l Components
Components are
are
small
small easily
easily
deployed
deployed modular
modular
units.
units.

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9

Subsea
Wellheads

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10

What is a Subsea Wellhead?

The subsea wellhead is the


interface between
subsurface equipment
(downhole) and the surface
equipment (tree, BOP,
flowlines, host, etc.)

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


What is the purpose of a Subsea 11

Wellhead?
l
l Support
Support the
the BOP
BOP (Blowout
(Blowout
Preventer)
Preventer) and
and seal
seal the
the well
well
during
during drilling
drilling
l
l Support
Support and
and seal
seal the
the subsea
subsea
tree
tree during
during production.
production.
l
l Support
Support the
the tubing
tubing hanger
hanger in
in aa
conventional
conventional subsea
subsea tree.
tree.
l
l Act
Act as
as aa hanger
hanger for
for the
the casing
casing
strings
strings in
in the
the well
well annulus.
annulus.

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12

Subsea Wellhead Classification

l
l Typical Sizes: 13 5/8 in, 16 ¾ in,
18 ¾ in, 21 ¼ in
l
l Most Common: 18 ¾ inch
l
l Pressure Ratings: 10,000 psi or
15,000 psi
l
l Common Standard: 18 ¾ in x
10,000 psi
l
l 18 ¾ in x 15,000 psi is quickly
becoming the new standard

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13

Wellhead Profiles

l
l All
All wellheads
wellheads have
have an
an external
external profile
profile
for
for BOP
BOP or
or tree
tree connectors
connectors
l
l Cameron
Cameron “hub”
“hub” or
or Vetco
Vetco “mandrel”
“mandrel”
profiles
profiles are
are the
the most
most common.
common.
l
l Cooperative
Cooperative license
license agreements
agreements
allow
allow competitors
competitors to
to provide
provide profile
profile
selections.
selections.
l
l The
The wellhead
wellhead profile
profile must
must match
match the
the
BOP
BOP or
or tree
tree connector.
connector.
l
l BOP
BOP connectors
connectors can
can be
be changed
changed out
out
but
but subsea
subsea trees
trees require
require aa
conversion
conversion spool
spool called
called aa tubing
tubing
spool.
spool.
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14

Major Subsea Wellhead Suppliers

l
l ABB Vetco
l
l Cooper Cameron
l
l Dril-Quip
l
l FMC
l
l Kvaerner National

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


15

Subsea Trees

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16

What is a Subsea Tree?

A set of valves and piping to allow the control of


a well during production at the mudline and
remote to the host facility.

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


What Makes Subsea Trees Different 17

from Surface Trees?

Subsea Trees are:


l
l More complex
l
l Larger
l
l More robust
l
l More expensive

l
l Inaccessible

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18

Types of Subsea Trees

Horizontal
Horizontal
Tree
Tree
Conventional
Conventional
Tree
Tree
Mudline
Mudline
Tree
Tree
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Subsea Tree 19

Major Components
Tree
Tree Cap
Cap

Subsea
Subsea Choke
Choke

Valve
Valve Block
Block

Tree
Tree Connector
Connector

Tubing
Tubing Hanger
Hanger

Wellhead
Wellhead

PGB
PGB

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20

Conventional Vs Horizontal Features

Dual
Dual Bore
Bore Tree
Tree Horizontal
Horizontal Tree
Tree

l
l Master
Master &
& swab
swab valves
valves in
in vertical
vertical bore
bore l
l No
No valves
valves in
in the
the vertical
vertical bore
bore
l
l Tree
Tree run
run after
after tubing
tubing l
l Tree
Tree run
run before
before the
the tubing
tubing

l
l Tubing
Tubing Hanger
Hanger orients
orients from
from wellhead
wellhead l
l Tubing
Tubing hanger
hanger orients
orients in
in tree
tree

l
l External
External tree
tree cap
cap l
l Internal
Internal tree
tree cap
cap

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


Horizontal Vs Conventional Trees 21

Configuration

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


Advantages/Disadvantages 22

Conventional Tree

Advantages
Advantages
l
l Vertical
Vertical access
access to
to annulus
annulus
l
l Tubing
Tubing is
is undisturbed
undisturbed ifif tree
tree is
is pulled
pulled
l
l Dual
Dual completion
completion designs
designs are
are available
available
l
l Tubing
Tubing hanger
hanger seals
seals are
are not
not exposed
exposed to
to well
well
fluids
fluids

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
l
l The
The tree
tree must
must be
be pulled
pulled ifif tubing
tubing must
must be
be pulled
pulled
l
l Dual
Dual bore
bore Installation/Workover
Installation/Workover riser
riser required
required
l
l More
More valves
valves required
required per
per tree
tree
l
l More
More running
running tools
tools required
required

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Advantages/Disadvantages 23

Horizontal Tree
Advantages
Advantages
l
l Installation/Workover
Installation/Workover riser
riser not
not required
required
l
l Fewer
Fewer valves
valves per
per tree
tree required
required
l
l Tree
Tree is
is undisturbed
undisturbed ifif the
the tubing
tubing is
is pulled
pulled
l
l A
A larger
larger vertical
vertical bore
bore isis available
available
l
l Fewer
Fewer running
running tools
tools required
required

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
l
l The
The tubing
tubing is
is pulled
pulled ifif the
the tree
tree fails
fails
l
l No
No vertical
vertical access
access
l
l Tubing
Tubing hanger
hanger seals
seals are
are exposed
exposed to
to well
well fluid
fluid

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Misc. Tree Hardware 24

“Jewelry”
l
l Retrievable subsea chokes
l
l Tree mounted pressure and temperature
transducers
l
l Downhole pressure and temperature
transducers
l
l Downhole flowmeters
l
l Tree mounted flowmeters
l
l ROV overrides on tree valves
l
l Seal test ports
l
l Trawlboard and dropped object
protection
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25

How Are Subsea Trees Identified?

l
l Type: Conventional or Horizontal
l Working Pressure Rating : 5,000 ,
l

10,000 , or 15,000 psig


l Tubing Size: production tubing and
l

annulus tubing ( 4-in x 2 in)


l Any Special Features: integral block,
l

clad, guideline/ guidelineless, split,


TFL, etc.
Example: Horizontal 4 X 2- 10,000 psi,
Inconel clad, guidelineless subsea tree

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26

Major Subsea Tree Suppliers

FMC

Cooper Cameron

ABB Vetco

Kvaever National

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


27

Subsea
Manifold
Systems
Subsea Presentation 6/26/01
28

SUBSEA MANIFOLDS

What
What is
is aa Subsea
Subsea Manifold?
Manifold?
l
l A collection of
valves, pipework
and connection
devices located
on the seabed
l
l A subsea manifold
collects flow from
multiple wells
before
transporting the
fluid to the host
facility
Subsea Presentation 6/26/01
29

SUBSEA MANIFOLDS

Why are subsea manifolds necessary?


l Collect flow from a number of subsea
l

wells into a single transportation


system
l Provide an economical alternative
l

to individual flowlines
l Commingle production from
l

individual wells
l Provide a mechanism for well
l

testing
l Allows first oil to be produced in a
l

phased well development program


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30

SUBSEA MANIFOLD TYPES

l
l Template Manifolds

l
l Cluster Manifolds

l
l Large Gathering Manifolds

l
l Hybrid Manifolds

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31

SUBSEA MANIFOLDS

Template Manifolds
l Provides drilling base and
l

manifold in one structure


l Provides a multi-well drilling
l

template
l May be small (i.e. 3-slot) or
l

large (i.e. 24-slot)


l Multi-well subsea tieback to a
l

host facility

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32

SUBSEA MANIFOLDS

Cluster Manifolds

l
l Trees are located within 15 to 50
meters

l
l Generally small (4 or 6-slots)

l
l Commingles production or
distributes injection

l
l Retrievable module design

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33

SUBSEA MANIFOLDS

Modular Manifolds
l
l Modular ‘Building block’ arrangement
l
l Size may be increases after
installation
l
l Some designs fold up for smaller
installation package
l
l Standard design

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34

SUBSEA MANIFOLDS

Hybrid Manifolds
l Template Manifolds that allow
l

satellite well tie-ins


l Generally large structure for
l

high well count


l
l Associated production riser
system
l
l Generally located near the
platform facility

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35

BASIC MANIFOLD DESIGNS

l
l Single Header Manifolds
- Water injection
- Gas injection

l
l Dual or Multiple Header Manifolds
- Oil and gas production systems
- Dual flowlines
- Well test and gas lift capabilities

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36

BASIC MANIFOLD DESIGNS

Single Header Manifolds


l
l Typical of gas or water
injection manifolds Manifold

l
l All wells connected to
Flowlines
the main header

l
l Non-piggable

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37

BASIC MANIFOLD DESIGNS

Dual Header With Selective Branch Valves


l
l Selective routing of
wells to headers Manifold
l
l Allows round trip
pigging Flowlines

l
l Accommodates well
test via isolation
l
l Allows dual
pressure regime
production
Subsea Presentation 6/26/01
38

BASIC MANIFOLD DESIGNS

Multi-Header With Selective Branch Valves


l
l Selective routing of
wells to production
Flowline
header or test line
l
l Allows round trip Test Line
pigging Flowline
l
l Allows dual pressure
Manifold
regime production

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


39

MANIFOLD ASSEMBLY EXAMPLES

Cluster
Cluster Manifold
Manifold
BP
BP Foinhaven
Foinhaven Field
Field
West
West of
of Shetlands
Shetlands

Template
Template Manifold
Manifold
Texaco
Texaco Captain
Captain Field
Field
North
North Sea
Sea

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40

MANIFOLD ASSEMBLY EXAMPLES

Cluster
Cluster Manifold
Manifold
Shell
Shell Popeye
Popeye Field
Field
Gulf
Gulf of
of Mexico
Mexico

Cluster
Cluster Manifold
Manifold
Texaco
Texaco Gemini
Gemini Field
Field
Gulf
Gulf of
of Mexico
Mexico

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


41

Subsea
Jumper
Systems
Subsea Presentation 6/26/01
42

SUBSEA JUMPER SYSTEMS

What is a Subsea Jumper?


l
l A means of connecting
subsea equipment together
l
l Consists of connection
devices either end of a
jumper spool piece (pipe)

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43

SUBSEA JUMPER SYSTEMS

Subsea Jumper Basic Types

Rigid Pipe Spool Flexible Pipe Spool


l
l Equipment is connected l
l Flexible pipe spool (e.g.
using a jumper fabricated Coflexip)
from rigid pipe l
l Equipment is connected
l
l Can be fabricated on site using flexible pipe
or onshore l
l Manufactured on shore
and shipped complete

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44

SUBSEA JUMPER SYSTEMS

Rigid
Rigid Jumpers
Jumpers

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45

SUBSEA JUMPER SYSTEMS

Flexible
Flexible Jumpers
Jumpers

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


HORIZONTAL CONNECTION
SYSTEM
Horizontal Arrangement
l Stab and Hinge-Over
l

Design (SHO)
l Mating hubs are positioned
l

together horizontally
l Connection made by
l

running tool or integrated


hydraulics
l Hubs are pulled (Running
l

tool) or stoked (integrated


hydraulics) together before
connection is made
Vertical Connection System

Collet Connector

Receiver Structure
48

Subsea
Production Control
Systems
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49

Subsea Control Systems

Why do we need them?


l
l To
To enable
enable remote
remote control
control of
of subsea
subsea production
production wells
wells by:
by:
-- Operation
Operation of
of subsea
subsea valves
valves
-- Adjusting
Adjusting subsea
subsea chokes
chokes
l
l To
To enable
enable the
the safe
safe operation
operation of
of subsea
subsea wells
wells by:
by:
-- Closing
Closing valves
valves on
on command
command
-- Performing
Performing shutdown
shutdown operations
operations
-- Enabling
Enabling interlock
interlock functions
functions
l
l To
To monitor
monitor conditions
conditions during
during production
production by:
by:
-- Readback
Readback ofof produced
produced fluid
fluid conditions
conditions
-- Warning
Warning of
of unstable/
unstable/ undesirable
undesirable conditions
conditions
-- Continually
Continually updating
updating all
all system
system information
information
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50

Subsea Control System Types

l
l 1. Direct Hydraulic
$$
- Up to 3 miles
- Single wells
l
l 2. Piloted Hydraulic $$
$$
- Up to 7 miles
- Low well count
l
l 3. Electro Hydraulic $$$$$$
$$$$$$

- 65 miles + to date
- Multiple wells

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01


What Can Subsea Control Systems 51

Do?
FUNCTION
FUNCTION MONITOR
MONITOR
Tree
Tree Valves
Valves Pressure
Pressure
SCSSV’S
SCSSV’S Temperature
Temperature
Chokes
Chokes Flow
Flow Rate
Rate
Manifold
Manifold Valves
Valves Choke
Choke Position
Position
Pipeline
Pipeline Valves
Valves Valve
Valve Position
Position
Throttle
Throttle Valves
Valves Erosion
Erosion Rates
Rates
Corrosion
Corrosion Rates
Rates
PREVENT
PREVENT
Operator
Operator Error
Error RESPOND
RESPOND
Overpressure
Overpressure Automatic
Automatic Well
Well Shut
Shut in
in
Incorrect
Incorrect Valve
Valve Operation
Operation Automatic
Automatic Choke
Choke Control
Control
Automatic
Automatic System
System Shut
Shut in
in
Subsea Presentation 6/26/01
Electro/Hydraulic Control System 52

Major Components
• Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU)
• Master Control Station (MCS)
• Electrical Power Unit (EPU)
• Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
• Topside Umbilical Termination Assembly (TUTA)
• Subsea Umbilical
• Umbilical Termination Unit (UTA)
• Subsea Distribution Unit (SDU)
• Flying Leads
• Subsea Control Module (SCM or Pod)

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53

Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU)

l
l Provides system hydraulic
pressure
l
l Stores control fluid energy
l
l Supplies clean hydraulic fluid
l
l Regulates supply pressure
l
l Sends status information to the
MCS
l
l Allows remote or local control
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54

Master Control Station (MCS)

l
l Operator Control Station
l
l Supplies and monitors subsea
power
l
l Sends and receives signals via
the SCM
l
l Allows operator intervention
l
l Provides interface with platform
control system

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55

Subsea Control Pod

l
l Subsea
Subsea control
control center
center
l
l Executes
Executes commands
commands from
from the
the surface
surface
l
l Features
Features
-- Must
Must be
be fully
fully retrievable
retrievable
-- Receives
Receives and
and sends
sends signals
signals to
to MCS
MCS
-- Tracks
Tracks internal
internal status
status and
and transmits
transmits to
to the
the MCS
MCS
-- Functions
Functions subsea
subsea valves
valves
-- Monitors
Monitors subsea
subsea sensors
sensors
-- Re-configuration
Re-configuration from
from topside
topside
l
l May
May operate
operate 18
18 –– 24
24 hydraulic
hydraulic functions
functions
l
l May
May monitor
monitor 88 –– 10
10 remote
remote sensor
sensor inputs
inputs

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56

Subsea Umbilicals

l
l Provides link between surface (operator) and subsea
equipment
l
l Supplies hydraulic fluid to operate subsea valves and
chokes
l
l Supplies electrical power to operate subsea electronics
l
l Transmits electronic signals to execute operational
commands subsea
l
l Returns electronic data to the surface from subsea
instrumentation

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57

Subsea Umbilicals

l
l Very many types/sizes/configurations/materials
l
l Main factors effecting design:

-- Water depth - Chemical compatibility


- Tie-back type - Flow rates
- Internal pressures - Size of field
- Tie-back length - Service life
- Installation methods

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58

Subsea Umbilical Types

Types
Types
l
l Hydraulic
Hydraulic Umbilicals
Umbilicals
l
l Electrical
Electrical Electric
Electric Umbilicals
Umbilicals
l
l Electro-Hydraulic
Electro-Hydraulic Umbilicals
Umbilicals
Construction
Construction
l
l Thermoplastic
Thermoplastic Tubes
Tubes Umbilicals
Umbilicals
l
l Steel
Steel Tube
Tube Umbilicals
Umbilicals
New
New Configurations
Configurations
l
l Integrated
Integrated Service
Service Umbilicals
Umbilicals (ISU)
(ISU)
l
l Integrated
Integrated Production
Production Umbilicals
Umbilicals (IPU)
(IPU)
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59

Direct or Piloted Hydraulic Umbilical

l
l Simple
- Short tiebacks
12
8 9
- Steel tube or
hose 10
1
11
3 2
l
l All hydraulic 7 4
systems 6 5

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60

Electro-Hydraulic Umbilical

l
l Complex
- Electrical power pairs
- Electrical signal pairs
- HP hydraulic supply- hose
or tube
- LP hydraulic supply- hose
or tube
l Most Common Type
l

- Deep water applications


- Long offsets

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61

Subsea Umbilical

Design Considerations:
l Water depth
l

l Tie-back type
l

l Tie-back length
l

l Service life
l

l Installation
l

l Chemical compatibility
l

l Flow rates
l

l Internal pressures
l

l Size of field
l

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62

Umbilical Terminations

Umbilical Termination Unit (UTA)


l
l Provides
Provides the
the subsea
subsea termination
termination for
for
the
the umbilical
umbilical
l
l Can
Can be
be the
the subsea
subsea distribution
distribution point
point
for
for hydraulic
hydraulic fluid,
fluid, electrical
electrical power,
power,
electronic
electronic signals,
signals, and
and injection
injection
chemicals
chemicals
l
l Provides
Provides an
an interface
interface for
for flying
flying leads
leads
or
or SDUs
SDUs
l
l Can
Can be
be retrieved
retrieved for
for maintenance
maintenance
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63

Subsea Distribution

Flying Leads
l
l Connects
Connects UTA
UTA or
or SDU
SDU to
to subsea
subsea
trees
trees and
and manifolds
manifolds
l
l Provides
Provides distribution
distribution of
of hydraulic
hydraulic
fluid,
fluid, electrical
electrical power,
power, electronic
electronic
signals,
signals, and
and injection
injection chemicals
chemicals to
to
subsea
subsea equipment
equipment
l
l Can
Can be
be retrieved
retrieved for
for maintenance
maintenance
l
l May
May be
be high
high collapse
collapse resistant
resistant
thermoplastic
thermoplastic or
or steel
steel tube
tube
configuration
configuration
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64

Subsea Distribution

Subsea Distribution Unit (SDU)


l
l Provides
Provides distribution
distribution of
of hydraulic
hydraulic fluid,
fluid,
electrical
electrical power,
power, electronic
electronic signals,
signals, and
and
injection
injection chemicals
chemicals

l
l Provides
Provides interface
interface for
for flying
flying leads
leads

l
l Can
Can be
be an
an isolation
isolation point
point for
for supplies
supplies

l
l Can
Can be
be retrieved
retrieved for
for maintenance
maintenance

l
l Can
Can be
be reconfigured
reconfigured subsea
subsea

Subsea Presentation 6/26/01