1.

Overview:

Comparisons:
Cloud computing derives characteristics from, but should not be confused with: 1. Autonomic computing "computer systems capable of self-management" 2. Client server model client server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients) 3. Grid computing "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks" 4. Mainframe computer powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data-processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing. 5. Utility computing the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity"; 6. Peer-to-peer distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client server model) 7. Service-oriented computing Cloud computing provides services related to computing while, in a reciprocal manner, service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-aservice.

Characteristics The key characteristic of cloud computing is that the computing is "in the cloud" i.e. the processing (and the related data) is not in a specified, known or static place(s). This is in contrast to a model in which the processing takes place in one or more specific servers that are known. All the other concepts mentioned are supplementary or complementary to this concept. Generally, cloud computing customers do not own the physical infrastructure, instead avoiding capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, whereas others bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle, which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side-effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits. In addition, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same. The cloud is becoming increasingly associated with small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as in many cases they cannot justify or afford the large capital expenditure of traditional IT. SMEs also typically have less existing infrastructure, less bureaucracy, more flexibility, and smaller capital budgets for purchasing in-house technology. Similarly, SMEs in emerging markets are typically unburdened by established legacy infrastructures, thus reducing the complexity of deploying cloud solutions. Economics Cloud computing users avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (time-based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. In general, users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby

avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty), and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties. According to Nicholas Carr, the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive. He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of private factory power generators by utility power plants early in the 20th century. Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great economic sense. Other factors having an impact on the scale of potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company's data center as compared to the cloud vendor's, the company's existing operating costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud. Additionally, companies can usually depreciate equipment, such as computers, where services cannot be written off in the same fashion. Among the items that some cloud hosts charge for are instances (often with extra charges for high-memory or high-CPU instances), data transfer in and out, storage (measured by the GB-month), I/O requests, PUT requests and GET requests, IP addresses, and load balancing. In some cases, users can bid on instances, with pricing dependent on demand for available instances. Architecture

Cloud computing sample architecture

Cloud architecture, the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services and 3-tier architecture. This resembles the UNIX philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. The front end is the part seen by the client, i.e. the computer user. This includes the client¶s network (or computer) and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the µcloud¶ itself, comprising various computers, servers and data storage devices.

History:
The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government and community forms was thoroughly explored in Douglas Park hill¶s 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies, who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit, they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. The first scholarly use of the term ³cloud computing´ was in a 1997 lecture by Ramnath Chellappa.

. Open Nebula. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to Cloud-based infrastructures. became the first open source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds and for the federation of clouds. Cloud Computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. In early 2008. like most computer networks. fast-moving "twopizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. Eucalyptus became the first open source AWS API compatible platform for deploying private clouds. Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. Google. By mid-2008. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be . Application Programming Interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission funded project. which. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission funded project. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. In the same year. In early 2008.Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time.. In 2007." Key features:    Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources. those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use servicebased models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. just to leave room for occasional spikes. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry. IBM and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project.

PC. self-service basis near real-time.. Security could improve due to centralization of data. increased securityfocused resources. and IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:  Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming on a distributed data grid.)  Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)  Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10± 20% utilized.g. and the lack of security for stored kernels. mobile). electricity. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used.. Performance is monitored and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Furthermore.     purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a finegrained. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. without users having to engineer for peak loads. the . but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. etc. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). Nonetheless. many major cloud computing services have suffered outages. etc. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems. Providers typically log accesses. users can connect from anywhere. which makes well designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.

Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. monthly. . and processing and band width. Metering means that cloud computing resources usage should be measurable and should be metered per client and application on a daily. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user.   complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices. Introduction: "Computation may someday be organized as a public utility". Access the personal files at any computer with internet access. Based on a study conducted in June 2009 by version one. weekly. and yearly basis. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. memory. 41% of IT senior professionals doesn¶t have sound knowledge on cloud computing. Electronic Recycling The costs of electronic recycling are shifted to the hands of the cloud provider. Helps to use applications without installations. They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly. This technology allows much more efficient computation by centralizing storage. since they don't have to be installed on each user's computer.

. who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility". indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s. Cloud computing is an emerging computing technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Aberdeen Group found that 18% reduction in there IT budget and a 16% reduction in data center power costs.In September 2009. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960. began offering ³VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)´ services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user.

Layers The Internet functions through a series of network protocols that form a stack of layers. as shown in the figure (or as described in more detail in the OSI model). Once an Internet connection is established among several computers. phones and other devices. Client: A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery. or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that. in either case. .5. is essentially useless without it. Examples include some computers. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. operating systems and browsers.

where a provider will license software tailored  Infrastructure providers can allow customers¶ to run applications off their infrastructure. commercially available (i. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. partnering. which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades. Application as a service:  Defined as service-on-demand. when in fact they are two different things.. including architecture. enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance. multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model. and management characteristics Centralized feature updating.e. but transparent to the end user  Customers can utilize greater computing power while saving on the following  Cost  Space  Power Consumption  Facility . People tend to use the terms µSaaS¶ and µcloud¶ interchangeably. not custom) software Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site.Application: Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. and management of. pricing. Key characteristics include     Network-based access to.

Infrastructure: Cloud infrastructure services. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.  Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. software. also known as "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)".  Infrastructure providers can dynamically allocate resources for service providers  Service providers offer this service to end users  Allows cost savings for the service providers. data-center space or network equipment. Cloud infrastructure often takes the form of a tier 3 data center with many tier 4 attributes.typically a platform virtualization environment as a service. delivers computer infrastructure . Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. assembled from hundreds of virtual machines.Platform: Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. IaaS evolved from virtual private server offerings.  It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. since they  do not need to operate their own datacenter . often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. Rather than purchasing servers.

The server¶s layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained. including multi-core processors. Public cloud 2. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. Hybrid cloud 4. Deployment models: 1. Private cloud These are the basic models available in the cloud concept. self-service basis over the Internet. Ad hoc systems allow quick customization to consumer Demands Server: The server¶s layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. via web applications/web services. including multi-core processors. . Community cloud 3. from an offsite third-party provider who bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. Public cloud: Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional main stream sense.

Examples of community cloud include Google's "Gov Cloud". storage systems. A public cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements  Public clouds are run by third parties. . and applications from different customers are likely to be mixed together on the cloud¶s servers. With the costs spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant) this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy. security and/or policy compliance. and networks Community cloud: A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing.

or a combination of virtualized cloud server instances used together with real physical hardware.By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance. The term "hybrid cloud" has been used to mean either two separate clouds joined together (public. allowing local data to be replicated to a public cloud.Hybrid cloud: There is some confusion over the term "hybrid" when applied to the cloud . A combined cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises". The most correct definition of the term "hybrid cloud" is probably the use of physical hardware and virtualized cloud server instances together to provide a single common service. Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting. A hybrid storage cloud uses a combination of public and private storage clouds. private. internal or external). .this is most commonly achieved as part of a web cluster in which some of the nodes are running on real physical hardware and some are running on cloud server instances. Two clouds that have been joined together are more correctly called a "combined cloud". where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between cloud hosting and managed dedicated servers . Hybrid storage clouds are often useful for archiving and backup functions.a standard definition of the term "Hybrid Cloud" has not yet emerged.

externally provisioned scale  used to handle planned workload spikes . Hybrid clouds combine both public and private cloud models  to provide on-demand.

the ability to recover from failure. .g. Private clouds have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. Private cloud and internal cloud have been described as neologisms. These (typically virtualization automation) products offer the ability to host applications or virtual machines in a company's own set of hosts. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". The idea was based upon direct comparison with other industries (e. and the ability to scale up or down depending upon demand. build. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. Even within modern utility industries. These provide the benefits of utility computing -shared hardware costs. hybrid models still exist despite the formation of reasonably well-functioning markets and the ability to combine multiple providers.Private cloud: Douglas Park hill first described the concept of a "private computer utility" in his 1966 book The Challenge of the Computer Utility. the electricity industry) and the extensive use of hybrid supply models to balance and mitigate risks. Enterprise IT organizations use their own private cloud(s) for mission critical and other operational systems to protect critical infrastructures. Some vendors have used the terms to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. however the concepts themselves pre-date the term cloud by 40 years.

 Are built for the exclusive use of one client  providing the extreme control over data. and quality of service  The company owns the infrastructure and has control over how applications are deployed on it. . security.

and interdisciplinary approach to the ideation.. and maintenance of cloud computing.e. quantifiable. Private clouds have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. i. strategization. generally hosted by third parties. operation. industrialization. Cloud storage is a model of networked computer data storage where data is stored on multiple virtual servers. rather than being hosted on dedicated servers. disciplined. the application of engineering to cloud. disciplined. conceptualization. build. operation. as well as the study and applied research of the approach. and interdisciplinary approach to the ideation. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. development. leading towards a cloud ecosystem Cloud engineering is also known as cloud service engineering.e. development. commoditization. conceptualization.7. Cloud engineering is the application of a systematic. and maintenance of cloud computing. It is a maturing and evolving discipline to facilitate the adoption. . operationalization. and governance of cloud solutions. standardization.Cloud engineering: Cloud engineering is the application of a systematic. i. quantifiable.. as well as the study and applied research of the approach. the application of engineering to cloud. productization.

virtualized the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as virtual servers.8. The following security requirements apply to services that may be provided in individual task orders issued under this BPA. Hosting companies operate large data centers. Physically. The data center operators. . Management of Federal Information Resources. Deliverables listed below should be accessible via online interface not later than 10 days after the end of the calendar month and available for up to one year after creation. requires Federal agencies to plan for security. The Quoter shall provide non-cumulative monthly reports for the items described in the table below for. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130. and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them and use it for their storage needs. the Quoter shall be responsible for the deliverable products on firm-fixed price basis within the schedules contained in the individual task orders. the resource may span across multiple servers. which the customers can themselves manage. Cloud storage: Cloud storage is a model of networked computer data storage where data is stored on multiple virtual servers. The information shall be available in comma separated values (CSV) file format. rather than being hosted on dedicated servers. generally hosted by third parties. After award of the BPA(s). in the background.

the "Challenge of the Computer Utility". the cloud of clouds. and in theory. The inter cloud: The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. the Inter cloud raises many more challenges than solutions concerning cloud federation. security. monitoring and billing. quality of service." It became popular in 2009 and has also been used to describe the datacenter of the future. . trust. This Inter cloud will have the dimensions of one machine comprising all servers and attendant cloud books on the planet. Such form of pay-for-use may introduce new business opportunities among cloud providers if they manage to go beyond theoretical framework. The term was first used in the context of cloud computing in 2007 when Kevin Kelly stated that "eventually we'll have the inter cloud. each cloud can use the computational and storage resources of the virtualization infrastructures of other clouds. vendor's lock-ins. If a cloud saturates the computational and storage resources of its virtualization infrastructure. Nevertheless.9. it could not be able to satisfy further requests for service allocations sent from its clients. The Inter cloud scenario is based on the key concept that each single cloud does not have infinite physical resources. legal issues. The Inter cloud scenario aims to address such situation. The concept of a competitive utility computing market which combined many computer utilities together was originally described by Douglas Park hill in his 1966 book. This concept has been subsequently used many times over the last 40 years and is identical to the Inter cloud. and interoperability.

) . Open source 5. plus the Web Server. Legal 4. Open standards 6. Sustainability and sitting Privacy: The cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control.. Privacy 2. and thus. any data base management systems. Software and supporting software (i. lawfully or unlawfully. and Verizon. Compliance 3. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonize" the legal environment. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. the Quoter is responsible for securing. In a Web Hosting scenario. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. can monitor at will. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. monitoring. and maintaining the infrastructure as described above. Security 7.10. Issues: 1. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.e. Availability and performances 8. working with AT&T. Instances such as the secret NSA program.

The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was canceled in August. Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification (e. Legal: In March 2007. Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U. Amazon. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. the specific Service Level Agreement shall document who is responsible for creating. Trademark 77. Salesforce. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes which are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. and maintaining user accounts. Compliance: In order to obtain compliance with regulations Including FISMA.082) in the United States. under nondisclosure agreement. Providers typically make this information available on request. resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a . Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.g. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rack spaces Cloud are able to claim PCI compliance.139.The Consumer Agency is responsible for securing and maintaining the web application. HIPAA and SOX in the United States.com. If individual (named) user access is required. Google and Microsoft but this has been criticised on the grounds that the handpicked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.S.

Below provides GSA¶s minimum requirements for a Moderate Impact Cloud Computing (CC) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Offering. securing. Other legal cases may shape the use of cloud computing by the public sector.week later. Google filed a lawsuit against the U. the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands. cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009. monitoring. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts. In 2009. 2010. which opened up a bid for software that required that bidders use Microsoft's Business Productivity Online Suite. the Consumer Agency is responsible for the security of the ³guest´ Operating System (OS) and any additional software. calling the requirement "unduly restrictive of competition. the prevalence of open standards and open source may have an impact on the way that public entities choose to select vendors. On its part. 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed. Open source: Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. security responsibilities are shared between the Quoter and the Consumer. in this case a Federal Government Agency. On October 29. Google sued. network(s). and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. ³Scholars have pointed out that. In CC. The Quoter is responsible for provisioning.S. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. and maintaining the hardware. and software that support the infrastructure and present Virtual Machines (VMs) and IT resources to the consumer. goods and services has increased at an almost exponential rate. . Department of Interior. beginning in 2005. In November 2007. Since 2007. up to and including the applications running on the guest OS.

the Quoter is responsible for securing.Open standards: Most cloud providers expose APIs which are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. The Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) is working to develop consensus on early cloud computing standards and practices. plus the Web Server software and supporting software (i. If individual (named) user access is required. private or public. This delivers great incentive amongst cloud computing service providers in producing a priority in building and maintaining strong management of secure services. . Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security based services. and maintaining the infrastructure as described above.) The Consumer Agency is responsible for securing and maintaining the web application. It is the very nature of cloud computing based services. that promote external management of provided services. the specific Service Level Agreement shall document who is responsible for creating.e. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. any data base management systems. including the OGF'sOpen Cloud Computing Interface. monitoring. and maintaining user accounts. Security: The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption.. In a Web Hosting scenario.

Section D. the Cloud Security Alliance is a non-profit organization formed to promote the use of best practices for providing security assurance within cloud computing. Security Guide for Interconnecting Information Technology Systems. for moderate impact systems. One organization in particular. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130. which has happened in a number of cases.7 . . The following security requirements apply to services that may be provided in individual task orders issued under this BPA. Availability and performance: In addition to concerns about security. requires Federal agencies to plan for security. businesses are also worried about acceptable levels of availability and performance of applications hosted in the cloud.Security Requirements. The Government¶s intent is to accept the Contractor¶s commercial information security practices that are functionally equivalent to those provided by NIST Special Publication 800-53.Organizations have been formed in order to provide standards for a better future in cloud computing services. Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems. The Government and the Contractor will work in good faith to establish an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA) and/or a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) as provided in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-47. Management of Federal Information Resources. There are also concerns about a cloud provider shutting down for financial or legal reasons.

such as Finland. is being developed using cloud computing. Smart Bay. Thus countries with favorable conditions. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. marine research infrastructure of sensors and computational technology. Sweden and Switzerland. are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. an emerging approach to shared infrastructure in which large pools of systems are linked together to provide IT services. . the environmental effects will be more moderate.Sustainability and siting: Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing.

the framework consists of three major categories: y Cloud Service Delivery Capabilities . The Cloud Computing Framework is neither architecture nor an operating model. provides a high-level overview of the key functional components for cloud computing services for the Government. and use the Cloud services . Federal Cloud Computing Framework The Cloud Computing Framework. manage.Core capabilities required to deliver Cloud Services y Cloud Services ± Services delivered by the Cloud y Cloud User Tools ± Tools or capabilities that enable users to provision. The implementation is a Moderate Impact System as defined in National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 199 (Section D7. The Framework is a functional view of the key capabilities required to enable Cloud Computing.11. SERVICES AND PRICES Scope The scope of this RFQ focuses on IaaS service offerings available within a public cloud deployment model. illustrated below. As depicted in the Figure 1 below. ± Security Requirements).

GSA Cloud Computing Storefront The initial acquisition of these services will be facilitated by GSA through the GSA Cloud Computing Storefront Site ± which will enable Government purchasers to buy (using a credit card or other acceptable payment option) IaaS . Reporting and Analytics offer the ability to perform key reporting and business intelligence analytics and therefore are not core Cloud Computing components.Figure 1: Federal Cloud Computing Framework The Horizontal functional areas represent the core ³computing´ capabilities that enable different levels of Cloud Computing. analytics offer significant business capabilities that can harness the power of the data that will reside within the Cloud Computing environment. For example. while the vertical functional areas illustrate the management and business capabilities needed to wrap-around the core components to enable business processes with Cloud Computing. however.

and Cloud Web hosting service. the GSA Cloud Storefront enables the procurement of IaaS services with the vendor. Virtual Machines (VM). The Government shall retain ownership of any user created/loaded data and an application hosted on vendor¶s infrastructure. which will be managed and maintained by GSA.service offerings as needed through a common Web Portal. Requirements have been established for each of the IaaS functional components within the Federal Cloud Framework described above as required (mandatory).gov. 1 GSA Cloud Storefront (Web Portal) 2 Federal Agencies inquire and procure IaaS service through the GSA Cloud Storefront The GSA Federal Cloud Storefront provides the predefined IaaS service offering options from the supported IaaS vendors based on the submitted inquires from the Federal Agency Tasks The requirements focus on IaaS service offerings. . Figure 2: GSA Cloud Computing Storefront IaaS Providers IaaS Vendor 1 Government Agencies Once IaaS Services are procured the Federal Agency works directly with the selected IaaS vendor in configuring and utilizing the services via the Internet 4 Federal Agency 1 Federal Agency 2 Federal Agency n IaaS Vendor 2 IaaS Vendor n Internet 3 Based on Federal Agency¶s selection. such as apps. and maintains the right to request full copies of these at any time. specifically for Storage Services.

2. On-demand selfservice A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities. y IaaS Service Offering (Lot 1. . as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service¶s provider.The requirements are divided into three categories as follows: y General Cloud Computing Requirements ± specifies general requirements for cloud services. and 3) Requirements ± specifies the requirements for service offerings along with their attributes and the purchase units. The Quoter shall provide the capability for the ordering activity to unilaterally (i. without vendor review or approval) provision services.e. Cloud Technical Requirements The Quoter shall provide a Cloud Computing solution that aligns to the following ³Essential Characteristics´ as defined in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Working Definition and described in Table 1 below: Table 1: Cloud Technical Requirements Cloud Characteristic Definition General Requirement 1. y IaaS Technical Requirements ± specifies the technical requirements for enabling the IaaS service offerings. such as server time and network storage.

General Requirement 2a. state. computing capacity. laptops. The Quoter shall have a minimum of two data center facilities at two different geographic locations in the Continental United States (CONUS) and all services acquired under the BPA will be guaranteed to reside in CONUS. with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. The Quoter shall support provisioning of practically unlimited storage.Cloud Characteristic 2. country. memory at 1000 times our minimum resource unit metrics. or datacenter).. The Quoter shall support internet bandwidth of at least 1Gb/s 2b. 3. and PDAs). independently from the physical location of the facilities. Ubiquitous network access Definition Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e. Examples . The customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g.. mobile phones.g. Location independent resource pooling The provider¶s computing resources are pooled to serve all consumers using a multi-tenant model.

network bandwidth.g. The Quoter shall support service provisioning and de-provisioning times (scale up/down).. . Resource usage can be monitored. and active user accounts). memory. To the consumer. 5. and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. processing. Measured Service Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e. The Quoter shall offer visibility into service usage via dashboard or similar electronic means. bandwidth. controlled. storage. the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be infinite and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Rapid elasticity Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned to quickly scale up and rapidly released to quickly scale down. making the service available within near real-time of provisioning request.Cloud Characteristic Definition of resources include storage. processing. General Requirement 4. and virtual machines.

The requirements for this section are divided into the following areas: Service Management and Provisioning. and data center facilities requirements.3 of this document. 3. .IaaS Technical Requirements This section specifies the requirements that are applicable to all three (3) Lots as mentioned in Section C. storage and bandwidth dynamically (or ondemand). The Quoter shall provide the ability to provision virtual machines. as requested. allocate resources. User/Admin Portal.3. The Quoter shall enable Service Provisioning via Application Programming Interface (API). The Quoter shall enable Service Provisioning via customizable online portal/interface (tools). 2. Quoter shall support secure provisioning.4. and services and the monitoring and management of these resources. This shall include any traffic shaping capabilities the Quoter uses. Service provisioning focuses on capabilities required to assign services to users. integration requirements. de-provisioning and administering [such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Secure Shell (SSH)] in its service offerings. 4. Service Management and Provisioning Requirements Service Management and Provisioning requirements address the technical requirements for supporting the provisioning and service management of the IaaS Service Offerings described in Section 4. Table 2: Service Management and Provisioning Requirements Service Provisioning 1.

Service Level Agreement Management 8. The Quoter shall make the Management Reports described in Section 6 accessible via online interface. The Quoter shall document and adhere to their SLAs to include: y Service Availability (Measured as Total Uptime Hours / Total Hours within the Month) displayed as a percentage of availability up to one-tenth of a percent (e. etc) 7. 6. Articles/Tutorials. The Quoter shall support the terms of service requirement of terminating the service at any time (on-demand). The Quoter shall describe the outage including description of root-cause and fix. y Service provisioning and de-provisioning times (scale up and down) in near real-time 10. 9. The Quoter shall provide a custom webpage and associated Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that describes the following: a.g. fault tolerant infrastructure that allows for high availability of 99.5%) y Within a month of a major outage occurrence resulting in greater than 1-hour of unscheduled downtime. Resources (Documentation. The Quoter shall provide Helpdesk and Technical support services to include system maintenance windows. These reports shall be available for one year after being created. The Quoter shall provide a robust. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) b. . Help Desk and Technical Support c.5%.5. 99.

The Quoter shall manage data remanence throughout the data life cycle. server and virtualization layer. The Quoter shall provide the artifacts. 16. 17. DR and COOP 15. The Quoter shall manage the network. The Quoter shall perform patch management appropriate to the scope of their control. The Quoter shall manage data isolation in a multi-tenant environment. 19. 12. 14. recovery and refresh operations on a periodic basis. dual factor method of remote access which allows Government designated personnel the ability to perform duties on the hosted infrastructure. The Quoter shall ensure the security of the services and data hosted at their facilities by providing DR (Disaster Recovery) and COOP (Continuity of Operations) capabilities.Operational Management 11. storage. The Quoter shall perform backup. 18. to include performance of internal technology refresh cycles applicable to this BPA. Data Management . The Quoter shall provide a secure. 13. security policies and procedures demonstrating its compliance with the the Security Assessment and Authorization requirements as described in Section D7 ± Security Requirements. The Quoter shall transfer data back in-house either on demand or in case of contract or order termination for any reason.

The Quoter should enable Order Management via Application Programming Interface (API). The Quoter shall enable Order Management via customizable online portal/interface (tools). The Quoter shall provide the ability for the customer agency to track the status of their invoices. 25. the Quoter shall notify the user. The individual task orders issued under this BPA will specify a monthly ceiling dollar limitation. 22. The Quoter shall provide on-line billing capability that will allow customers to see the status of their bills (updated weekly). User/Admin Portal Requirements Table 3 below describes User/Admin management requirements: Table 3: User/Admin Portal Requirements Order Management 21. by email and by posting that notification to the website. When 80% of this dollar limit has been reached. The Quoter shall provide security mechanisms for handling data at rest and in transit. . 24. Billing/Invoice Tracking 23. that the quoter is approaching the 80% threshold for the order.20. The Quoter shall not bill beyond the approved monthly dollar threshold.

etc. Data Center Facilities Requirements Table 5 describes Data Center Facilities requirements.Utilization Monitoring Trouble Management 26. degraded service. Table 4: Integration Requirements Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) 30. The Quoter shall maintain user profiles and present the user with his/her profile at the time of login. 29. via service dashboard or other electronic means. The Quoter shall provide support to all API¶s it develops/provides. . User Profile Management Integration Requirements Table 4 describes Integration requirements for cloud services. 27. The Quoter shall provide automatic monitoring of resource utilization and other events such as failure of service. The Quoter should provide Trouble Ticketing via API. The Quoter shall provide Trouble Ticketing via customizable online portal/interface (tools). 28.

A Tier 1 network is an IP network that participates in the Internet solely via Settlement Free Interconnection. The Quoter shall provide Internet bandwidth at the minimum of 1 GB. The Quoter shall identify Tier 1 Internet service providers it is peered with.Table 5: Data Center Facilities Requirements Internet Access 31. 35. IP Addressing: 1) The Quoter should provide IP address assignment. allowing the Government to have read-only access to inspect the firewall configuration. 33. The Quoter shall provide its Autonomous Number System 32. The Quoter µs Local Area Network (LAN) shall not impede data transmission. also known as settlement free peering. The Quoter shall provide a Wide Area Network (WAN). and where this peering occurs. and if capable. 3) The Quoter should provide dedicated virtual private network (VPN) connectivity between customer and the Firewalls LAN/WAN . 2) The Quoter shall provide IP address and IP port assignment on external network interfaces. 34. or the Quoter shall administer a firewall policy in accordance with the Government¶s direction. The Quoter shall implement a firewall policy that allows the Government to administer it remotely. include Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). with a minimum of two data center facilities at two different geographic locations in the Continental United States (CONUS) and all services acquired under the BPA will be guaranteed to reside in CONUS.

allowing websites or other applications operating in the cloud to be viewed externally as Government URLs and services. 5) The Quoter shall provide an infrastructure that is IPv6 capable. Upon request from the Government. Lot Specific Technical Requirements The IaaS Service Offering Requirements have been divided into three distinct Lots: y Lot 1: Cloud Storage Services (Section C. service attributes. the hosting Quoter shall provide access to the hosting facility for inspection. Data Center Facilities 36. power.4. service options.3.4.3) The following sections describe the service. and service units for the three Lots. The Quoter shall provide data center facilities including space. 4) The Quoter shall allow mapping IP addresses to domains owned by the Government. physical infrastructure (hardware). 37.1) y Lot 2: Virtual Machines (Section C.vendor. The Quoter shall provide data center facilities and the physical and virtual hardware that are located within the Continental United States of America (CONUS).2) y Lot 3: Cloud Web Hosting (Section C.4.3. .3.

called Open Cirrus. In Sept. Virginia Tech. In October 2007IBM and Google announced the multi. vendors and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing. and the Institute for System Programming at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPRAS). academic and vendor collaborative research projects include the IBM/Google Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI). University of Minnesota. Joint government. among others. the University of Illinois (UIUC). Georgia Tech. more researchers joined the HP/Intel/Yahoo Open Cirrus project for cloud computing research. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. 2010. Spain's Supercomputing Center of Galicia (CESGA by its Spanish acronym). MIT. the National Science Foundation joined the ACCI and awarded approximately $5 million in grants to 14 academic institutions. designed to encourage research into all aspects of cloud computing. . the Malaysian Institute for Microelectronic Systems(MIMOS). Research: A number of universities. University of Maryland. the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea. Wayne State. Intel Corporation and Yahoo! announced the creation of a global. University of Wisconsin±Madison. University of Washington. Indiana University. Yale. Academic institutions include University of Melbourne (Australia). multi-data center. University of Massachusetts. Georgia Tech's Center for Experimental Research in Computer Systems (CERCS) and China Telecom. North Carolina State University.12. University of Utah. Carnegie Mellon. IIT Bombay. the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore. In April 2009. University of Virginia.university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.Open Cirrus partners include the NSF. open source test bed. HP. service and data center management. University of California. Purdue University. The new researchers are China Mobile Research Institute (CMRI). In July 2008.

HP Labs India announced a new cloud-based technology designed to simplify taking content and making it mobile-enabled. CLOUD 2010 was held on July 5±10. . Called Siteon Mobile. even from low-end devices. 2010. highly flexible cloud computing based on intellectual property developed at HP Labs. 2010 in Miami. England. Florida. The demonstration facility highlights high-security. The aim of the facility is to lessen fears about the security of the cloud. the new technology is designed for emerging markets where people are more likely to access the internet via mobile phones rather than computers.In July 2010. In Nov. The IEEE Technical Committee on Services Computing in IEEE Computer Society sponsors the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). located at the HP Labs site in Bristol. HP formally opened its Government Cloud Theatre. HP Labs Bristol is HP¶s second-largest central research location and currently is responsible for researching cloud computing and security.

GNU's Richard Stallman insists that the industry will only use the model to deliver services at ever increasing rates over proprietary systems. Forrester Research VP Frank Gillett questions the very nature of and motivation behind the push for cloud computing. describing what he calls "cloud washing" in the industry whereby companies relabel their products as cloud computing resulting in a lot of marketing innovation on top of real innovation. otherwise likening it to a "marketing hype campaign. See also        Cloud backup Cloud engineering Cloud gaming Data center Green computing High-performance computing List of cloud computing providers Open Data Center Alliance .13. claiming that the company could simply "change the wording on some of our ads" to deploy their cloud-based services. Criticism of the term: Some have come to criticize the term as being either too unspecific or even misleading. CEO Larry Ellison of Oracle Corporation asserts that cloud computing is "everything that we already do".

 Finally. and innovation Future personal uses:  No more backing up files to thumb drives or syncing computers together  Services replace devices  A single hard drive for the rest of a person¶s life. new projects. . Conclusion:  Cloud computing is a better way to run your business.  This lets you focus on deploying more apps. accessible anywhere with internet Future educational uses:  An expansion of Microsoft live@edu  View Video  More useful spending of technology budgets  Classroom collaboration  View an example from AirSet.14. but it can have a huge impact on your business.. cloud apps don¶t eat up your valuable IT resources.com Take a quick  Office Web Applications  Google Docs  View Video tour Cloud computing is a simple idea. so your CFO will love it.

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