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I N D E X  
Title Page
Foreword 3
1 About your Committee
1.1 What is the Special Political and Decolonization Committee?
1.2 Who are the SPECPOL? 4
1.3 What is the function of the SPECPOL?
1.4 When is the SPECPOL called into session?
2 Conflict Background
2.1 Brief History of Israel / Palestine
5
2.1.1 Ancient Times
2.1.2 League of Nations Mandate
2.1.3 Two State Proposal and War
6
2.1.4 War and Terror Raids
2.2 Detail on Recent Conflicts
2.2.1 1948 Israeli Independence War 7
2.2.2 Six Day War
2.2.3 Yom Kippur War 8
2.2.4 December 2008
2.3 Detail on Recent Peace Efforts 9
2.3.1 Oslo Declaration of Int. Self-Government Arrangements
2.3.2 Arab Peace Initiative 10
3 Additional Individual Perspectives
3.1 Egypt 11
3.2 Lebanon
3.3 Jordan 12
4 Session Approach 13
4.1 Particularities 14
5 Relevant Research Resources. 15
5.1 Guidance Questions 15
5.2 Recommended Research Resources 16
6 Member Delegations 17
7 References 19
 
 

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Welcome delegate, to the fifteenth edition of the Union and


Peace Model United Nations. The following document will provide
you with key information on the issue you, as the representative of
your assigned nation will be addressing. The information it contains
is focused towards guiding your investigation into the same key
points as the other delegates, yielding an active debate, which
generates an effective solution to the issue of concern. Please do
read comprehensively this document and keep in mind that it is only
the first step to a complete preparation. On behalf of all the Union
and Peace 2009 staff, I wish you good luck on your preparation and
debate.

Andres Gonzalez de Rosenzweig

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1. About Your Committee

1.1 What is the Special Political and Decolonization


Committee?

The Special Political and Decolonization Committee (under


the abbreviation SPECPOL) is the fourth committee of the
General Assembly. It deals with sovereignty issues and other
concerns that the Disarmament & International Security
Committee does not deal with. It addresses issues such as the
principles and bases of UN peacekeeping and decolonization
issues.

1.2 Who are the SPECPOL?

All the General Assembly Members form the SPECPOL and it


has an independent chairman, three vice-chairmen and a
secretary or reporter. The chair is elected at the end of every
General Assembly, along with those of the other GA major
committees.

1.3 What is the function of the SPECPOL?

The committee has been defined as ‘eclectic’ when its


functions have been analyzed. SPECPOL deals with far
ranging issues from decolonization, to the dealing with the
harm caused by landmines. The SPECPOL is a committee,
which has represented a key element in resolving persistent
conflicts.
1.4 When is the SPECPOL called into session?
The SPECPOL sessions regularly within the General Assembly;
who meets in regular session from September to December
every year. The Security Council or a two-third majority of its
members might call special emergency sessions1.

                                                                                                               
1  UN General Assembly: The Fourth Committee

 
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2. Background on the Conflict


2.1 Brief History of Israel / Palestine

2.1.1 Ancient Times

The territory, now known as Israel/Palestine, was


inhabited in ancient times by Hebrews/Israelites. Many
ancient peoples of Mesopotamia conquered the
Kingdom of Israel. Some of the Hebrew people were
taken into slavery and eventually exiled from the Middle
East, migrating across Europe. This group is called the
Diaspora, Jews who live exiled from the Promised Land2.
This territory was later conquered by the Romans, and
then by a series of Arab/Ottoman tribes and Kingdoms
who inhabited the zone for more than one thousand
years3.

2.1.2 League Of Nations Mandate


In the late 19th Century, discrimination and abuse of
Jews was on the increase in all of Europe, particularly
Russia, where Jewish Communities faced repeated
pogroms called for by the Czar himself. As a result, the
Zionist movement arose in Eastern Europe, led by
Theodor Herzl who aimed to promote Jewish
immigration to the territory of Palestine. The possibility
of establishing a Jewish state was first mentioned by the
British government in the Balfour declaration of 1917.
The declaration mentioned also the intention of
respecting non-Jewish settlers4. The British influenced
many of the decisions of the League of Nations,
including the decision to give Britain the mandate of
Palestine in 19225.
                                                                                                               
2  Catholic Encyclopedia: Philistines.
3  A&E Networks’ History.com: Palestine
4  Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: The Balfour Declaration
5  Yale School of Law: Avalon Project – The Palestine Mandate

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2.1.3 Two State Proposal and War

Great Britain maintained the mandate of Palestine until


19476. In the year of 1947 the United Nations
established the partition of the
territory. The Palestinian and Israeli
states would occupy delimited
territories and have autonomous
governments with economic
7
bonds . The immediate result of the
UN resolution was war.

2.1.4 War and Terror Raids

Israel was victorious, resulting in


annexation of large territories8.
After the 1948 war, both Arabs and
Jews rejected the possibility of
recognizing the basic existence of
each other as a State9. In addition
to this situation, ideological
conflicts, religious tension and a
high number of terrorist attacks have served as triggers
for diplomatic conflict.

                                                                                                               
 
6  Yale School of Law: Avalon Project – The Palestine Mandate
7  Yale School of Law: Avalon Project – UN GA Resolution 181
8  BBC News, World: Israel and the Palestinians ‘online edition’
9  Alquni, Ahmed: The Arab-Israeli wars  

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2.2 Detail on Recent Conflicts

2.2.1 1948 Israeli Independence War

In 1948 the States of Egypt, Jordan, Iran, Syria, Lebanon


and Saudi Arabia, declared war on Israel. The first phase
of the conflict involved a massive Arab offensive on
Israel, which was based mostly on bombings, raids and
the battle for Jerusalem. The second phase involved the
Israeli advance on Arab Forces, led by David Ben
Gurion. And a third Phase in which Israel invaded
territories that were conceded by the UN to Arab states.
The confrontation ended with an armistice10, which
drew new boundaries for Israel and left the issues of
mutual recognition and war refugees unsolved11.

2.2.2 Six Day War

The Six Day war, between Egypt and Israel, occurred in


1967. The conflict began with the Egyptian blockade of
the strait of Tiran and the Suez Canal to Israeli naval
traffic. An offensive from Israel and its allies, Britain and
France, took control of the whole Sinai Peninsula, where
the waterways are located12. Israel and its allies received
the order from the UN to withdraw from the Sinai
peninsula after Egyptian surrender. Israel gained
territories, which involved the control of the religiously
emblematic city of Bethlehem and limited control upon
the Tiran and Suez waterways13.

                                                                                                               
10  Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Israel’s War of Independence
11  Op. Cit. Alquni, Ahmed: The Arab-Israeli wars  
12  Ibidem.  
13  The Times: Israel Claims Sinai Gains: Whole Edition

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2.2.3 October 6 War

The War of October 6, 1973 consisted of an Egyptian


offensive upon Israel. Egypt and Syria formed an alliance
and attacked Israel on Jewish Holiday Yom Kippur. The
main purpose of the attack was to push for the recovery
of territories that were controlled by Israel. The Israeli
forces were unprepared and were defeated. Israel had
weapons from the United States and Egypt was
supported by Saudi Arabia, who imposed an Oil
embargo on the Unites States. Israel counter attacked
and was within striking distance of the city of Cairo14.
The UN negotiated a ceasefire on October the 22nd.
Saudi Arabia later lifted the Oil embargo, and Egypt
regained the Sinai15.

                                                                                                               
5  Op.  Cit.  Alquni,
Ahmed: The Arab-Israeli wars  
15
BBC News: 1973: Yom Kippur: the day that shocked Israel
 
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2.2.4 December 2008


In December 2008, Israel initiated an offensive against
the Palestinian Settlements in Gaza, as a response to
heavy attacks from Arab settlers that targeted Southern
Israel16. Hamas, a political party and military
organization within Palestine allegedly promoted these
attacks17. Along with Fatah, Hamas is the largest
Palestinian movement; Hamas in 2005 achieved a
majority in the Palestinian Parliament and became the
controlling political force over the Palestinian controlled
territories of the West bank and Gaza. Israel targeted
Hamas infrastructure and leaders; this campaign
included the destruction of civilian infrastructure such as
schools and hospitals18. Israel justified these attacks
under the argument of Hamas using civilians as a cover
for aggressions against Israel19. In mid January 2009, a
ceasefire came into place without an explicit
coordination between both belligerents, unilaterally.
Following the conflict, a large amount of Humanitarian
aid resources were delivered to the Gaza strip in order
to support its reconstruction.

                                                                                                               
16  BBC News: Israel Strikes Key Hamas Offices
17Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Iran: Statements by Israeli leaders – Dec. 2008
18  Op.Cit. BBC News: Israel Strikes Key Hamas Offices
19  Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Hamas expl. of civilians as human shields: Photographic Evidence

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2.3 Detail on Recent Peace Efforts.


2.3.1 Oslo Declaration of Interim Self-Government
Arrangements
The Madrid and Oslo Accords were conferences called
by the United States in which the leader of the
Palestinian Liberation Organization, Yasser Arafat and
the Israeli Prime Minister Rabin with the Intervention of
U.S. President Clinton, met. These settlements provided
principles for the establishment of a Palestinian State,
autonomous in various levels depending on the zones.
These agreements have been discredited by Hamas, as
Yasser Arafat who is a founding member of al-Fatah20
partially crafted them. Since Hamas gained control over
the Palestinian Parliament in 2006, the Palestinian
authority hasn’t officially recognized these Accords21.

                                                                                                               
20  BBC News: Fatah: A New Beginning?
21  BBC News: Who Are Hamas?

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2.3.2 The Arab Peace Initiative

The Arab Peace Initiative is a proposal endorsed and


supported by the Arab league in which it is proposed
that the Israel map is redrawn to the limits established by
the 1967 armistice agreement. It is a two-state solution.
It looks over the refugee crisis and contemplates
diplomacy between the Palestinians and the Israelis. The
Initiative was issued in 2002 and represented a
breakthrough in Arab hard-line diplomacy. The initiative
has, to this day, lacked a unified official response from
the state of Israel, though there have been recurrent
mentions of it22. In 2007, the Arab league restated the
proposal but threatened with withdrawing the offer if an
answer from Israel was not received. One of the main
strengths of the Arab Peace initiative is that it is based on
international agreements such as UN SC Resolution 242,
as well as is based upon the principle of ceding to some
demands in exchange to others. Another important
aspect of the Arab Initiative is that it recognizes Israel as
a state23. During its early times, the United States
Administration under president Obama communicated
their intention to include this Initiative as a Part of their
foreign policy for the Middle East24. This was reflected in
the Speech given by President Obama in the Cairo
University, in which he called for tolerance, respect and
a renewal in the relations between the Arab world.
 
 
 
 
 
 

                                                                                                               
22
Al-Jazeera Networks: Arab Peace initiative
23
BBC News: Text: Arab Peace initiative
24
Op. Cit.: Al-Jazeera Networks: Arab Peace initiative

 
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3. Additional Individual Perspectives.

3.1 Egypt.

Egypt has long stood as a defender of the Palestinian


cause. During the Government of Gamal Nasser, Egypt went
to war with Israel twice. The country went to war for a third
time in 1973 under President al-Sadat. Egyptian modern
diplomacy remains strongly a supporter of the Palestinian
cause but has spoken of its defense through a peaceful and
legal path. Egyptian modern foreign policies mentions open
recognition of the Palestinians as victims of an international
compensation to the Jewish peoples after the holocaust25, and
mentions that recent official Israeli attitudes have been a major
drawback in the peace negotiations26. Nevertheless Egypt and
Israel have had mutual agreements, such as the Camp David
Accords.

3.2 Lebanon.
Lebanon served as a base for the PLO and has endorsed
a pro-Palestinian policy. Several pro-Palestinian military
groups have operated in Lebanon upon a de facto permission
from the government. The Lebanese political scenario includes
a party called ‘Lebanese Party of God’ (or Hezbollah), which is
a major coordinator of education, health and several other
community services as well as an important military
movement. This party has repeatedly indulged in offensive
actions across the southern border of Lebanon, against Israel,
in support of the Palestinian cause. These offensive actions
have frequently triggered conflict between the Lebanese and
the Israeli Governments; in 2006 Israel launched a major
offensive against Southern Lebanon, allegedly targeting only
Hezbollah military targets. The conflict lasted over 35 days
and the Lebanese Government reported severe losses in
civilian infrastructure as well as civilian casualties.  
 

                                                                                                               
25  Egyptian State Information Service: Egypt and Palestinian Question
26  Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Egyptian Arab Relations
 
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3.3 Jordan.
Jordan has historically held a policy similar to the rest of
the Arab world on reference to Israel, strictly anti-Semitic, but
it has limited the extent of their actions against Israel. A state
of war was held by both nations concerning each other from
1948 to 1994, in such a stage
there were no constant
military confrontations. The "I  still  feel  that  those  of  us  who  work  for  peace  
main episode of such a stage and  believe  in  peace  have  a  very,  very  loud  voice,  
of ‘war’ was during the Six and  hopefully,  wisdom  and  common  sense  will  
prevail."  
day war, in which Jordan
aligned itself with Egypt and -­  King  Hussein  Of  Jordan  
lost the west bank and east
Jerusalem to Israel. After that,
Jordan expelled the PLO from its territory, fearing a coup-
d’état against King Hussein27 and in the application of such a
measure; the King’s government was assisted by Israel.

                                                                                                               
27  Amanpour, Christiane: Interview to King Hussein  
 
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4. Session Approach.

As a Historical Conflict, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is loaded with


background interests and alliances. Nation representatives have
tended to keep in mind alliances, support compromises made by
their nations and diplomatic responsibilities. During the debate, it is
highly recommended that Nations do not incur in a remembrance of
past offenses and blames, as it has been observed that the excessive
inclusion of ideological
factors in the debate
results on a stalling of Therefore it is important that, during this
session, the main focus is towards the objective
the negotiations.     search for a definitive solution to the conflict in
 
question.
 

The focus in this SPECPOL session is to create a political protocol to


establish the necessary conditions for a peace settlement and
crafting it if possible. It is necessary to take into account the
demands of Palestine and of Israel as well as the Principles
established by previous Peace settlement attempts.

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4.1 Particularities

It is recommended to take into account the following


particularities.

• The Security of all peoples involved is a UN priority.


• It is urged that the refugee issue is addressed.
• It is urged that the conflict of the status of Jerusalem is
addressed.
• Every proposed solution must comply with UN law.

The following suggestions are made in order to focus on an


efficient debate and resolutions.
• All proposals must have a realistic background in order
to be effective.
• Key states and allies must be in agreement with the
resolution.
• The historical position and reaction of Political and
military forces, such as Hamas and al-Fatah, are also to
be taken into account for a solution to be successful.
• Historical sites and routes are a recurrent source of
conflict.

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5. Relevant Research Resources

Your research, in order to be useful, must cover similar aspects from


your country as the research, which is being done by your fellow
delegates on their assigned countries. There is a very large amount
of reference information on this particular issue, it is important that
you are selective with the information you use on your preparation.
To aid you in this challenging task a set of questions have been
compiled to guide your research and debate. Remember they only
represent a suggestion and, as guidelines, are not sufficient to
function as the orientation of your whole investigation. As well,
we’ve compiled a set of websites that provide important research
resources; these websites represent a potential catalyst for your
investigation, and are meant to lead you into further research.

5.1 Guidance Questions

Has your nation been directly involved in the conflict? How


was it involved? On which side?

Has your government experienced similar conflicts within


your own nation? Have they been resolved? If so, How?

Can your nation’s experience or resources be applied to


promote a solution? Are they compatible with other proposals?

How has your nation been vocal, within the UN, upon
specific points of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict?

Is your country in favor of one or the other of the parties


involved?

How can your nation be supportive to the nations with an


opposing point of view?

What is your country willing to cede in its position in order to


be able to participate in the solution?

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5.2 Suggested Research Resources

• Coverage of the Conflict History by the United Nations.


http://www.un.org/Depts/dpa/ngo/history.html

• BBC’s Coverage and Country Profiles.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/middle_east/2001
/israel_and_the_palestinians/default.stm

• BBC’s coverage of peace negotiations.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6666393.stm

• BBC: Audio-Slideshow testimonial from a civilian


victim.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7926780.stm

• Aljazeera’s Coverage of the Conflict.


http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2008/03/2
008525172731357923.html.

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6
Special Political and Decolonization Committee

MEMBER DELEGATIONS
(1-10)

1. Arab Republic of Egypt

2. Federal Republic of Germany  

3. French Republic  

4. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan  

5. Islamic Republic of Iran

6. Islamic Republic of Pakistan

7. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

8. Kingdom of Spain

9. Lebanese Republic

10. Palestinian National Authority

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

MEMBER DELEGATIONS
(11-20)

11. People's Republic of China

12. Republic of Iraq

13. Republic of South Africa

14. Republic of Turkey

15. Russian Federation

16. State of Israel

17. Syrian Arab Republic

18. United Arab Emirates

19. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

20. United States of America

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7. References  

Al-Jazeera Networks: Arab Peace Initiative


Article published by the Al-Jazeera Broadcasting Corporation.
Visited: Aug 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://english.aljazeera.net/focus/2009/01/200912764650608370.html

Alquni, Ahmed: The Arab-Israeli wars  


Article published by the Al-Jazeera Broadcasting Corporation.
Visited: Aug 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://english.aljazeera.net/archive/2003/12/2008410115114656999.html

Amanpour, Christiane: Interview to King Hussein  


Interview pub. by the CNN/Time and King Hussein’s Official Site
Dated Jan 20th 1999 Visited: Aug 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://english.aljazeera.net/archive/2003/12/2008410115114656999.html

BBC News: Fatah: A New Beginning?


Article published by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Visited: Aug 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8197366.stm

BBC News: Israel Strikes Key Hamas Offices


Article published by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Visited: Aug 28th, 2009 Dated: Dec 28th 2008 Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8197366.stm

BBC News: Text: Arab Peace initiative


Translation published by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Visited: Aug 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1844214.stm

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BBC News: Who Are Hamas?


Article published by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Visited: Aug 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1654510.stm

BBC News: 1973: Yom Kippur: the day that shocked Israel
Article published by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Visited: Aug 29th, 2009 Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/witness/october/6/newsid_31400
00/3140140.stm

BBC Mundo: Israel pone barrera a Estado palestino. ‘online edition’


Article written and published by BBC International.
Visited: April 1st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009 Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/international/newsid_7977000/797
7718.stm

BBC Mundo: Israelíes "dispararon contra palestinos que huían".


‘online edition’
Article written and published by BBC International.
Visited: April 1st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009 Available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/international/newsid_7830000/783
0647.stm

BBC News, World: Israel and the Palestinians ‘online edition’


Maps created and published by BBC International.
Visited: April 1st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009 Available at:
English Version:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2001/israel_a
nd_palestinians/key_maps/
Spanish Version:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/spanish/especiales/moriente_mapas/index.sht
ml

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Behar, Eitan: Netanyahu during inauguration: Nukes greatest threat


Official Article from the Prime Minister’s Website
Visited: April 1st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009 Available at:
http://en.netanyahu.org.il/news/275/243/Netanyahu-during-
inauguration-Nukes-greatest-threat/ 18

CNN News, World: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel


Timeline and Article published by CNN International.
Visited: Septembre 1st, 2009 Available at:
http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/07/14/israel.lebanon.time
line/

Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Egyptian Arab Relations


Official Briefing published by the EMFA
Dated: April 2, 2009 Visited: September 1st, 2009 Available at:
http://www.mfa.gov.eg/MFA_Portal/en-
GB/Foreign_Policy/International_Relations/Egyptian+Arab+Relati
ons/242009EgyptNewIsraeliGovernment.htm

Egyptian State Information Service:


Egypt and Palestinian Question
Official Briefing published by the Government of Egypt
Visited: September 1st, 2009 Available at:
http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/Politics/Foreign/issues/PIssue/04030803
0000000001.htm

Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs:


Iran: Statements by Israeli leaders – Dec. 2008
Official Transcripts Published by the Israeli MFA
Visited: September 1st, 2009 Dated: Dec. 18, 2008 Available at:
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/The+Iranian+Threat/Statements+by+Is
raeli+leaders/Iran_Statements_Israeli_leaders-December_2008

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Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Israel’s War of Independence


Official Briefing published by the Israeli Min. of Foreign Affairs
Visited: September 1st, 2009 Available at:
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Modern+History/Israel+wars/I
sraels+War+of+Independence+-+1947+-+1949.htm

Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: The Balfour Declaration


Letter/Declaration published Verbatim by The Israeli Ministry of
Foreign Affairs
Visited: September 1st, 2009 Available at:
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace
+Process/The+Balfour+Declaration.htm

Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Hamas exploitation of civilians


as human shields: Photographic Evidence
Article written and published by The Israeli Ministry of Foreign
Affairs
Visited: April 1st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009
Available at: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-
+Obstacle+to+Peace/Hamas+war+against+Israel/Hamas+exploita
tion+of+civilians+as+human+shields+-
+Photographic+evidence.htm

The Times: Israel Claims Sinai Gains: Whole Edition


Newspaper Ed. Dedicated to the Outbreak of the Six Day War.
Edition: June 6th , 1967 Visited: August 31st, 2009 Available at:
http://timesnews.typepad.com/news/files/SixDayWar1.pdf

Levine, Mark: Tragedy of Israel and Palestine : Aljazeera.net


‘online edition’
Article published by Al Jazeera News Networks.
Visited: March 31st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009 Available at:
http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2008/03/200852517
2731357923.html

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United Nations:
History of the Palestine Problem. ‘online edition’
Article sponsored and published by the United Nations.
Visited: March 31st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009 Available at:
http://www.un.org/Depts/dpa/ngo/history.html

United Nations:
UN General Assembly: The Fourth Committee
Background Information published by the United Nations.
Visited: April 10th, 2009
Available at: http://www.un.org/ga/about/background.shtml
And: http://www.un.org/ga/fourth/index.shtml

Washington Post:
We Do Not Wish to Throw Them Into the Sea
Article written and published by The Washington Post Company
Visited: April 1st, 2009 Revised: April 4th, 2009 Available at:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
dyn/content/article/2006/02/24/AR2006022402317_pf.html

Yale School of Law: Avalon Project – The Palestine Mandate


Verbatim Text published by The Yale School of Law
Visited: September 1st, 2009 Available at:
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/palmanda.asp

Yale School of Law: Avalon Project – UN GA Resolution 181


Verbatim Text published by The Yale School of Law
Visited: September 1st, 2009 Available at:
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/res181.htm

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Online Etymology Dictionary:


Palestine
Dictionary Entry.
Visited: August 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Palestine

Catholic Encyclopedia:
Philistines.
Briefing by Prestigious Religious Institution.
Visited: August 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12021c.htm

A&E Networks’ History.com:


Palestine.
Briefing on the website of Reliable American Broadcasting Corp.
Visited: August 28th, 2009 Available at:
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12021c.htm

 
 

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