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# 1.

## Deduce the relationship betw voltage and current in a MOSFET at

different regions of operation.

## 2. Explain the operation of a CMOS inverter ,showing different

regions of operation.

inverters.

## 4. Differentiate among pass transistor, transmission gate and

gate(restoring ) logic.

them briefly.

## 6. Explain with neat diagrams, the following second order effects in

MOSFET. a) Body Effect. B)Channel-length modulation.

## 7. Derive a complete low frequency model for a MOSFET. What are

the various components of parasitic capacitances that show up at
high frequencies? Show them in the model derived.

## 8. What is a structured CMOS design? What are its advantages?

Explain the steps in this with an example.

## 9. Give the detailed design of a CMOS D flip-flop. Using this how do

you design a 4-bit asynchronous binary counter? explain.

## 10. Give the detailed design of a CMOS D flip-flop. Using multiplexers

and this D flip-flop how do you design a 4-bit synchronous binary
counter? Explain its working.

11. Design a fully complementary single bit full adder using minimum
number of transistors. Using this adder , explain how do you

12. Design a CMOS single bit full adder. Using this adder ,explain how
do you construct a magnitude comparator circuit.

14. Design a 4:1 multiplexer

## Assess the efficiency of each implementation by counting the total

number of switches used in each implementation. Which is more
efficient? Why?

## a) Fall time b) rise time c) delay time

16. What are the 3 types of switch –level RC delay models developed to
estimate the delays of logic gates? Explain riefly with example.

## 17. Design a CMOS circuit for the Boolean expression F=((A.B+C)D.E)’

with equal rise time(tr) and fall time(tf).

18. Design a CMOS inverter for which the inverter threshold is half the
Vdd and have equal rise time(tr) and fall time(tf).

## 19. What are the various components of CMOS power dissipation?

Deduce expressions for each of these components.

## 20. a) What are design rules? Compare lambda-based and micron

based design rules.

layout? Explain

## 21. A) What are the various ways of constructing large inverters?

Explain with the help of physical layouts.

22. How do you automate the complex logic gates layout? Explain this
algorithm, with examples, which uses Euler path.

23. a) Explain with an example, dynamic CMOS logic. What are the
advantages and drawbacks of a simple dynamic CMOS logic?

## b)What is Zipper CMOS logic? Explain with neat diagrams.

24. a) Explain briefly, the CMOS domino logic with an example. How
can this be converted into a static one?

## 1. With relevant sketches explain the different stages of

manufacturing.
2. Explain CZ method of crystal growth with relevant figures.
3. a) Briefly give the basic structure of Amorphous materials,
Polycrystals and Single crystals.
b) Write short notes on Crystal defects.
4. Explain the possible crystal defects and their effects after the
crystal is grown.
5. With the relevant figures explain the different steps in raw wafer
preparation.
6. Explain N-well process with neat diagrams.
7. Explain P-well process with neat diagrams.
8. Explain twin tub process with neat diagrams.
9. Explain SOI process with neat diagrams.
10. What are the uses of SiO2 layer?
11. Explain the thermal oxidation mechanism.
12.Explain, with a neat diagram, horizontal tube furnace system and
its various sections used in thermal oxidation method.
14.Explain the concept of holes and islands in patterning. What are
the basic photoresist components and their roles in the process?
15.Describe the various photoresist performance factors.
16.Compare positive and negative photoresists.
17. Explain various surface preparation steps in pattering process.
18.What are the different ways of photoresist dispensing?
19.Write short notes on a) Soft bake and b) Exposure sources.
20. Write a note on: a) Spray development and b) Puddle
development
21.Write notes on a) Development inspection and b) Hard bake
process.
22. Explain the deposition process steps.
23. Explain the concept of diffusion. Write a note on dopant
sources.
24. Explain drive-in oxidation and oxidation effects
25. Compare thermal diffusion and ion implantation. Explain
annealing and channeling in ion implantation.
26. Explain an ion implantation setup with the relevant
diagrams.