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A

Seminar
on
“MIMO OFDM ”
“MIMO-OFDM
Presented by
Mr Arjun Nichal
Mr.Arjun
Contents
¾ Requirements of wireless world

¾ FDM(Frequency Division Multiplexing)

¾ OFDM(O th
OFDM(Orthogonal
l FFrequency Di
Division
ii M Multiplexing)
lti l i )

¾ MIMO(Multiple Input Multiple Output)

¾ Combined model of MIMO-OFDM

¾ Applications

¾ Conclusion
Requirements of wireless world
¾ Data rate
100 Mb/s for moving client
1 Gb/s for fixed client

¾ Spectrally efficient

¾ High quality of service

¾ System implementation cost should be less


FDM(Frequency Division Multiplexing)

Fig Frequency division multiplexing


Fig.

¾ Each signal is modulated to a different carrier frequency

¾ Carrier frequencies separated so signals do not overlap (guard bands)


Drawbacks of FDM

Fig. FDM Spectrum

¾ Guard band reduces the spectrum efficiency

¾ Intersymbol Interference
Why OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing)?

¾ Spectrally efficient & offers high data rate

¾ Capable to remove the interference.

¾ Filter used for separating the subcarrier conveniently implemented

¾ Solves the multipath-propagation problem


OFDM
¾ Multi-carrier modulations that use orthogonal waveform
f modulating
for d l i the h sub-carriers
b i are called
ll d orthogonal
h l
frequency division multiplex (OFDM) schemes

¾ A form of Multicarrier Modulation.

¾ Different symbols are transmitted over different


subcarriers

¾ Spectra overlap, but signals are orthogonal.


OFDM Spectrum

Fig. FDM Vs OFDM Spectrum


OFDM Transreceiver model

Fig. OFDM Transreceiver model


ICI(Inter--Carrier Interference)
ICI(Inter
¾ ICI caused due to loss in orthogonality

Fig. Cyclic prefix

¾ Cyclic prefix is a copy of the last part of the OFDM symbol

¾ Used to maintain the receiver carrier synchronization


Advantages of OFDM
¾ Efficiently Deals With Multi-path Fading

¾ Solves the ISI problem

¾ Enhanced Channel Capacity

¾ Better synchronization at transmitter and receiver

¾ Robustness to Narrowband Interference


Disadvantages of OFDM
¾ More complex than single
single-carrier
carrier modulation

¾ High sensitivity inter


inter-channel
channel interference,
interference ICI

¾ OFDM is sensitive to frequency,


frequency clock and phase
offset
MIMO

Fig. Simple MIMO system

¾ Use multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas for a


single user
¾ Now this system promises enormous data rates!
MIMO
¾ Spatial multiplexing MIMO

DSP R di
Radio R di
Radio D
Bit S Bit
Bits Bits
Split Merge
DSP Radio Radio p
TX RX

Fig. Spatially multiplexing MIMO

¾ Multiple
p independent
p link between Transmitter & Receiver
¾ There are cross path between antenna
MIMO system model for two Transmit
& Receive
R antenna

h11
User data stream h12 User data stream

h21

h22
s1 y1

s2 y2

Transmitted vector ‘s’ Received vector ‘y’

y = Hs + n

h11 h12
Where H =
h21 h22
Advantages of MIMO
¾ High data rate 1Gbps

¾ At the same time, they provide reliable communications

¾ High SNRs.

¾ Higher data rate in fading zone

¾ Provides high bandwidth.


MIMO--OFDM combined model
MIMO

T1

T2

Wireless channel

R1

R2

Fig. OFDM-MIMO combined model


MIMO--OFDM Block outputs
MIMO
x (n ) = IDFT {X (k )}
1. Input to Time Domain
n = 0 ,1, 2 ,..., N − 1

⎧x(N+n), n =−Ng,−Ng +1,...,−1


2. Guard Interval xf (n) =⎨
⎩x(n), n =0,1,...,N−1

3. Channel y f = x f (n) ⊗h(n) + w(n)

4. Guard Removal y(n) = yf (n) n=0,1,...,N−1

5 Output to Frequency
5.
Y (k ) = DFT {y (n )}
Domain k = 0 ,1, 2 ,..., N − 1
Y (k ) = X (k )H (k ) + I (k ) +W(k )
6 Output
6.
k = 0,1,...,N −1
Y(k)
7. Channel Estimation Xe(k) = k =0,1,...,N−1
He(k)
Applications of MIMO
MIMO--OFDM
¾ MIMO-OFDM radar for direction estimation

Orthogonal waveforms
Fig. MIMO-OFDM Radar
Applications of MIMO
MIMO--OFDM
¾ Digital Audio and Video Broadcasting

Less multipath distortion

R d d interference
Reduced i f

¾ 4G(Forth Generation)

¾ Wireless LAN
Conclusion
¾ MIMO-OFDM
MIMO OFDM is a efficient wireless system

¾ Efficient use of the available bandwidth since the


subchannels are overlapping

¾ MIMO-OFDM used for highest data rate applications

¾ It provides reliable communication


References
¾ A.A. Kishk & A.W. Glisson “MIMO-OFDM radar for direction estimation”
IET Radar Sonar Navig ,vol. 4, no.1, pp. 28–36,April 2009.

¾ Chih-Hung Lin, Robert Chen-Hao Chang, “Implementation of Channel


Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Systems”, IEEE Transaction on broadcasting,
vol.9, no.1,pp.42-44, 2010.

¾ Jian Xu,
Xu Sang-Jin
Sang Jin Lee,
Lee Woo - Seok Kang & Jong-Soo
Jong Soo Seo,
Seo “Adaptive
Adaptive Resource
Allocation for MIMO-OFDM Based Wireless Multicast Systems”, IEEE
Transactions on broadcasting, vol. 56, no. 1, march 2010.

¾ Textbook by Mischa Schwartz, “Mobile Wireless Communications”, page


no.129-134.

¾ http://www.wikipedia.com
THANK YOU!