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Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation

Chapter-3

Answer to the Short Questions

(a) What is a chemical reaction? Give example of chemical reaction.

Ans.: Chemical reaction : The process which converts one or more substances
into one or more different substances of different composition is generally called
a chemical reaction.

Example : When magnesium burns in a jar full of oxygen the two elements
combine together to form magnesium oxide whose properties are completely
different from those of either magnesium or oxygen.

2Mg + O2 = 2MgO.

(b) Write down differences between physical and chemical changes.

Ans.: Difference between the physical and chemical changes is as follows:

Physical change Chemical change


1.The physical changes are those 1.The chemical changes are those
changes which do not affect the main changes in which substances are
composition of the substances and only changed into a new substances with
the physical condition or state of the different composition and properties
substances are changed

2. Physical change is temporary 2. Chemical change is permanent

3. There is no change in mass of the 3. Because of the change in


Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 32

substance due to physical change in it.


composition of the substance a
substance of different mass is formed.
4. During physical change thermal 4. During chemical change thermal
change may not occur. change must always occur.

(c) What is chemical equation? What are the rules of writing equation?

Ans.: Chemical equation : A chemical equation is a shortened expression of a


chemical reaction where the reactants and the products are represented by
symbols and formulae along with few signs such as plus and equality between
the reactants and the products.

Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
Zinc + sulphuric acid zinc sulphate + hydrogen

Rules of writing equations :

(1) In a chemical equation the formulae or symbols of the reacting substances or


reactants are written on the left hand side of the equality sign (=), and the
symbols or formulae of the products are written on the right hand side of it.

(2) If the reactants or products are more than one, a (+) sign is used in between
their formulae or symbols.

(3) If the number of molecules involved is more than one, that number should be
put before the symbols or formulae of the respective substance.

(4) An arrow sign is written from reactants towards products. Instead of arrow, a
sign of equality (=) may also be written.

(5) The number of atoms of different elements present in the reactants before
chemical reaction must be the same as the number of atoms of different elements
in the products formed after the reaction. So to bring equality in the number of
atoms of the elements in the chemical equation, the symbol and formula must be
multiplied by a requisite number.
General Science : Physics and Chemistry 33

(d) Write down the description of the following chemical reaction with
examples.
(a) Combination (b) Decomposition (c) Displacement (d) Mutual exchange

Ans.: Combination: Combination is a process in which two or more elements or


compounds directly combine with each other to form a compound. But when two
or more elements react with each other to form compound the reaction is called
synthesis.

Example :

(1) NH3 + HCl NH4Cl


Ammonia + Hydrogen chloride ammonium chloride

(2) H2 + O2 H2O
Hydrogen oxygen water

(3) C + O2 CO2
Carbon oxygen carbon dioxide

The above three reactions are combination. But in reaction (2) and (3) two
elements combine together to form a compound; so these two reactions are
synthesis.

Decomposition: Decomposition is a process where a compound is split up or


decomposed into two or more simpler substances element or compound. It is the
opposite reaction of combination. But when a compound is decomposed into two
or more elements the reaction is called analysis.

Example :
(i) CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

(ii) 2H2O 2H2 + O2


Water hydrogen oxygen

(iii) HCl H2 + Cl2


Hydrogen chloride hydrogen chlorine
Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 34

Above three reactions is decomposition. But in reaction (ii) and (iii) one
compound is decomposed to form only elements; so these two reactions are
analysis.

Replacement or displacement: It is a process in which one atom of an element


expels or replaces one or more atoms of another element present in a compound
and takes its place.

Example :
(i) Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
Zinc + sulphuric acid zinc sulphate + hydrogen

In this reaction zinc replaces hydrogen, occupies their position forming zinc
sulphates and sets free H2 molecule.

(ii) Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu


Zinc cupper sulphate zinc sulphate copper

In this reaction zinc displaces copper of copper sulphate forming zinc sulphate
and setting free cupper molecules.

Double decomposition or mutual exchange: It is a process in which molecules


of two different compounds reacts with each other and exchange their
constituents or radicals to produce more than one new compound. It is called the
double decomposition or mutual exchange reaction.

Example :

(i) AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3


Silver nitrate sodium chloride silver chloride sodium nitrate

In this reaction Ag and Na have mutually exchanged their positions and nitrate
and chloride interchange their position.

(e) Write down the type of following reactions :


(i) CaO + CO2 = CaCO3 (ii) Fe + CuSO4 = FeSO4 + Cu
(iii) Na2SO4 + BaCl2 = BaSO4 + 2NaCl (iv) CaCO3 =CaO+ CO2
(v)Na2CO3 + CaCl2 = 2NaCl + CaCO3
(vi)H2SO4 + 2NaOH = Na2SO4 + 2H2O
General Science : Physics and Chemistry 35

Ans.:
(i)CaO + CO2 = CaCO3 ( combination )
(ii) Fe + CuSO4 = FeSO4 + Cu ( replacement )
(iii) Na2SO4 + BaCl2 = BaSO4 + 2NaCl (double decomposition)
(iv) CaCO3 = CaO + CO2 ( decomposition )
(v)Na2CO3 + CaCl2 = 2NaCl + CaCO3 (double decomposition)
(vi)H2SO4 + 2NaOH = Na2SO4 + 2H2O ( neutralization ).

(f) Complete the following reactions and balance them :


N2 + H2 =
MgO + HCl =
CaCO3 + HCl =
Na2CO3 + CaCl2 =
FeCl3 + H2 O =
NH4OH + HCl =

Ans.:
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
MgO + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2O
CaCO3 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
Na2CO3 + CaCl2 = 2NaCl + CaCO3
FeCl3 + 3H2O = Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl
NH4OH + HCl = NH4Cl + H2O

Answer to the Essay Type Questions

(a) What are physical and chemical changes? Name five physical and five
chemical changes.

Ans.: Definition of physical change : Physical changes are those changes which
do not affect the main composition of the substance and only the physical
condition or state of the substance is changed.

Five physical changes are as follows:


1. Magnetizing the iron piece into a magnet of iron
2. Sugar solution (dissolving the sugar into water), salt solution (dissolving the
salt into water) and solution of blue vitriol etc.
Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 36

3. Converting the solid wax into molten wax, switching on the electric bulb.
4. Converting ice into water and water into vapour or like wise converting vapour
into water and water into ice.

Heat Heat
Ice water steam
Cool Cool

5. Converting the iron into red hot iron by heating or like wise converting the red
hot iron into its original position.

Heat
Iron Red hot iron
Cool

Definition of chemical change : The chemical changes are those changes in


which a substance is changed into a new substance or substances with different
composition and properties.

Examples of five chemical changes :


(i) Rusting of iron,
(ii) Conducting electricity through the water or hydrochloric acid solution.

2H2O 2H2 + O2
or, 2HCl H2 + Cl2

(ii) Combustion of magnesium and carbon by oxygen

2Mg + O2 2MgO
or, C + O2 CO2

(iv) Combustion of kerosene

(v) Metal + acid salt + hydrogen


Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2 .
General Science : Physics and Chemistry 37

(b) What is a chemical reaction? Write down the causes of chemical


reaction?

Ans.: Chemical reaction : The process which converts one or more substances
into one or more different substances of different composition is generally called
a chemical reaction. Completely new substances are produced in the chemical
changes by the rearrangement of atoms and molecules. As a result the previous
substances can not be obtained after a chemical reaction.

Cause of chemical reaction: There are two causes of a chemical reaction. These
are
(i) Chemical affinity and (ii) Appropriate environment.

(i) Chemical affinity: The strong attraction which exists between the reactants
for reacting in a chemical reaction is called chemical affinity. Chemical affinity
should be there between the reactants when a chemical reaction takes place.

(ii) Appropriate environment: The causes which affect chemical reactions are
temperature, pressure, electric current, contact of acid, presence of light etc. The
following are some of the examples of chemical reactions and chemical changes:

2Mg + O2 ∆ 2MgO
Magnesium oxygen heat magnesium oxide

2H2O Electric current 2H2 + O2


Acidified water hydrogen oxygen

Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
Zinc sulphuric acid zinc sulphate hydrogen

CaCO3 + HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O


Calcium hydrochloric calcium carbon water
carbonate acid chloride dioxide

If hydrogen and oxygen gas is mixed together in a flask and kept them years
together water is not likely to be formed. But if electric current is passed through
the mixture, water will be formed immediately.
Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 38

(c) Describe the different types of chemical reaction?

Ans.: Different types of chemical reactions :


(1)Combination: Combination is a process in which two or more elements or
compounds directly combine with each other to form a compound. But when two
or more elements react with each other to form compound the reaction is called
synthesis.
Example :
(1)NH3 + HCl NH4Cl
Ammonia + Hydrogen chloride ammonium chloride

(2) 2H2 + O2 2H2O


Hydrogen oxygen water

(3) C + O2 CO2
Carbon oxygen carbon dioxide

The above three reactions are combination. But in reaction (2) and (3) two
elements combine together to form a compound; so these two reactions are
synthesis.

(2) Decomposition: Decomposition is a process where a compound is split up or


decomposed into two or more simpler substances element or compound. It is the
opposite reaction of combination. But when a compound is decomposed into two
or more elements the reaction is called analysis.
Example :

(i) CaCO3 CaO + CO2


Calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

(ii) 2H2O 2H2 + O2


Water hydrogen oxygen

(iii) HCl H2 + Cl2


Hydrogen chloride hydrogen chlorine

Above three reactions are decomposition. But in reaction (ii)and (iii) one
compound is decomposed to form only elements; so these two reactions are
analysis.
General Science : Physics and Chemistry 39

(3) Replacement or displacement: It is a process in which one atom of an


element expels or replaces one or more atoms of another element present in a
compound and takes its place.

Example :

(i) Zn+ H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2


Zinc + sulphuric acid zinc sulphate + hydrogen

In this reaction zinc replaces hydrogen, occupies their position forming zinc
sulphate and sets free H2 molecule.

(ii) Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu


Zinc + cupper sulphate zinc sulphate + copper

In this reaction zinc displaces copper of copper sulphate forming zinc sulphate
and setting free cupper molecules.

(4) Double decomposition or mutual exchange: It is a process in which


molecules of two different compounds reacts with each other and exchange their
constituents or radicals to produce more than one new compounds. It is called the
double decomposition or mutual exchange reaction.

Example :
(i) AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3
Silver nitrate sodium chloride silver chloride sodium nitrate

In this reaction Ag and Na have mutually exchanged their positions and nitrate
and chloride interchange their position.

(5) Neutralization : A chemical reaction, where an acid and a base combine


together to form salt and water, is called neutralization reaction.

Example : Hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride react together to form


magnesium chloride salt and water. So it is neutralization.

2HCl + MgO MgCl2 + H2O


Hydrochloric magnesium magnesium water
Acid oxide chloride
Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 40

(6) Combustion : When a substance is burnt in presence of oxygen or air to


produce a different compound the process is called burning or combustion.

Example :
Carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide
C + O2 CO2

Here, carbon is burnt in the presence of air or oxygen and produces carbon
dioxide which is completely different substance than the reactants.

(d)What is meant by chemical affinity?

Ans.: Chemical affinity : Chemical affinity can be defined as the affinity for
which atoms of one or more than one elements or compounds are rearranged and
formed different elements or compounds. This affinity depends on the structure
of the atoms of reacting substances. Chemical affinity is influenced by some
factors. These are temperature, pressure, electric current etc.

Example : If hydrogen is burnt with oxygen of air, it reacts together to form


water. The affinity of hydrogen and oxygen to combine together is called
chemical affinity. The compound is formed by this chemical affinity.

Reaction : 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O

(e) Describe the use of valency in writing formula of element and compound.

Ans.: Suppose an element A combines with another element B to form a


compound. Suppose also the valency of A is x and the valency of B is y .
Now at the time of forming compound of A with B the number of valency of A
is to be written just below the right side of B, for example (Bx); like wise the
number of valency of B is to be written just below the right side of A like (Ay).

Example :
1. Valency of sodium = 1 and valency of chlorine = 1.
So the formula of sodium chloride (formed by the combination sodium and
chlorine) is Na1Cl1or NaCl.

2. Valency of hydrogen = 1 and valency of oxygen = 2


So the formiula of water is H2O.
General Science : Physics and Chemistry 41

3. Valency of nitrogen = 3 and valency of hydrogen = 1


So the formula of ammonia (formed by the combination of nitrogen and
hydrogen) is N1H3 or NH3.

Some examples of the formula of molecules are given below according to the
valency of the elements.

Up valency Valency Formula Equality Name of


down written on the of of the
symbol opposite molecules valency compound
corner(diagonal formed
valency)
1 1 1 1 Hydrogen
H Cl H Cl HCl 1=1 chloride

2 2 2 2 Mg2 O2 or Magnesium
Mg O Mg O MgO 2=2 oxide

1 2 1 2 H2 O1 or Water
H O H O H2O 2=2

3 1 3 1 N1 H3 or 3=3 Ammonia
N H N H NH3

(f) Classify the following changes into physical and chemical changes
(i) Combustion of wax (ii) Rusting (iii) preparation of powder of milk (iv)
Formation of film on lime water (v) Combustion of kerosene lamp (vi)
Melting of Iron (vii) Magnetization of Iron (viii) Preparation of sulphate
solution (ix) Mixing water with calcium oxide (x) Preparation of sugar
solution (xi) burning of magnesium ribbon.

Ans.:
Physical change Chemical change
(i) Combustion of wax (ii) Rusting
(iii) Preparation of powder milk (iv)Formation of film on lime water
(vi) Melting of Iron (v)Combustion of kerosene lamp
(vii) Magnetization of Iron (viii) Preparation of sulphate solution
Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 42

(x) Preparation of sugar solution (xi) Burning of magnesium ribbon


(ix) Mixing water with calcium oxide

Answer to the Extra Questions

1. What are the differences between combination and synthesis reaction?

Ans.: The differences between combination and synthesis reaction are as


follows:
Combination reaction Synthesis reaction
(1) The reaction in which a compound (1)The reaction in which a compound
is produced from its constituent is produced from its constituent
substances through direct combination elements through direct combination is
is called combination reaction. For called synthesis. For example –
example – 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O 2H2 + N2 = 2NH3
3H2 + N2 = 2NH3
CaO + CO2= CaCO3
(2) All combination reactions are not (2) All synthesis reactions are
synthesis reaction. combination reaction.

2. Write down the names of reactions and the causes of for the names :
(i) NaCl + AgNO3 = NaNO3 + AgCl
(ii) HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O
(iii) 2KClO3 + heat = 2KCl + 3O2
(iv) Zn + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + H2
(v) AlCl3 + 3H2O = Al(OH) 3 + 3HCl
(vi) CaO + CO2 = CaCO3
(vi) CaO + CO2 = CaCO3
(vii) NH4CNO + heat = H2N – CO – NH2

Ans.:
(i) NaCl + AgNO3 = NaNO3 + AgCl : It is a double
decomposition reaction; because here reactants are decomposed and exchanged
the Cl and NO3 radical with each other and form two different compounds
NaNO3 and AgCl.
General Science : Physics and Chemistry 43

(ii) HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O : It is a


neutralization reaction, because in this case, acid (HCl) and base (NaOH) reacts
together to form salt (NaCl) and water.

(iii) 2KClO3 + heat = 2KCl + 3O2;


It is a decomposition reaction, because here, reactant is decomposed to produce
KCl and O2 by the application of heat.

(iv) Zn + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + H2 ;


It is a replacement reaction. Because here zinc replaces hydrogen from sulphuric
and produces hydrogen gas.

(v) AlCl3 + 3H2O = Al(OH) 3 + 3HCl ;


It is a hydrolysis reaction. Because water reacts with alluminium chloride and
produces Al(OH) 3 and HCl.

(vi) CaO + CO2 = CaCO3


It is a combination reaction. Because the compound CaCO3 is produced from the
direct combination of its constituent compounds CaO and CO2.

(vii) NH4CNO + heat = H2N – CO – NH2


It is an isomerization reaction, because here reactant and product both are
isomers to each other.

3. Write down the main characteristics of chemical reaction.

Ans.: Characteristics of chemical reaction:

1. The properties of the products formed in a chemical reaction are different from
those of the reactants.
2. There is always absorption or emission of heat.
3. The total mass of the reactants and the total mass of the products are equal.
Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 44

Answer to the Objective Questions

1.Multiple Choice Questions :


Tick (√) Correct Answer.

1. What is the valency of Nitrogen in N2O3 compound?


(a) 2 √ (b) 3
(c) 4 (d) 6
2. What is the total number of atoms in one molecule of H2SO4?
(a) 2 (b) 5
√ (c) 7 (d) 8
3. What is the valency of Iron in Fe2O3?
(a) 2 √ (b) 3
(c) 4 (d) 6
4. Which one is the correct formula of Ferrous Sulphate?
(a) Fe2 (SO4) 3 (b) Fe2 (SO4)2
√ (c) FeSO4 (d) Fe2SO4
5. What is the difference between SO2 and SO4?
(a) SO2 is an element and SO4 is a compound?
(b) SO2 and SO4 both are compound
√ (c) SO2 is a compound and SO4 is radical
(d) SO2 and SO4 both are element.
6. Zn + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + H2; what is the type of this reaction?
(a) Mutual exchange (b) Combination
(c) Analysis √ (d) Displacement
7. What is the difference between 2O and O2?
√ (a) 2O means two atoms of Oxygen and O2 means is a molecule of
Oxygen.
(b) 2O means two molecule Oxygen and O2 means two molecules of
Oxygen.
(c) 2O is an element and O2 is compound.
(d) There is no difference between 2O and O2.

2. Fill in the blanks :


General Science : Physics and Chemistry 45

(a) H2 + ………… = 2HCl


(b) …..Ca + O2 = …CaO
(c) MgO + 2HCl = ………+ H2O
(d) Zn + H2SO4 = ……….+ H2
(e) CaO + …….. = ………..+ CaCl2
(f) The substance taking part in the reaction is ………….and the substance
obtained after the reaction is called ……………
(g) In chemical reaction ………..molecules of reactant takes place.
(h) The reaction between carbon and oxygen is called …………….
(i) The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen forming water is
called………….
(j) The number of atoms in reactants and products in chemical reaction
remain ……………

Ans.: (a) Cl2; (b) 2, 2; (c) MgCl2; (d) ZnSO4


(e) 2HCl, H2O; (f) reactant, product; (g) rearrangement of
(h) Combustion; (i) synthesis reaction; (j) always equal or unchangeable

3. Match left side sentence with that on right side.

Left Right
a. In the equation of chemical a. mutual exchange.
reaction the substance in the
right side is called product and
b. The number of atoms in b. One compound molecule is
reactants and products changed into different molecules
of different substances.
c. In decomposition reactions c. combination
d. Chemical combination d. substance on left hand side is
between two reactants is called called reactant
e. when there is no change in the e. physical change
fundamental structure or
composition of the substances
the change is called
f. AgNO3 + NaCl = AgCl + f. H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl
NaNO3
g. In synthesis a compound is g. remain always equal
Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation 46

formed by direct union of two


element; for example
h. chemical change.
Ans.: a. In the equation of chemical reaction the substance in the right side is
called product and substance on left hand side is called reactant.
b. The number of atoms in reactants and products remain always equal.
c. In decomposition reactions one compound molecule is changed into
different molecules of different substances.
d. Chemical combination between two reactants is called combination.
e. When there is no change in the fundamental structure or composition of the
substances the change is called physical change.
f. AgNO3 + NaCl = AgCl + NaNO3 mutual exchange.
g. In synthesis a compound is formed by direct union of two elements; for
example H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl.