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Personality Topics List

Objective........................................................................................................................................................2
EIGHT BASIC BEHAVIOR PATTERNS....................................................................................................4
TEMPERAMENTS AND TIME...................................................................................................................8
STRESS MANAGEMENT............................................................................................................................9
TRUTHS ABOUT PEOPLE........................................................................................................................10
FUN ACTIVITY..........................................................................................................................................11
APPENDIX 1
MYERS-BRIGGS INVENTORY................................................................................................................13
APPENDIX 2
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
SURVEY......................................................................................................................................................24

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
Personality & Learning Skills

Objective
Upon completion of this module, you should
understand:

• The role-played by personality in both styles of


learning and styles of training.

• The eight basic behavior patterns.

• Stress management for the eight preferences.

• How to shift your awareness level out of


yourself and into others and to understand the
motives for their behavior using the Myers-
Briggs Typology Inventory.

• Different conflict management styles.

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PERSONALITY AND
LEARNING
WHERE DO YOU BELONG?

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EIGHT BASIC
BEHAVIOR PATTERNS

We all generate the energy required to participate in


our world, gather information about that world, and
make decisions about the information we gather and
then take action based on our decisions. However,
we all do these things in different ways.
Carl Jung laid the groundwork for a method of
personality analysis that Isabel Myers-Briggs later
developed into a full-fledged system. Her system has
been tested and has proved accurate across gender,
culture, educational level, age group, ethnic and
religious group, social status, nationality and more.
It is currently the most widely used system of
personality analysis in the business world.
Jung’s premise was that people manifest their energy
as either introverts or extroverts. They prefer to
interact with their world either through intuition or
their senses, tend either to feel strongly about issues
or use logic to analyze them. They also prefer either
to come to clear-cut decisions or to keep the process
of analysis open-ended.
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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
These four basic drives and two basic modes of each form eight
basic behavior patterns, as the chart below indicates:

GENERATING GATHERING
ENERGY INFORMATION
EXTROVERTS: gain SENSORS: learn through
energy from face to face practical, hands-on
interaction with people, experience; prefer
activities, thinking out details, facts, logical
loud; like to know what’s sequence, guidelines and
going on; open and rules; realistic,
expressive body straightforward.
language
INTROVERTS: gain INTUITIVES: seek
energy from being alone meaning of experiences
or with close friends, and relationship between
relating one on one; tend concepts; inventive,
to reflect on things original, enterprising,
before speaking; subtle independent; prefer big
and reserved body picture approach.
language.

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TAKING ACTION MAKING DECISIONS
JUDGERS: like to bring THINKERS: make
things to a conclusion, decisions in a logical,
making things happen, analytical way; objective
may even take action for and detached,
others; plan their work impersonal; want to
and live by the plan; like know goals and
schedules, goals, objectives first, analyze
objectives, follow- possible problems.
through; don’t like
changes
PERCEIVERS: prefer to FEELERS: concerned
“wait and see,” postpone with impact of decisions
making decisions; on people; rely on
flexible, able to handle personal experience,
changes; adapts to an human element, tact,
unplanned course, friendly persuasion.
incorporates new
information constantly;
receptive, adaptable,
work best with autonomy
and openness.

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
Testing indicates that these behavior patterns are
unevenly distributed across the population. For
example, while the thinking/feeling and
judging/perceiving polarities are evenly divided,
75% of the population tends toward extroversion and
sensing, while only 25% tend toward introversion
and intuition.

The percentage of the population of each of the


sixteen basic personality types that result from fully
cross-referencing both modes of each drive differs
widely, as is indicated in the charts on the following
pages, which outline the major characteristics of
each personality profile.

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
TEMPERAMENTS AND TIME
Because the sensory mode of data-gathering is so fact-oriented, it is
usually paired with the mode of taking action. Because the intuitive
mode of data-gathering is so concept-oriented, it is usually paired with
the mode of making decisions (evaluating).

ASSETS LIABILITIES
SENSING - JUDGERS
♦ Good at time management ♦ Rigid about schedules
♦ Most down-to earth ♦ Hooked on responsibility
♦ Most realistic ♦ Can’t relax
♦ Able to throw things out ♦ Hates to wait for others

 SENSING - PERCEIVERS
♦ Meets immediate needs of a ♦ Efforts get scattered
situation ♦ Change directions often
♦ Flexible and pliable ♦ “There’s always tomorrow”
♦ Handles emergencies well ♦ Bowled over by the moment
♦ Adapts to scheduled changes

INTUITIVE - FEELERS
♦ Sensitive to people ♦ Difficulty saying no
♦ Gives people all the time they need ♦ Feels guilty if they don’t give
♦ Time is oriented toward others’ others time
needs ♦ Neglects own time needs
♦ Time is for finding life’s purpose ♦ Wastes time searching for self

2.INTUITIVE - THINKERS
♦ Time is conceptual, impersonal, ♦ It is enough just to think it
part of a bigger system through without taking action
♦ Time is a tool ♦ Time is in the mind only
♦ People’s needs may suffer

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STRESS
MANAGEMENT
It should come as no surprise that each personality preference also
reacts to stress differently, and can learn to handle stress more
effectively using different techniques.
WHEN STRESSED, THEY NEED TO EXPAND & DEVELOP, THEY
SHOULD:
E A chance to express, the opportunity to Try taking notes or writing in a journal;
talk and share spend concentrated reflection time
I A chance to write, reflect, and meditate Try an extemporaneous discussion or
sharing of something personal
S The specifics spelled out carefully and a Try fantasizing to music or imagining and
good experiential event discussing the unknown
N A chance to add to the design with their Try experiencing the world of the senses;
own imagination and an opportunity to doing some detailed assignment, even
connect the learning to their own things like proofreading or bookkeeping
experience
T An opportunity to analyze the situation, Try experiencing powerlessness or lack of
to confront things and challenge them; control; exploring the world of nonverbal
often they like a win/lose reward communication
F Affirmations and positive rewards, a Try learning for the sake of the idea itself,
happy learning climate; seeing the value with no other use or reward; doing some
of what is being learned for themselves objective analysis and sticking to a
and others conclusion, even if it is against their
personal values
J An agenda, a schedule, a plan, Try having no agenda for some part of the
handouts, and charts, like this one course, just winging it an not following the
schedule now and then to see if something
positive can result
P Room to move, to know that there are Try contemplating some of the material on
rewards even if assignments aren’t time and without changing it; not
completed or deadlines are missed; the wandering down extraneous paths
opportunity for self-pacing and self-
determination
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TRUTHS ABOUT PEOPLE

• People want to feel good about themselves and


their careers

• People want to feel good about others and how


they interact with others.

• People think and experience feelings in


different ways and for different reasons.

• People make the primary contributions to any


task, project or goal.

• People tend to judge other people through their


own frameworks and to see the world only
through their own eyes.

• People are a critical resource.

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
FUN ACTIVITY
Purpose
To practice the skills of self-disclosure and understanding behavior
patterns for different people.

Procedure
Ask participants to work individually.

Distribute the handout and ask participants to complete and write


down their answers to the seven questions on the worksheet (given on
next page).

Allow 15-20 minutes.

Stress that the participants must not write their names on the sheet.
After the time has elapsed, distribute each worksheet so that no
participant receives their own, but they also do not know whose sheet
they have.

Ask participants to guess whose sheet they have, based on the answers
given, and write this name on the top of the page.

Review answers with the group as a whole, discussing both why they
identified a certain individual and perhaps the answers on the sheet
themselves.

Discussion points
What clues were contained in the answers

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WORKSHEET FOR FUN ACTIVITY

1 2
Coat of Arms
4

➲ In section 1, list two things you do very well.


➲ In section 2, write your personal maxim or motto.
➲ In section 3, list what you consider to be your greatest achievement in life.
➲ In section 4, list the three individuals who have influenced you most.
➲ In section 5, list the three things about you that you consider to be most important.
➲ In section 6, list the two major goals you have for the next two years.
➲ In section 7, list the one place you most enjoy being.

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
APPENDIX 1
MYERS-BRIGGS INVENTORY
THE KIERSEY TEMPERAMENT SORTER

1. At a party do you
a. Interact with many, including strangers
b. Interact with a few, known to you

2. Are you more


a. realistic than speculative
b. speculative than realistic

3. Is it worse to
a. have your “head in the clouds”
b. be “in a rut”

4. Are you more impressed by


a. principles
b. emotions

5. Are you more drawn toward the


a. convincing
b. touching

6. do you prefer to work


a. to deadlines
b. just “whenever”

7. Do you tend to choose


a. rather carefully
b. somewhat impulsively

8. At parties do you
a. stay late, with increasing energy
b. leave early, with decreased energy

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
9. Are you more attracted to
a. sensible people
b. imaginative people

10. Are you more interested in


a. what is actual
b. what is possible

11. In judging others are you more swayed by


a. laws than circumstances
b. circumstances than laws

12. In approaching others, is your inclination to be somewhat


a. objective
b. personal

13. Are you more


a. punctual
b. leisurely

14. Does it bother you more having things


a. incomplete
b. complete

15. In your social groups do you


a. keep abreast of other’s happenings
b. get behind on the news

16. In doing ordinary things, are you more like to


a. do it the usual way
b. do it your own way

17. Writers should


a. “say what they mean and mean what they say”
b. express things more by use of analogy

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18. Which appeals to you more
a. consistency of thought
b. harmonious human relationships

19. Are you more comfortable in making


a. logical judgments
b. value judgments

20. Do you want things


a. settled and decided
b. unsettled and undecided

21. Would you say you are more


a. serious and determined
b. easy-going

22. In phoning do you


a. rarely question that it will all be said
b. rehearse what you’ll say

23. Facts
a. “speak for themselves”
b. illustrate principles

24. Are visionaries


a. somewhat annoying
b. rather fascinating

25. Are you more often


a. a cool-headed person
b. a warm-hearted person

26. Is it worse to be
a. unjust
b. merciless

27. Should one usually let events occur


a. by careful selection and choice
b. randomly and by chance

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28. Do you feel better about
a. having purchased
b. having the option to buy

29. In company do you


a. initiate conversation
b. wait to be approached

30. Common sense is


a. rarely questionable
b. frequently questionable

31. Children often do not


a. make themselves useful enough
b. exercise their fantasy enough

32. In making decisions, do you feel more comfortable with


a. standards
b. feelings

33. Are you more


a. firm than gentle
b. gentle than firm

34. Which is more admirable


a. the ability to organize and be methodical
b. the ability to adapt and make do

35. Do you put more value on the


a. definite
b. open-ended

36. Does new and non-routine interaction with others


a. stimulate and energize you
b. tax your reserves

37. Are you more frequently


a. a practical sort of person
b. a fanciful sort of person

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38. Are you more likely to
a. see how others are useful
b. see how others see

39. Which is more satisfying


a. to discuss an issue thoroughly
b. to arrive at agreement on an issue

40. Which rules you more


a. your head
b. your heart

41. Are you more comfortable with work that is


a. contracted
b. done on a casual basis

42. Do you tend to look for


a. the orderly
b. whatever turns up

43. Do you prefer


a. many friends with brief contact
b. fewer friends with more lengthy contact

44. Do you go more by


a. facts
b. principles

45. Are you more interested in


a. production and distribution
b. design and research

46. Which is more of a compliment


a. “there is a very logical person”
b. “there is a very sentimental person”

47. Do you value in yourself more that you are


a. unwavering
b. devoted

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
48. Do you more often prefer the
a. final and unalterable statement
b. tentative and preliminary statement

49. Are you more comfortable


a. after a decision
b. before a decision

50. Do you
a. speak easily and at length with strangers
b. find little to say to strangers

51. Are you more likely to trust your


a. experience
b. hunch

52. Do you feel


a. more practical than ingenious
b. more ingenious than practical

53. Which person is more to be complimented, one of


a. clear reason
b. strong feeling

54. Are you inclined more to be


a. fair-minded
b. sympathetic

55. Is it preferable mostly to


a. make sure things are arranged
b. just let things happen

56. In relationships, should most things be


a. re-negotiable
b. random and circumstantial

57. When the phone rings do you


a. hasten to get to it first
b. hope someone else will answer

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58. Do you prize more in yourself
a. a strong sense of reality
b. a vivid imagination

59. Are you drawn more to


a. fundamentals
b. overtones

60. which seems the greatest error


a. to be too passionate
b. to be too objective

61. Do you see yourself as basically


a. hard-headed
b. soft-hearted

62. Which situation appeals to you more


a. the structured and scheduled
b. the unstructured and unscheduled

63. Are you a person that is more


a. routinized than whimsical
b. whimsical and routinized

64. Are you more inclined to be


a. easy to approach
b. somewhat reserved

65. In writings do you prefer


a. the more literal
b. the more figurative

66. Is it harder for you to


a. identify with others
b. utilize others

67. Which do you wish more for yourself


a. clarity of reason
b. strength of compassion

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68. which is the greater fault
a. being indiscriminate
b. being critical

69. Do you prefer the


a. planned event
b. unplanned event

70. Do you tend to be more


a. deliberate than spontaneous
b. spontaneous than deliberate

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
APPENDIX 2
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
SURVEY
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLE

IF IN A CONFLICT YOU:

♦ act as an adversary ♦ demand personal victory

♦ demand concessions ♦ are hard on people

♦ distrust the other side ♦ dig in during negotiations

♦ want a single answer that will ♦ insist on your position as right


satisfy you

♦ try to win ♦ apply pressure

♦ make threats ♦ won’t reveal the bottom line

YOU HAVE A “WIN/LOSE” CONFLICT STYLE

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IF IN A CONFLICT YOU:

♦ act as a friend ♦ search for agreement

♦ are willing to concede ♦ are soft on people

♦ trust the other side ♦ change positions easily

♦ accept one-sided losses for the ♦ are willing to search for an


sake of harmony answer others will accept

♦ insist on agreement ♦ try to avoid a contest

♦ make premature offers ♦ disclose your bottom line

YOU HAVE A “YIELD/LOSE CONFLICT STYLE

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
IF IN A CONFLICT YOU:

♦ know that you have to give and ♦ state your position as a hard-
take liner

♦ disagree with others’ positions ♦ maintain a contest atmosphere

♦ begin to soften your position ♦ start to bargain for equal


concessions

♦ are willing to trade or add items ♦ reluctantly accept some of their


to reach agreement points

♦ are both soft and hard on people ♦ leave the negotiations with a
mixture of items

♦ feel half satisfied and half ♦ are glad that the contest is over
frustrated

YOU HAVE A “COMPROMISE” CONFLICT STYLE

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
IF IN A CONFLICT YOU:

♦ wish you could run away ♦ dismiss the issues

♦ are indirect in your responses ♦ remain silent when pressure is


applied

♦ try to change the topic ♦ deny any conflict

♦ psychologically remove yourself ♦ physically remove yourself

♦ give everything away ♦ yield to pressure

♦ are extremely soft on people ♦ develop symptoms like


headaches and stomach pains

YOU HAVE A “LOSE/LEAVE” CONFLICT STYLE

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MT1 Training: Communication Skills
IF IN A CONFLICT YOU:

♦ see yourself as a participant in a ♦ see the outcome as a wise


problem solution

♦ are soft on people ♦ are hard on the problem

♦ recognize emotions are ♦ proceed independent of trust


legitimate

♦ focus on each other’s concerns ♦ validate each other’s concerns

♦ explore each other’s concerns ♦ look for areas of mutual concern

♦ brainstorm for options ♦ develop options to choose from


later

♦ insist on using objective criteria ♦ use reason rather than pressure

♦ yield to principle but not to


pressure

YOU HAVE A “WIN/WIN” CONFLICT STYLE

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