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World Resources Simulation Center

September 22, 2010

City of San Diego’s


Water and Energy Nexus

George J. Adrian, PE
Public Utilities Department
Long-Range Planning & Water Resources Division
Sources of San Diego’s Water
Supply
LAKE
SHASTA
San Diego County
LAKE
imports ~80% of its
OROVILLE
water supply
State Water
Project
(Bay-Delta) Colorado River
30% 50%

Local Supplies
and
Conservation
20% 22
San Diego Water System

1.3 million people

404 Square Miles

Avg. Daily Consumption more than


200 MGD

9 Raw Water Reservoirs

3 Water Treatment Plants

More than 3,000 Miles of Pipelines


27 Distribution
Reservoirs/Standpipes
50 Pump Stations
More than 110 Pressure Zones

33
San Diego Keeps Growing

By 2030 San Diego may need 11% more water


2030: 275,925
acre-feet per year

2007: 248,000
acre-feet per year
Water Supply Portfolio
Recycled
3%
Water Conservation
Local Surface Water 15%
3%

Imported
79%
FY 2010 Actuals Source: City of SD Public Utilities Department 8/16/10
Carbon Footprint by Water
Source
4500
4500
4000
4000
3500
3500
3000
3000
2500
2500
kWh/AF

2000
2000
1500
1500
1000
1000
500
500
0
0

Colorad State Groundwat Recycle Seawat Brackish OCWD


o Water er d er Groundwa Groundwat
River Project Water Desal ter er
Aquedu Desal Replenish 66
ct
Source: Pacific Institute analysis regarding SDCWA data ment
Source of OCWD GW Replenishment: City of San Diego
Project
Adaptation: Local Water
Supplies
Water Conservation
Local Runoff - Reservoirs
Recycled Water
Brackish Groundwater Desalination
Groundwater Conjunctive Use
Seawater Desalination (San Diego Region)
On-site alternatives:
Graywater
Stormwater capture

77
Electricity Demand in State of
California
19% of electricity in California is water related

Agricultural

Residential
3% 5%
3%
3% Commercial
4%
1%
Industrial

Water Supplyand
Treatment
Wastewater Treatment

Balance
81%
GigawattHours(GWH)

Refining Estimates of Water Related Energy Use In California, CEC, December 2006 88
Estimated Energy Intensity of
Water in San Diego County
Relationship of water to energy,
broken down
END USE
30%
WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
WATER
TREATMENT
DISTRIBUTION
5%
1%
SOURCES AND
8% 56%
CONVEYANCE

99
Energy Down the Drain, NRDC, August 2004
Refining Estimates of Water Related
Energy Use In California

Indoor uses Outdoor uses


Northern Southern Northern Southern
California California California California

kWh/MG kWh/MG kWh/MG kWh/MG


Water Supply &
Conveyance 2,117 9,727 2,117 9,727

Water Treatment 111 111 111 111

Water Distribution 1,272 1,272 1,272 1,272


Wastewater
Treatment 1,911 1,911 0 0

Regional Total 5,411 13,022 3,500 11,111

CEC, December 2006


1010
Residential water energy use
Residential Water % Energy for Energy in Distribution, Energy Use %
Use Water Use Heating Treatment, wastewater Total Water-Energy
(kWh/AF) treatment, and Conveyance , (kWh/AF) Use
(kWh/AF)
Toilet 24 0 3,239 3,239 5

Dishwasher 2 36,867 3,239 40,106 5

ClothsWasher 14 36,867 3,239 40,106 34

Shower 21 36,867 3,239 40,106 51

Landscape 40 0 2,424 2,424 5

% Annual Water- 100% 82% 12% 100% 100%


Energy Use

The interaction of water and energy In California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 12, 2008
1111
Interaction of Water and Energy

Click to edit Master text styles Desalinization

Second level Shasta


● Third level

● Fourth level (storage)

● Fifth level

The interaction of water and energy In California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 12, 2008
1212
Visualizing Sustainability

Acceptable Uses for Water


Establishing priorities
●Residential
● Agricultural

● Business

– tourism
● Recreation

Change in User Behavior Patterns


Adjust expectations for uses and quantity of water
to correspond to priorities
Provide feedback, show visual link to water use and
economic health
1313
Challenges to the City

Efficient /effective use of water


Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR)
Recycled water
Stormwater
Rainwater harvesting
Graywater
Changing public perception of water,
its value and real cost
Using less water or using the water
you have more efficiently
Conservation
Alternative landscaping
● Edible gardens…..minimal lawns

1414
What’s at Stake?

Water shortages or rationing


Creation of unsustainable
systems, leading to water
and other shortages for
future generations.
Quality of life
Economy?
Food diversity and security?
Energy brownouts.

1515
Possible Breakthrough’s
Sustainable systems and the relationship between
water and energy and earth systems (greenhouse
gases)
Multiple (hence efficient) use of water for our needs
● Recycled water
– Advanced treated water
● Graywater use
Recovery of water (hence energy) for other uses.
● Rainwater capture
● Re-landscape (contours to capture water) - Stormwater
diversions
Retail market that primarily supports water efficient
plants

1616
Thank You

George J. Adrian , PE
San Diego Public Utilities Department
gadrian@sandiego.gov

1717
San Diego is
Conserving
300000
Reduced Water
Demand

250000
Water Demand in Acre-

Population x
200000

1000
150000
feet

100000

50000

Fiscal
1818
0 Year