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GPS for Environmental Management

ABSTRACT

In the beginning of the 19th century we had the industrial


revolution, in the middle of the 20 th
century we have the digital
revolution, and in the dawn of the 21st century we have the
communication revolution. The major innovation which upturned the
communication revolution is the artificial satellite. Generally
satellites use the latest technology for communication, remote
sensing, weather forecasting and the like.

Global positioning system, usually called GPS are used to


communicate with satellites and with receivers in the different parts
of the world. This seminar aims to throw light into the technical
details, advantages, pitfalls and major application areas of the GPS
systems.

1. Introduction

Many of our decisions depend on the details of our immediate


surroundings, and require information about specific places on the
earth surface. In this regard, recent studies in information
technologies have opened a vast potential in communication,
analysis of spatial and temporary data. Data representing the real
world can be stored and processed so that they can be represented
later in a simplified form to suite specific needs. Such information is
called geographical because it helps us to distinguish one place
from another and to make decisions for one place that are
appropriate for that location. Geographical information allows us to
apply general principles to specific condition of each location, allows
us to track what is happening at any place, and helps us to

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understand how one place differs from another. Spatial information


is essential for effective planning and decision making at regional,
national and global levels

Geographical information in the form of maps , photos taken


from aircrafts and images collected from space borne platforms can
be represented I digital form, this opens an enormous range of
possibilities for communications ,analysis modeling, on accurate
decision making but a degree of approximation .

GIS can be defined as computerized information storage


processing and retrieval system that has hardware software
specially designed to cope with geographically referenced spatial
data
Information includes:
 Techniques to input, sort geographical information,
convert into digital form and store it in digital storage
media

 Methods for automated analysis for geographical data,


to search for patterns, combine different kinds of data,
make measurements find optimum sites or routes,
and a host of other tasks

 Methods to predict the outcomes of various scenarios,


such as the effect of climate change on vegetation

 Techniques for display of data in the form of maps,


images and other kinds of display
 Capabilities for output of result in the form of numbers
and tables

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Elements of GIS
Cartographic display system, spatial and attribute database,
map digitizing system, DBMS, geographic analysis system,
statistical analysis system and decision support system

Components of GIS
• Spatial and attribute database:
Central to the system is database- collection of maps
and associated information in digital form. Since the database is
concerned with earth surface features, it seem to comprise of two
elements- the spatial database describing the geology of earth
surface features, and an attribute database describing
characteristics or quantities of these features

• Cartographic display system:


Surrounding the central database, we have a series of
software components. The most basic of this is the Cartographic
display system. The Cartographic display system allows one to take

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selected elements of the database and produce map output on the


screen or some hard copy device such as printer or plotter
• Map digitizing system:
With the map digitizing system one can take existing
paper maps and convert them into digital form, thus further
developing the data base. In the most common method of digitizing
one attaches the paper map to a digitizing tablet for board and then
places the features of interest with a stylus according to the
procedures required for digitizing. Scanners can also be used
digitize data such as aerial photographs. The result is graphic
image; rather then outlines of features that are created with a
variety of standard graphics file formats for export these files are
imported into GIS. CAD(computer assisted design) and COGO (Co-
ordinate Geometry) are two examples of software systems the
provide the ability to add digitized map information systems to the
database, in addition to providing cartographic display capabilities .

• DBMS:
The next logical component in GIS is database
management system, which is used to input manage and analyze
attribute information along with the spatial data. DBMS aids to
enter attribute data such as tabular information and statistics and
subsequently extract specialized tabulations and statistical
summaries to provide new tabular reports DBMS provide ability to
analyze attribute data. Software that provides cartographic display,
map digitizing and database query capabilities are often referred to
as automated mapping and facilities management AM/FM system

• Geographic analysis system:


Up to this point, we have described a very powerful set
of capabilities that the GIS offer, the ability to digitize spatial data

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and to attach attribute to the features stored; to analyze these data


based on those attribute; and to map to the result.
A traditional DBMS cannot solve this problem because
bedrock type and land use divisions simply do not share the same
geography. Traditional database query is fine as long as we are
taking about attributes belonging to the same features. For this we
need a GIS. In fact, it is this ability to compare different features
based on their common geographic occurrence that is hallmark of
GIS. This analysis is accomplished by the process of overlay, thus
named because it is identical in character to overlaying transparent
maps of the two entity groups on top of one another. Thus the
analytic capabilities of geographic analysis system and the DBMS
play a vital role in extending the database through the addition of
knowledge of relationships between features

• Image processing systems:


In addition to these essential GIS elements remotely
sensed image and specialized statistical analysis are also important

• Statistical analysis system:


GIS incorporates a series of specialized routines for
analyzing the statistical description of spatial data for inferences
drawn from statistical procedures

• Decision support systems (DSS):


It constitutes a vital function of GIS. It helps in the
construction of multi-criteria suitability maps, and address
allocation decisions when there is multiple objectives involved while
accounting for errors in the process. DSS provides a powerful tool in
decision – making for resource allocation

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The Global Positioning System, usually called GPS (the US military


refers to it as NAVSTAR), is an intermediate circular orbit (ICO)
satellite navigation system used for determining one's precise
location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost
anywhere on Earth or in Earth orbit.

The first of 24 satellites that form the current GPS constellation


(Block II) was placed into orbit on February 14, 1989. The 50th GPS
satellite since the beginning in 1978 was launched March 21, 2004
aboard a Delta II rocket

2. GPS HISTORY

The initial concept of GPS began to take form soon after


the launch of Sputnik in 1957. “.... Some scientists and engineers
realized that radio transmissions from a satellite in a well-defined
orbit could indicate the position of a receiver on the ground" This
knowledge resulted in the U.S. Navy's development and use of the
"transit" system in the 1960's. This system, however, proved to be
cumbersome to use and limited in terms of positioning accuracy.

Starting in the mid-1970s the U.S. Department of


Defense (DOD) began the construction of today's GPS and has
funded, operated, and maintained control of the system it
developed. Eventually $12 billion dollars would take GPS from
concept to completion. Full Operational Capacity (FOC) of GPS was
reached on July 17, 1995 (U.S.C.G., 1996, www). At one point GPS
was renamed NAVSTAR. This name, however, seems to be regularly
ignored by system users and others. Although the primary use of
GPS was thought to be for classified military operations, provisions
were made for civilian use of the system. National security reasons,
however, would require that civilian access to accurate positioning
be intentionally degraded.

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3. GPS ELEMENTS
GPS was designed as a system of radio navigation that
utilizes "ranging" -- the measurement of distances to several
satellites -- for determining location on ground, sea, or in the air.
The system basically works by using radio frequencies for the
broadcast of satellite positions and time. With an antenna and
receiver a user can access these radio signals and process the
information contained within to determine the "range", or distance,
to the satellites. Such distances represent the radius of an
imaginary sphere surrounding each satellite. With four or more
known satellite positions the users' processor can determine a
single intersection of these spheres and thus the positions of the
receiver. The system is generally comprised of three segments:

 The space segment


 The control segment
 The user segment

3.1 SPACE SEGMENT


The space segment consists of 24 satellites, each in its own orbit
11,000 nautical miles above the Earth. The user segment consists of
receivers, which you can hold in users’ hands or mount in users’
vehicle. The control segment consists of ground stations located
around the world that make sure the satellites are working properly

3.1.1 Orbit

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The GPS space segment uses a total of 24 satellites in a


constellation of six orbiting planes. This configuration provides for at
least four equally- spaced satellites within each of the six orbital
planes. The orbital path is continuous in relation to the earth,
meaning that a satellite's orbit will follow the same path on the
earth with each orbit. At 10,900nm (20,200km) GPS satellites are
able to complete one orbit around the earth every 12 hours. GPS
satellites orbit at a 55-degree inclination to the equatorial plane.
This space segment configuration provides for a minimum of 5
satellites to be in view from any place on earth, fulfilling the
necessary four needed for three-dimensional positioning.

31.2 Frequencies

The GPS satellite, like other telecommunication satellites, uses radio


signal transmission for distribution of data used in positioning
computations. Each satellite continuously transmits a composite
spread spectrum signal on two L band frequencies. L1 transmits at
1575.42 MHz and L2 transmits at 1227.60MHz. Both carrier
frequencies are phase-modulated with the Precise code (P-code).
The L1 carrier is additionally phase-modulated with the
Coarse/Acquisition-code. A Navigation Message is also modulated
on the L1- C/A-code signal. Each satellite transmits a unique code,
allowing the receiver to identify the different code of each satellite.

31.3 Codes

First observation of these codes would suggest that they are


random. In fact, all GPS codes are Pseudo Random Noise (PRN)
codes by design. With the appropriate receiver one can see that
these codes actually follow a well - defined, predictable sequence.
Receiving equipment is used to find the highest correlation between
a known GPS code and the radio transmission of that code received
by the user. Once a correlation is found the user is able to find the

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lag time between the known time of code broadcast and the time
the code was received by the user. The lag is the time it takes the
code to get from the GPS satellite to the user's receiver. This time
can then be used to determine the distance between the known
satellite position and the user position.

The broadcast of Coarse Acquisition Code (C/A-code) was designed


for civilian applications of the GPS. The C/A-code is available to
virtually anybody at any time, provided they have the right
equipment.

Given the potential for harmful applications of the GPS, the


designers of the system built into the C/A-codes what is known as
selective availability. Selective availability is an intentional
inaccuracy in a satellite's onboard clock that changes over time.
This intentional inaccuracy is known as clock dither and is classified
GPS information. The result of clock dither is essentially a
degradation of navigational accuracy.

The broadcast of Precise-code (P-codes) was designed for military


applications and is generally restricted to authorized personnel and
organizations. The P-code is a 10 MHz PRN code carried on both L1
and L2. For additional security the Anti-Spoofing (A-S) mode can be
engaged.

The Navigation Message is carried on the L1 frequency as 50Hz


signal. This signal carries information concerning the satellite orbit
position, clock corrections and other system parameters. GPS
authorities may also degrade and falsify this information in an effort
to limit civilian access to extremely accurate navigational
techniques.

31.4 Time and pseudo-ranges

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On board each GPS satellite is a highly accurate atomic clock.


"These clocks are by nature very stable (they might gain or lose a
second in 30,000 years)." In order for accurate measurements of
time to happen between the GPS and the user, nearly exact
synchronization is needed between satellite time and user time.
Since the user's receiver is generally an inaccurate timepiece exact
synchronization is not easily available.

Accurate positioning can be achieved, however, by using


pseudo- ranges. A pseudo-range is an inaccurate distance
established between a satellite and a receiver. Despite this
inaccuracy, determining a distance between the receiver and a
known satellite location provides a sphere of reference. The radius
of this sphere of reference is equal to the pseudo-range established
between the GPS satellite and the receiving unit. With four spheres
of reference from four different satellites a user has the spatial
positions needed for three dimensional positioning. The intersection
point of these four spheres will result in an inaccurate location for
the receiver. To gain a more accurate reading the user can adjust
for the initial time inaccuracy by lowering or raising the amount of
time lag originally determined. With time adjustments, additional
computations can result in more accurate distances and thus
greater accuracy in positioning.

3.2. CONTROL SEGMENT

The control or ground segment of the GPS consists of unmanned


monitor stations located around the world(Hawaii and Kwajalein in
the Pacific Ocean; Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean; Ascension
Island in the Atlantic Ocean; and Colorado Springs, Colorado). The

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GPS Master Control Station (MCS) is located on the Falcon Air Force
Base in Colorado. The monitoring stations track any GPS satellites in
view and collect ranging information from the radio broadcast of
each viewable satellite. As information is collected it is sent back to
master control for processing. Master control uses this data to
create a navigation message containing precise orbit positions, time
adjustments, and system parameters. Monitoring stations with
uplink capabilities can then transmit the navigation message back
up to the appropriate GPS satellite. Subsets of this navigation
message are rebroadcast for use by receiving equipment.

3.3 USER SEGMENT

The user segment consists of the appropriate antenna,


receiver, and processor used to gain access to GPS. With this
equipment a user's can receive GPS transmissions and compute
their precise position, velocity, and time. This segment includes a
variety of products used for different applications: marine
navigation, map surveying, tracking vehicles, search and rescue,
and many others.

3.3.1 SPS - Standard Positioning Service

Standard Positioning Service (SPS) is a free service available to


civilian users of GPS. SPS is broadcast from the GPS constellation as
C/A-code on the L1 frequency. It is designed around a limited
standard of position and timing accuracy that is available to

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worldwide users without restrictions. The accuracy (and the


intentional degradation through selective availability) of SPS is
established by the U.S. Department of Defense based on national
security interest. Accuracy of SPS was initially designed to be within
100 horizontal meters. Changes in consumer end receiver-
processing technology, however, have increased the degree of
accuracy that can be achieved with SPS.

3.3.2 PPS - Precise Positioning Service

Because of it's greater accuracy the Precise Positioning


Service (PPS) is available only to U.S. and allied military, some U.S.
Government agencies, and authorized civilian users. Cryptographic
equipment and keys and specially equipped receivers are needed
for use of the PPS. Horizontal accuracy is predictable to 22 meters.

4. TRILATERATION-THE WORKING PRINCIPLE


OF OPERATION

A GPS receiver's job is to locate four or more of these satellites,


figure out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce
its own location. This operation is based on a simple mathematical

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principle called trilateration. Trilateration is based on the fact that a


body cannot occupy two positions in space simultaneously.
Trilateration can be done in two ways

 2-D Trilateration
 3-DTrilateration

4.2. 2-D TRILATERATION

If an object is 625 miles from A it could be anywhere on a circle


around A that has a radius of 625 miles.

And if the object is 690 miles from B and this information is


combined with the former information, we have two circles that
intersect to get the position which results in two positions And with
a third information we can clearly spot the exact position

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This same concept works in three-dimensional Space, as well, but


has spheres instead of circles

4.3. 3-D TRILATERATION

Fundamentally, three-dimensional trilateration isn't much different


from two-dimensional trilateration, but it's a little trickier to
visualize. Imagine the radii from the examples in the last section
going off in all directions. So instead of a series of circles, you get a
series of spheres.

If a person know he is 10 miles from satellite A in the sky, he could


be anywhere on the surface of a huge, imaginary sphere with a 10-
mile radius. If he also knows he is 15 miles from satellite B he can
overlap the first sphere with another, larger sphere. The spheres
intersect in a perfect circle. If he knows the distance to a third
satellite, he gets the third sphere, which intersects with this circle at
two points.

The Earth itself can act as a fourth sphere -- only one of the two
possible points will actually be on the surface of the planet, so you
can eliminate the one in space. Receivers generally look to four or

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more satellites, however, to improve accuracy and provide precise


altitude information.

In order to make this simple calculation, then, the GPS receiver has
to know two things:

• The location of at least three satellites above him


• The distance between he and each of those satellites

The GPS receiver figures both of these things out by analyzing high-
frequency, low-power radio signals from the GPS satellites. Better
units have multiple receivers, so they can pick up signals from
several satellites simultaneously.

Radio waves are electromagnetic energy, which means they


travel at the speed of light (about 186,000 miles per second,
300,000 km per second in a vacuum). The receiver can figure out
how far the signal has traveled by timing how long it took the signal
to arrive.

5 MEASURING DISTANCE

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1. Distance to a satellite is determined by measuring how


long a radio signal takes to reach us from that satellite.

2. To make the measurement we assume that both the


satellite and our receiver are generating the same pseudo-
random codes at exactly the same time.

3. By comparing how late the satellite's pseudo-random


code appears compared to our receiver's code, we
determine how long it took to reach us.

4. Multiply that travel time by the speed of light and you've


got distance.

At a particular time, the satellite begins transmitting a long,


digital pattern called a pseudo-random code. The receiver begins
running the same digital pattern also exactly at midnight. When the
satellite's signal reaches the receiver, its transmission of the pattern
will lag a bit behind the receiver's playing of the pattern.

The length of the delay is equal to the signal's travel time. The
receiver multiplies this time by the speed of light to determine how
far the signal traveled. Assuming the signal traveled in a straight
line, this is the distance from receiver to satellite.

In order to make this measurement, the receiver and satellite


both need clocks that can be synchronized down to the nanosecond.

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To make a satellite positioning system using only synchronized


clocks, you would need to have atomic clocks not only on all the
satellites, but also in the receiver itself. But atomic clocks cost are
too expensive for everyday consumer use.

The Global Positioning System has a clever, effective solution to this


problem. Every satellite contains an expensive atomic clock, but the
receiver itself uses an ordinary quartz clock, which it constantly
resets. In a nutshell, the receiver looks at incoming signals from four
or more satellites and gauges its own inaccuracy.

6. SOURCES OF GPS MEASUREMENT


ERRORS

Ideally, GPS receivers would easily be able to convert the C/A and
P(Y)-code measurements into accurate positions. However, a
system with such complexity leaves many openings for errors to
affect the measurements. The following are several causes of error
in GPS measurements.

6.1. Clocks

Both GPS satellites and receivers are prone to timing errors.


Satellites often possess cesium atomic clocks. Ground stations
throughout the world monitor the satellites to ensure that the
atomic clocks are accurate. Receiver clock error is unknown and
often depends on the oscillator provided within the unit. However, it
can be calculated and then eliminated once the receiver is tracking
at least four satellites.

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6.2 Ionosphere

The ionosphere is one of the leading causes of GPS error. The speed
of light varies due to atmospheric conditions. As a result, errors
greater than 10 meters may arise. To compensate for these errors,
the second frequency band L2 was provided. By comparing the
phase difference between the L1 and L2 signals, the error caused by
the ionosphere can be calculated and eliminated.

6.3 Multi path

The antenna receives not only direct GPS signals, but also multi
path signals: reflections of the radio signals off the ground and/or
surrounding structures (buildings, canyon walls, etc). For long multi
path signals, the receiver itself can filter the signals out. For shorter
multipath signals that result from reflections from the ground,
special antenna features may be used such as a ground plane, or a
choke ring antenna. Shorter multipath signals from ground
reflections can often be very close to the direct signals, and can
greatly reduce precision.

6.4 Selective availability

In the past, the civilian signal was degraded, and a more accurate
Precise Positioning Service was available only to the United States
military, its allies and other, mostly government users. However, on
May 1, 2000, then US President Bill Clinton announced that this
"Selective Availability" would be turned off, and so now all users
enjoy nearly the same level of access, allowing a precision of
position determination of less than 20 meters.

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7.TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE GPS


ACCURACY

Even if there are many problems pertaining to accuracy


due to errors in measurement, the accuracy of GPS can be
improved in a number of ways:

7.1. Differential GPS (DGPS)

DGPS helps correct these errors. The basic idea is to gauge


GPS inaccuracy at a stationary receiver station with a known
location. Since the DGPS hardware at the station already knows its
own position, it can easily calculate its receiver's inaccuracy. The
station then broadcasts a radio signal to all DGPS-equipped
receivers in the area, providing signal correction information for
that area. In general, access to this correction information makes
DGPS receivers much more accurate than ordinary receivers.

Differential correction techniques are used to enhance the quality of


location data gathered using global positioning system (GPS)
receivers. Differential correction can be applied in real-time directly
in the field or when post processing data in the office. Although both
methods are based on the same underlying principles, each
accesses different data sources and achieves different levels of
accuracy. Combining both methods provides flexibility during data
collection and improves data integrity.

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The underlying premise of differential GPS (DGPS) is that any two


receivers that are relatively close together will experience similar
atmospheric errors. DGPS requires that a GPS receiver be set up on
a precisely known location. This GPS receiver is the base or
reference station. The base station receiver calculates its position
based on satellite signals and compares this location to the known
location. The difference is applied to the GPS data recorded by the
second GPS receiver, which is known as the roving receiver. The
corrected information can be applied to data from the roving
receiver in real time in the field using radio signals or through post
processing after data capture using special processing software.

7.2. Exploitation of DGPS for Guidance


Enhancement (EDGE)

EDGE is an effort to integrate DGPS into precision guided


munitions such as the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM).

7.3. The Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

Wide Area Augmentation System is the latest method


of providing better accuracy from the GPS constellation. It is similar
in principle the DGPS capability that is built into all Garmin and
many other units except that a second receiver is not required.
Instead of a beacon receiver the correction data is sent via a geo-
stationary satellite and is decoded by one of the regular channels
already present in the GPS receiver. Thus one of the 12 channels
can be designated to decode regular GPS signals or can be used to
decode the WAAS data. Actually, as currently implemented, when
WAAS is enabled two channels will be dedicated to WAAS. While
WAAS is the name of the implementation of this technology in the
US the system is intended for worldwide use. The generic name for
WAAS is SBAS (Space Based Augmentation System) or WADGPS
(Wide Area Differential GPS).

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The way this works is that a set of ground stations all over the US
collect correction data relative to the area of the country they are
located in. The entire data is then packaged together, analyzed,
converted to a set of correction data by a master station and then
uploaded to the geo-stationary satellite, which in turn transmits the
data down to the local GPS receiver. The GPS receiver then figures
out which data is applicable to its current location and then applies
the appropriate corrections to the receiver. Similar systems are
being set up in other areas of the world but they are not ye In
addition to correction information the ground stations can also
identify a GPS satellite that is not working within specification
thereby improving the integrity of the system for aviation use.

7.4. A Local-Area Augmentation System (LAAS).

This is similar to WAAS, in that similar correction data


are used. But in this case, the correction data are transmitted from
a local source, typically at an airport or another location where
accurate positioning is needed. These correction data are typically
useful for only about a thirty to fifty kilometer radius around the
transmitter.

7.5. Wide Area GPS Enhancement (WAGE)

WAGE is an attempt to improve GPS accuracy by


providing more accurate satellite clock and ephemeris (orbital) data
to specially-equipped receivers.

7.6. Relative Kinematic Positioning (RKP)

RKP is another approach for a precise GPS-based


positioning system. In this approach, accurate determinination of
range signal can be resolved to an accuracy of less than 10
centimeters. This is done by resolving number of cycles in which the

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signal is transmitted and received by the receiver. This can be


accomplished by using a combination of differential GPS (DGPS)
correction data, transmitting GPS signal phase information and
ambiguity resolution techniques via statistical tests - possibly with
processing in real-time (real-time kinematic positioning

8. APPLICATIONS
8.1. Military

Army people were the first to use and they themselves are the
intensive users. Their use is incommensurable

8.1.1. Guidance

The primary military purpose is to allow improved command and


control of forces through an enhanced ability to accurately specify
target locations for cruise missiles or troops. The satellites also
carry nuclear detonation detectors.

For example U.S. Marines used GPS-guided parachutes to carry


supplies to soldiers in an Iraq combat zone for the first time on
August 9.

8.1.2 GPS jamming

A large part of modern munitions, the so-called "smart bombs" or


precision-guided munitions, use GPS. GPS jammers are available,
from Russia, and are about the size of a cigarette box. The U.S.
government believes that such jammers were used occasionally
during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. Some officials believe that

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jammers could be used to attract the precision-guided munitions


towards noncombatant infrastructure; other officials believe that the
jammers are completely ineffective. In either case, the jammers are
attractive targets for anti-radiation missiles

8.2 Air

GPS offers an inexpensive and reliable supplement to existing


navigation techniques for aircraft. Civil aircraft typically fly from one
ground beacon, or waypoint, to another. With GPS, an aircraft's
computers can be programmed to fly a direct route to a destination.
The savings in fuel and time can be significant.

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GPS can simplify and improve the method of guiding planes to a


safe landing, especially in poor weather. With advanced GPS
systems, airplanes can be guided to touchdown even when visibility
is poor. For the private pilot, inexpensive GPS systems provide
position information in a practical, simple, and useful form.

8.2.1. GPS Navigation in the Air

Pilots on long distance flights without GPS rely on


navigational beacons located across the country. Using GPS, aircraft
can fly the most direct routes between airports.

8.2.2. GPS in the Cockpit

Pilots often rely on GPS to navigate to their destinations. A


GPS receiver in the cockpit provides the pilot with accurate position
data and helps him or her keep the airplane on course.

8.3. Sea

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8.3.1 Nautical Chart Error

The data collected from satellite navigation systems provide more


accurate information for maps and nautical and aeronautical charts.
This example demonstrates how charts are updated to prevent
navigational mishaps.

GPS is a powerful tool that can save a ship's navigator hours of


celestial observation and calculation. GPS has improved efficient
routing of vessels and enhanced safety at sea by making it possible
to report a precise position to rescuers when disaster strikes.

GPS improves efficiency on land as well. Delivery trucks can receive


GPS signals and instantly transmit their position to a central

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dispatcher. Police and fire departments can use GPS to dispatch


their vehicles efficiently, reducing response time. GPS helps
motorists find their way by showing their position and intended
route on dashboard displays. Railroads are using GPS technology to
replace older, maintenance-intensive mechanical signals

8.4 Land

8.4.1. GPS in Vehicles

Many types of GPS systems can be used on vehicles, providing the


driver with the current position and a local map.

8.4.2 Mapping the Earth

Surveyors and map makers use GPS for precision positioning. GPS is
often used to map the location of such facilities as telephone poles,
sewer lines, and fire hydrants. Surveyors use GPS to map
construction sites and property lines. Forestry, mineral exploration,
and wildlife habitat management all use GPS to precisely define
positions of important assets and to identify changes.

During data collection, GPS points can be assigned codes to identify


them as roads, streams, or other objects. These data can then be

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compared and analyzed in computer programs called Geographic


Information Systems (GIS).

8.4.3 Surveying With GPS

Surveying that previously required hours or even days using


conventional methods can be done in minutes with GPS.

8.4.4 Set Your Watch

Because GPS includes a very accurate time reference, the


system is also widely used for timekeeping. GPS receivers can
display time accurate to within 150 billionths of a second.

8.4.5 Managing the Land

The use of GPS is widespread in field that require geospatial


information for managing assets over large areas. Forestry, mineral
exploration, and wildlife habitat management all use GPS to

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precisely define positions of important assets and to identify


changes.

8.4.6 GPS and Agriculture

GPS receivers installed in farm equipment provide accurate position


information. This enables farmers to apply fertilizers and harvest
crops with great precision.

8.4.7 Yield Map

Maps of crop yield can be made using agricultural GPS systems.


The map shown here indicates how crop yield varies across a field.
These maps can be created during harvesting, allowing farmers to
accurately plan how the fields should be used and fertilized for
future crops.

8.4.8 New Frontiers in Science

GPS has made scientific field studies throughout the world more
accurate and has allowed scientists to perform new types of
geographic analyses. Geologists use GPS to measure expansion of
volcanoes and movement along fault lines. Ecologists can use GPS
to map differences in a forest canopy. Biologists can track animals
using radio collars that transmit GPS data. Geographers use GPS to
define spatial relationships between features of the Earth's surface.

8.4.9 GPS at the Smithsonian

Scientific applications of GPS at the Smithsonian range


from regional scale mapping to site-specific surveys. Scientists can
use GPS to locate sites within satellite images to help them
understand the regional environment. GPS can also be used in
documenting specimens collected in the field. In the past, it was
often not possible to accurately record the location of collection

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GPS for Environmental Management

sites. Smithsonian scientists now use GPS receivers to quickly and


accurately identify specimen locations.

8.4.10 Science in the Field

Scientists use GPS for a wide range of applications.


Scientific analysis that formerly had to be conducted in a laboratory
can now be done quicker and easier in the field.

8.4.11 Research

Scientific applications of GPS at the Smithsonian range


from regional scale mapping to site-specific surveys. Scientists can
use GPS to locate sites within satellite images to help them
understand the regional environment. GPS can also be used in
documenting specimens collected in the field. In the past, it was
often not possible to accurately record the location of collection
sites. Smithsonian scientists now use GPS receivers to quickly and
accurately identify specimen locations.

8.5 Applications in India

8.5.1 Architecture

GPS is used in architectural sitings. When used with 3D


modeling, GPS provides a more realistic context for architectural
design.

8.5.2 E-Commerce

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GPS for Environmental Management

Conducting research to develop secure transactions


using GPS. The system would feature real-time information on users
as well as applications to reduce user fears of computer "hacking."

8.5.3 Education

GPS is used to track transmission and power line


distribution network inspections, track container movements, and
map the location of ground water sources and pollution

8.5.4 Geographic Information Systems

The satellite IRS-1D will be launched from Sriharikota on


September 29, 1997. One of the experimental units on IRS-1D is a
4.15-kg Satellite Position System. Using the Global Positioning
System receiver on the satellite, the SPS will determine the position
of the satellite in orbit.

8.5.5 Development of GPS receivers

India has begun to manufacture Global Positioning


System receivers, in a project funded by the Department of
Electronics and the Defence Research Development Organization.
These receivers are up to the highest standards at half the imported
cost. The Indian-made receivers are being used commercially by
boat owners and some military vehicles and

aircraft. buses in the south Indian city of Bangalore are running on


time thanks to the constellation of Global Positioning System (GPS)
navigation.. Receivers built by Bangalore's based Bharat Electrical
Ltd., were mounted on 200 of the city's 2,300 buses in a pilot
project about a year ago. The program is helping ensure that the
buses remain on schedule and make all their designated stops. The
receivers continuously record each bus' coordinates, which are
converted by software into locations identifiable by known
landmarks every 200 meters along the bus route. The receivers are

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GPS for Environmental Management

able to store 3 days of recordings to produce a record of the


scheduled performance. This system has helped identify missed
trips and catch speeding drivers

8.5.6 Infrastructure Development

The Highway Automation System is a project that plans


to link the Indian road and communication infrastructure. The idea
for HAS came from the global positioning system. Electronic kiosks
will be set every 50 km on the highways and the vehicles will have
an electronic monitoring device. Truck operators will be the first
users of HAS.

8.5.7 Mining & Construction

The Minister of State for Coal, Dilip Ray, would like to increase
the use of GPS technology to locate new mineral resources, improve
scientific planning for the exploitation of natural resources, and
better management systems. He said that GPS is already being
used in many areas of coal mining.

8.5.8 Surveying & Mapping

Beginning in April 1994, one of the largest, deepest


pipeline routes was mapped. This was possible using differential
global positioning system to calculate the position of the tow fish
from the ship, which was usually 200-m ahead. The pipeline that
was laid was 24-in. for 700 miles at depths in the Arabian Sea
to 3,500 m.

GPS has been extensively used in Delhi - Utility Mapping Project. For
photogrammatry work GPS Control Grid Network covering an area of
1600 sq.km has been established with about 500 gps control point

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GPS for Environmental Management

at every 3-5 km on ground. The GPS control grid network project will
be completed by May 2000 covering entire Delhi

Vehicle Location

We want to deploy the GPS network in almost the whole


country so that we can provide tracking systems not only for vehicle
position but other parameters of the vehicle such as remaining fuel,
speed, hazard warnings, and predefined messages. All these things
have to be monitored remotely.

We are using GPS technology for monitoring and hence for


optimum use of highly costly HEMMs in mines so as to increase the
productivity. Also we are monitoring health of these HEMMs by
making interface with Engine Monitoring System of these
equipments. The performance of operators is monitored online.
Payment of vendors, OEM suppliers is based on the report
generated by the system. GPS is playing an important role.
Auto car team embarks on K2K-II expedition: From
Kutch to Kivithoo. New Delhi: Auto car India, a leading automobile
magazine, set out on a expedition from the western most point of
the country (Kutch) to the eastern tip(Kivithoo) on February 1, 2003
with the objective of mapping the entire route, kilometer by
kilometer. K2K was also undertaken in a bid to map the country's
road conditions from the northern most point to the southern most
point. This year the team completed the voyage from Koteshwar in
Kutch (Gujarat) to Kivithoo in Arunachal Pradesh.

Civic body installs GPS in conservancy trucks:


Twelve Dumper placers and 16 corporation conservancy
lorries might soon have Global Positioning System (GPS)
instruments in place.

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GPS for Environmental Management

A review of the performance of the Global Positioning


System (GPS), on four dumper placer trucks of the Coimbatore
Corporation, has been found to be effective in tracking vehicles.
Consequently, the civic body has decided to install it in more
vehicles engaged in conservancy operations.

As a test case, the Corporation had installed the GPS in four of


its 16 dumper placers in an effort at finding out whether the
technology could help ensure transparency in waste disposal. The
'passive vehicle tracking system' had recorded the entire trip of
each dumper placer. A private institution that had developed the
GPS provided the monitoring office at the Corporation a 'TripMapp'
software and a geo reference city map, containing the names of all
the roads/streets and the waste dump locations across the city.

A trip summary was downloaded from the GPS in one of the


trucks on Tuesday to review its performance and also to check
whether there were any route diversions. It was found that the GPS
fulfilled the requirements of the Corporation and hence it had been
decided to installs 12 more dumpers and Lorries with the GPS

9 CONCLUSION

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GPS for Environmental Management

The digital revolution combined with the progressing

communication theory brought tremendous advancements in

information revolution. Even if there are problems with the

present GPS system it offers a credible service to both high end

and low end users. There are also a variety of techniques

available to correct the pitfalls. As of now the present research in

the field is to reduce the cost, increase the accuracy. It also aims

at reducing the weight and to clear the line of sight between GPS

receiver and four satellites. Satellite based navigational aid

• Guide by 24 satellites round the globe in 6 orbits

• 3D positioning and time

• Type of terrain and weather does not effect positioning

• Cheap and precise operating equipment

• Inherent error correction mode

• A variant of GPS , DGPS has already been introduced

10 REFERENCES

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GPS for Environmental Management

• GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in


Environmental Management (Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore)
• www.wikipedia.com
• Trimble’s online GPS tutorial
• www.howstuffworks.com

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