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BOILER Boiler is constructively combined device into one complex for produce
steam or hot water by burning fuel. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for
use in various processes or heating applications . The boiler design depends on type of
used fuel, combustion method, steam production unit, pressure and temperature
produced steam. Materials The pressure vessel in a boiler is usually made of steel (or
alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron . Stainless steel is virtually prohibited (by
the ASME Boiler Code) for use in wetted parts of modern boilers, but is used often in
super heater sections that will not be exposed to liquid boiler water.

Fuel The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels , such as
wood , coal , oil , or natural gas . Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for
generating steam .


1.FIRE TUBE BOILER a) In fire tube boiler, hot gases pass through the tubes and
boiler feed water in the shell side is converted into steam b) Fire tube boilers are
generally used for relatively small steam capacities and low to medium steam
pressures. c) Fire tube boilers are available for operation with oil, gas or solid fuels.

2.WATER TUBE BOILER In water tube boiler, boiler feed water flows through the
tubes and enters the boiler drum. The circulated water is heated by the combustion
gases and converted into steam at the vapour space in the drum. These boilers are
selected when the steam demand as well as steam pressure requirements are high as in
the case of process cum power boiler / power boilers.


Heat Losses in Boiler:

Heat Losses in Boiler a) Heat Loss Due To Unburned Carbon When the fuel is burnt
than small amounts of carbon will be left in the ash and this constitutes a loss of
potential heat in the fuel. To reduce this heat losses:- Samples of ash must be analysed
for carbon content. The quantity of ash produced per unit of fuel must also be known.
This loss generally applies to solid fuel fired boilers. A small loss due to un-burnt
carbon would also occur while burning fuel oils. b) Heat Loss due to Dry Flue Gas
The major energy loss in a boiler occurs through flue gases, which escapes at a high
temp. To reduce this heat losses:- Proper utilization of heat from flue gasses.
Temperature of gas must be determined before leaving the chimney.

d) Unburned carbon loss or loss on Ignition c) Heat Loss Due To Moisture in Fuel
The moisture in the fuel absorbs heat and leaves the air heater at the gas temperature.
The change in enthalpy of the water vapor due to moisture in the fuel constitutes a
heat loss. It occur when not all of the available carbon comes in contact with
combustion air. This loss can be caused by insufficient grinding of the fuel. If the fuel
particles are too large than the surface area is reduced and not all of the particles
complete burned. To reduce this heat losses:- Proper grinding of fuel should be done.
e) Loss Due To Surface Radiation & Convection It represent the heat loss from the
boiler skin to the surrounding environment. These losses are difficult to measure and
can be reduced by proper maintenance of the boiler.

e) Loss Due To sensible Heat in Bottom Ash There can be sensible heat loss from the
hot ash which leaves the boiler. f) Heat Loss Due To Blow Down Some blow down is
necessary to get rid of dissolved solids in the boiler water because these solids have
absorbed heat, blow down is a heat loss.



SOURCES OF HEAT LOSS a) Stack Gas The biggest energy loss in a conventional
fossil fuel fired boiler goes 'up the chimney' that is, out the stack. The loss could
amount to as much as 30-35% of the fuel input in worst cases. This stack gas heat loss
consists of three different ways: Heat loss due to dry flue gas. Heat loss due to
moisture in the fuel. The size of heat loss depends on the temp and the volume of gas
leaving the boiler. Therefore, reducing either one of these will reduce the heat loss.
Stack gas heat loss is unavoidable, but to eliminate this loss altogether, the stack gas
temp would have to be reduced to air temp around the boiler. Practically, this is

1) By keeping heat transfer surfaces clean on the water side will reduce the heat loss.
2) Ash deposits on water walls and on boiler tubes and scale deposits on the water
side tube surfaces act as insulation, reducing heat absorption by the boiler water from
the flue gas. The Three basic strategies for minimizing stack gas heat loss are:-
Minimizing excess air:- Excess air is defined as the air supplied to the furnace beyond
the air required for complete combustion. By reduced excess air:- 1) Stack gas volume
is also reduced. 2) Stack gas temp. is also reduced, because gas velocities are reduced,
allowing the gas to spend more time inside the boiler where the heat can be absorbed.
Keeping heat transfer surfaces clean:-

Carbon in the bottom ash comes from unburned coal being dumped in the ash pit.
This can be controlled by proper adjustment of the stoker. Adding flue gas heat
recovery equipment:- By using flue gas heat recovery equipment heat loss can be
reduced. b) Combustible Heat Losses This is the second largest source of heat loss in
coal stokers and is caused by unburned fuel. It comes from three sources:- 1) Carbon
in bottom ash:- 2) Carbon in fly ash:- Carbon in the fly ash comes from small coal
particles that have not been burned. Fly ash re-injection from a mechanical dust
collector will reduce this heat loss.

c) Radiation Heat Losses A portion of heat from combustion escapes from the wall of
the furnace without being absorbed by the boiler water. Heat loss from this occurrence
is controlled through proper insulation techniques and the maintenance of insulation
layers. d) Blow Down In boilers, the effect of water containing some dissolved solids
and removal of pure steam results in concentration of solids in water. Above a certain
level of concentration, these solids encourage faming, causing carryover of water into
the steam, and could cause scaling inside the boiler leading to tube failure because of
overheating. This concentration has to be reduced and therefore some boiler water is
removed and make up water added. The blow down is at high temperature and
represents a heat loss.

e) Combustion and Excess Air in Boiler :

e) Combustion and Excess Air in Boiler a) In boilers, heat is produced from
combustion, and then heat is transferred to the water to produce steam. b) Oxygen is
required to burn any fuel and this is obtained from atmospheric air. Carbon and
oxygen are burnt with oxygen from the air, CO2→as shown in following reactions:-
Carbon (c) + Oxygen (O2) Water vapor→(carbon-dioxide) + Heat Hydrogen (2H2) +
Oxygen (O2) (H2O) + Heat If insufficient oxygen is supplied, some of the carbon
may pass through the combustion process, only partially burnt and may be seen in the
form of solid deposits and or smoke. (2C) Carbon + Carbon Monoxide (2CO) +
Reduced heat→Insufficient Oxygen (O2) Combustion:- Combustion is chemical
reaction between fuel and oxygen which results is release of heat.

Effect of Excess Air:- Excess air affects the process in two ways:- a) The higher the
excess air quantity, the lower the flame temp and this results in a lower heat transfer.
Maximum flame temperature required for rapid transfer of heat to the surrounding
boiler metal is obtained only when no excess air is used. b) The more is the quantity
of excess air, the greater will be the weight of flue gas per unit weight of fuel burnt.
This increases the heat loss because air enters at ambient temperature and leaves the
boiler at high temperature, taking a considerable amount of useful heat with it. Excess
Air:- As we know that, more air than theoretical air is required for complete
combustion. Less excess air means incomplete combustion and Too much excess air
means large heat is dissipated to the chimney.

Efficiency Of Boiler

“The percentage of the total absorption heating value of outlet steam in the total
supply heating value is” known as the efficiency of Boiler”. @What is the Efficiency
Of Boiler? Boiler Efficiency may be indicated by:- a) Combustion Efficiency -
Indicates a burners ability to burn fuel measured by unburned fuel and excess air in
the exhaust. b) Thermal Efficiency - Indicates the heat exchangers effectiveness to
transfer heat from the combustion process to the water or steam in the boiler,
exclusive radiation and convection losses. c) Fuel to Fluid Efficiency - Indicates the
overall efficiency of the boiler inclusive thermal efficiency of the heat exchanger,
radiation and convection losses - output divided by input.

@How to conduct Efficiency Test?:

@How to conduct Efficiency Test? This test can be conducted by:- 1.Direct method
This is i /p &o/p method because it requires only the useful o/p &the heat i /p (fuel) to
evaluate the efficiency. Boiler efficiency (%)= heat o/p heat i /p 2.Indirect Method It
aims at calculating several heat losses associated with the boiler & subtracting heat
loss % from 100. Dry flue gas losses Heat loss due to moisture in fuel Heat loss due to
moisture from burning hydrogen Heat lost due to moisture in air

Due to inaccuracy of direct method which denies heat losses, we adopt indirect
method for our calculations.