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STRUCTURAL FOUNDATIONS MANUAL FOR LOW-RISE BUILDINGS SECOND EDITION M. F. ATKINSON Preface Examples A. Site investigations ra 12 13 14 1s 16 ‘Walk-over survey Desk study ‘Site investigation: feld work 13. Trial pitlogs 1.32. Borehole record Site investigation procedure 14.1 Borchole logs 142. Trial pit logs 1.43. Groundwater 1.44 Standard penetration tests Interpretation of laboratory testing 1.5.1 Chemical tests Solution features 1.6.1 Limestones 1.62. Chalk 163° Salt 64 Gypsum Case Study 1.1 Tavestigation of former mining site, Sheffield Bibliography 2. Foundation design 24 22 23 24 25 26 27 Introduction 24.1 Width of footing 2.1.2 Soft spots 2.1.3 Stratum variation in excavation 2.14 Finmclays overlying soft strata 2.1.5 Depth of footings ‘Widened reinforced strip footings Reinforced strip footings on replacement granular fil ‘Trench fil foundations Raft foundations Pad and pier foundation 26.1 Disused wells Piled foundations 27.1 Bored piles 27.2 Design of a bored pile 2.73 Design of bored and driven piles a 2a B B 25 » 2 3 4 a a 48 Contents 27.4 Driven piles 2.75 Driving precast piles 276 Testloading Bibliography ‘3. Foundations in cohesive sols, 3.1. Introduetion 3.2. Settlements in cohesive soils 33 Consolidation setlement 33.1 Bearing capacity of cohesive soils 3.3.2 Vertical suess distribution 33.3 Construction problems on clay sites 33.4 Foundation designs on clay soils 33.5. Settlements in clay soils 3.44 Moisture movements 3.4.1 Liquid timit test 3.4.2. Plastic limit west Bibliography 4 Foundations in sands and gravels 4.1. Classification of sands and gravels 4.1.1 Composite sands and gravels 4.12. Dilatant sands 4.13 Calcareous sands 42 Relative densities of granular soils 4.2.1 Field density assessment 4.22 Visual observations 42.3 Groundwater levels 4.24 The standard penetration test 4.25 Interpretation of SPT results 426 Ulimate bearing capacities 43° Construction problems in granular soils 44 Foundation design in granular soils 45. Plate bearing tests 46 Piling into sands and gravel strata 46.1 Bored piles 4.62 Continuous fight auger piles 4.63 Design of bored piles 4.64 Set calculations 465 Dynamic ple formula 466 Redrive tests 4.6.7 Base-driven stel tube piles 468 Top-driven ste! piles Bibliography st a1 a1 2 2 2 82 83 83 86 87 9 99 92 92 93 3 together ssand case ~roblems. designs veanded are x in civil ous and sistance in ominated ied to my ' t the caleu- m their Couneil ch and 1 British yotced by n, 2 Park complete 2 22 Structural calculations for three-storey flats 23 Disused well 24 Bored piles 25 Detached house: pile and ground beam desiga 3.1 Strip footing on clay soil 3.2 Settlements on clay soil 33. Triaxial test 4.1 Strip footing on granular soil 4.2 Pad foundation on sand 43° Strip footing on sand, high water table 444 Bearing pressure of granular soil 45. Bored piles 4.6 Working load of precast concrete piles 47 Steel piles 48 Driving precast concrete piles 5.1 Calculating the reinforcement in a mining reft 5.2 Designing the reinforcement in an irregular shaped dwelling 53 Reinforcement mesh 54 Calculating movement joint sizes 6.1 w Foundations on clay sol with young poplar trees Page 35 40 45 49 33 1 B 8 87 88 88 91 92 93 93 104 107 108 109 16 Examples 62 63 64 6s aM 12 13 14 15 16 17 78. 8 9 92 93 94 10.1 ‘Strip foundations on clay soil with mature and semi-mature trees Foundations on a site with mature trees, subject to settlement Site investigation and foundation design, heavily wooded site Foundation design on a site with mature trees, subject to heave ‘Thrust on a retaining wall Pressures and bending moments on @ retaining wall Thickness of retaining wall Pocket-type retaining wall Reinforced cavity retaining wall Concrete filled evity retaining wall Brick retaining wall Reinforced concrete retaining wall to Bs 8002 Suspended floor slab over filled ground Design of stone columns Improving mixed clay fills Partial depth treatment of filled ground Dynamic consolidation Foundations beside existing building 27 8 129 134 155 156 1ST 160 161 162 165 167 180 194 194 196 205 Contents 5. Building in mining localities 5.1 Coal minin 5.2 Coal shafts 5.3. Shallow mineworkings 54. Drilling investigations 5.5. Stabilizing old workings 55.1 Collapsed workings 5.5.2. Special conditions 5.6 Foundations in areas with shallow workings 5.7 Active mining 58 Future mining 5.9 Mitigating the effects of mining subsidence 5.9.1 Longwall mining (advancing system) 5.9.2 Designing buildings for future mining subsidence 59.3 CLASP system of construction 5.94 Mining rafts 5.9.5. Irregular-shaped units 5.9.6 Designing strip footings in active ‘mining areas 59.7 Movement joints Bibliography past and present 6 Sites with trees 6.1 Foundation design 6.1.1 Climatic variation 6.1.2 Distances between trees and foundations 6.13 Foundation depths related to proposed tree and shrub planting 6.1.4 Measurement of foundation depths 62 Building on wooded sites © 621 Piled foundations 62.2 Deep trench-fill concrete foundations 6.2.3 Deep strip footings with loose stone backfill iff raft foundations on a thie ‘cushion of granular fil 62.5 Deep pad and stem foundations 6.3 Precautions to take when there is evidence of clay desiccation 63.1 Suspended floors 6.3.2 Drainage and services 63.3 Protection to drainage 63.4 Precautions against clay heave 6.44 Foundations in granular strata overlying shrinkage clays Bibliography 624 7 Developing on sloping sites TL. Stability of slopes Case study 7.1. Sloping ste with clay fills over boulder clay 7.2. Developing on sloping sites 7.2.1 Additional weight of dwellings 9s 95 96 a 99 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 103 los 107 109 nz ns 3 ng ng a 121 12 12 13 124 124 1s 25 126 126 126 27 134 136 37 BT M41 146 146 7.22 Additional weight of regrade fill ‘Changes in the groundwater level or surface runoft 7.2.4 Excavations for deep drainage 7.2.5 Removal of toes and vegetation 72.6 Splitlevel housing 7.3 Retaining systems 7.3.1 Gravity type retaining systems 7.3.2 Cantilever walls: reinforced concrete or brickwork 7.3.3 Gabions erib walling, reinforced earth 734. Steel sheet piling 74° Designing retaining walls 74.1 Active pressure on walls 7.42 Surcharge loading 743. Passive resistance (granular soils) 7.5. Cantilevered retaining walls 75.1 Mass brick or block walls 752. Reinforced cavity walls 753. Pocket-type walls 7.6 Damp-proofing to retaining walls 7.6.1 Type A structures: tanked protection 7.62 Type C structures: drained cavity construction Bibliography 18 on filled ground 8.1 Opencast coal workings 82 Foundations 8.2.1 Stiff raft foundations 8.22 Piled foundations 83. Suspended ground-floor construction 8.4 Compaction of fills to an engineered specification 84.1 Procedure 8.4.2 Site testing before backfilling 84.3 Foundations 84.4 Roads and drainage 84.5 Groundwater 8.5 Ground improvement techniques 85.1 Dynamic consolidation 8.5.2 Surcharge loading 8.6 Compaction of structural fills 8.6.1 Materials specification 8.62. Definitions 8.63. Suitable fil materials 8.64 Unsuitable materials, 865 Compaction 8.6.6 Testing onsite Bibliography 9 Ground improvement 9.1 Vibro-compaction techniques 9.1.1 Types of treatment 9.1.2 Ground conditions 147 7 M47 147 148, 14 148, 148 149 150 150 150 151 152 152 152 156 156 169 169 m2 m4 15 7 178 178 178 179 181 181 18 182 182 182 182 182 182 182 183 183, 183 183 183, 184 184 185 186 186 187 arth 147 147 147 147 148 148 14s 14s, 149 150 150 150 1ST 152 152 152 156 156 169 169 m2 m4 15 7 178 8 18 179 181 181 18 182 182 182 182 182 182 182 183 183, 183 183, 183, 184 184 185 186 186 187 9.1.3. Engineering supervision 9.1.4 Design of vibro-compaction stone columns. 9.1.5. Foundations on vibro-compaction sites 9.2. Dynamic consolidation 9.2.1 Testing 9.3 Preloading using surcharge materials 9.4 Improving soils by chemical or grout injection Bibliography 10 Building up to existing buildings 10.1 Site investigation 10.2 Foundation types 103° Underpinning 10.3.1 Beam and pad solution 10.3.2 Pile and needle beam solution Case study 10.1 Investigation and underpinning of detached house on made ground, York Case study 10.2. Differential settlement, Leyburn Case study 10.3 House on made ground, Beverley Case study 10.4 House founded on sloping rock formation, Scarborough 104 Shoring Bibliography 11 Contaminated land 11.1 Contaminated sites 11.2 UK policy on contaminated land 113. Risk assessment 11.4 Industrial processes 190 193 197 198, 201 201 202 203 205 205 205 212 216 216 218 219 223 226 20 29 29 29 230 233 Contents 114.1 Asbestos 11.42. Scrap yards 11.4.3 Sewage treatment works 11.44 Timber manufacturing and timber tueatment works 114.5. Railway land 114.6 Petrol stations and garage sites 114.7 Gasworks sites 114.8 Metal smelting works 11.49 Old mineral workings 11.4.10 Toxicological elfects of contaminants 115 Landiillsites 115.1 Gas migration 11.52 Gas monitoring 11.53 Carbon dioxide 11.54 External measures 116 Desk study 1 Local geological study 2 Industrial history of the ste 11.63 Mining investigation 11.64 Site reconnaissance 11.7 Site investigation 11.7. Trial pits 1172. Boreholes 11.7.3. Testing for toxic gases 11.74 Chemical analysis 11.75. Safety 117.6 Conclusion ‘Case study 11.1 Dibliography 235 235 235 235 236 236 236 236 236 238 239 240 241 241 242 248 244 24 244 244 245 245 245 245 245 245 246 248 251 Before purchasing a site @ builder must establish whether there are any hazards on or below the site which could result in expensive house foundations. Remember: you pay for a site investigation wheter you have one done or not. In other words, the consequences of inadequate site investigation could be at least as expensive, and most probably much more so, than having one carried out ‘The builder should visit the site and make enquiries. The ‘most important thing he should do is carry out a pre- liminary ground investigation before making an o‘fer for the land. This investigation may be no more than simple tial pits, mechanically excavated to depths of appro- imately 3 m, If there are hazardous ground conditions the builder may have to consult a chartered structural or chartered civil ‘engitter to have special foundations designed and costed before purchasing the land. Not all ground hazards require ‘engineer-designed foundations. Sometimes it may just be a simple case of placing the strip footings deeper inte firmer strata or catering for the effect of existing tes by ‘implementing the requirements of the NHBC Standards Chapter 4.2. These are decisions which any experienced builder should be able to make. However, the builder must recognize when a specialist needs to be consulted, Site investigation should be split up into three sections: ‘© a walk-over survey (very important); ‘© an initial desktop study; « field investigations using wal pits or boreholes 11 WALK-OVER SURVEY ‘This is an essential part of a site investigation and it should always be cartied out. The Technical Questionnaire Survey Sheet (Fig. 1.1) should be used as an aide-mémoire when carrying out the walk-over survey. ‘The object of the survey is to check and supplement information gleaned from the desktop study and the field Chapter 1 Site investigations TECHNICAL QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY SHEET Stoatiess Gran Lane, York, Ome vsted 161-02 Paotire dan 2 Give recion and grant of sopes. Gila fairly, Aovel retere any nears ot cep? Ne ‘Yoo. A copoe beh haben Se concert 1. Give description of site, ‘3. Presence of tees, streams, marshy seas oe 4 Arta any 4 expoues in trenches, neaby games ete? Nov 5. Isthore ary ndleaton ot being Yor present? 8. Has the site been previously developed? Give any nations of, depth and type of exstng foundations, 7. Ase any od basements prsont? Fy, 0, ive details of extnt and doph 8, Have you taken ground levels and ‘obtained the location of boreholes Loo ‘ad ial ps? 8. Ave thore nearby buldings? Ary leo, Neratigite. ‘sans of cracking? Any infrmation on ougno of clamage. foundations of such buicings? a memes ae Na See dir mld 19, What samples nave beon taken? 4: No; buy ocumpleo a taken? From which pis? Fig. 11 Technical questionnaire survey sheet. Site investigations investigation by observing the site topography. Information «an be gleaned from local inhabitants and people working in the area, ic. for statutory authorities such as gas, water and electricity. Any evidence of likely ground instability should be noted, such asthe following. ‘© Surface depressions ‘© Hummocky terraced ground ‘© Existing vegetation and trees «© Railway cuttings « Spoil heaps © Existing structures 1 Slope of site ‘© Groundwater, springs ete ‘© Surface hollows © Reeds, bullrushes ete ‘¢ Manholes « Existing dwellings = Sorface cracking © Gaps in existing houses 1 Street names S*Flooded areas « Site bouncy under foot 12 DESK STUDY Past mining or quarries Fig. 1.2) Slope instability, hill ereep ig. 13) Cay desiccation Exposed strata(Fig. 1.4) Possible mine shafts or bell pts (Fig. 1.5) Record any visible damage Will retaining walls be required? Signs of landslp Could const lems arise? May be solution features in chalk (Fig. 1.6) May be collapsed mine workings Generally indicate peaty for wet ground Old sewer lines, infilled Check if there are any cellars Indicative of soils plasticity Why? Could be sewers, ‘mineshaft (Fig. 1.7) Quarry Lane, Coal Pit Lane? Construction problems; expensive land drainage Indicative of tigh water table ion prob- This involves collecting as much information as possible about the site. Sources include geological maps, Ordnance (Cees surface hatows? / ‘rown hoe resuting, SAAHOW mine workings from cotapsed stata above old rine wong 12 Crown holes, Soft stata wat igh water table Firm strata or ook Aiwayseamine 7 txts cutings focrateays te tows arising rom saison features in cha, | aypsum eas, Fig. 16 Solution features eo es oeie. iene ibe i Large gos batoo} essing bukings ma bets Sresut ct man crap mi a, ‘tmajoe services Check on od Ordnanc Survey plas, Fig. 1.7 Gaps in existing development. i z al a ull Survey maps, geological memoirs, aerial photographs, ‘mining records, and previous site investigations forthe site fr adjacent sites, Most ofthis information can be cbtained at a relatively low cost from public libraries and local ‘# Old Ordnance plans indicate old ponds, old hedge lines, and old watercourses. Evidence of previous buildings — ‘old mill buildings for example — can be defined. All these features could have an effect on the proposed evelopment. ‘¢ Geological memoirs and maps give information on mine shafts, coal outerops and strata succession (the different levels and types of strata), ‘¢ Aerial photographs give valuable information relating to previous tres or hedges on the site. They can also reveal Desk study ‘old quarries, old landslips, or depressions caused by old ‘mine shafts or infilled quarries. ‘¢ Mining reports: Always consult British Coal who have detailed plans and knowledge of the local coalfield together with mine shaft records, ‘British Rail: Where a railway tunnel passes below the site, ‘construction shafts may be present. Details ofthese may ‘beheld by British Rail engineers. «District mineral valuers: They have useful information on ‘old mines, quarries and mineral workings. Always consult with the NHBC regional engineers and local authority building inspectors for information on and adjacent to the site. Consult with all the statutory service ‘undertakings in respect of any existing services which may be on the site to be investigated. DESK STUDY CHECKLIST 1. Site topography, salient vegetation and drainage (a) Are there any springs, ponds, or watercourses fon or near the site? (b) Is the site steeply sloping? (€) Are there any signs of previous tree growth on. 2. Ground conditions (a) Is the site in a known mining atea fr coal or other minerals? {(b) What is che geological strata succession below the site? (©) Are the clay in the high plasticity range? (@) Is there any evidence of slope instability? (©) What information is available on the ground strengths? 3. Proposed ho (a) What type of development is intended? (b) What foundation loads are expected? (e) What soils investigation is required to enable special foundations to be designed, eg. piling, dewatering? 4. Identification of ground conditions. By consulting geological records and maps a lot of information can be obtained about the site conditions below the surface (a) Type of drift material, e.g. sands, clas, shales. (b) Thickness of various strata bands. Usually indicated on borehole records and geological ‘maps. (©) Positions of old coal pits, old mine shafts, ‘geological faults, whinstone dykes, buried alacial valleys: For ow-rse housing (two to three storey) the foundations generally requite ground bearing capacities in the 50- 1OOKN/m? range when using stip footings. Settlements under such footings are generally ofa low order and less than 25 mm. Jn general, itis only when soft alluvium, paty sta and filled ground are encountered that settlements ean reach unacceptable magnitudes. Alluvial soils, peats and glacial head deposits often have considerable variations in sraturm thickness over relatively short distances. Peat beds are often ina lenticular form or can be found in old infiled valley formations. Sands, gravels and rock stata usually provide excellent bearing capacities with setlements taking place over short timescale. The effect of groundwater on sands and grevels is to reduce the ground bearing capacity and allowance should be made for variations likely because of seasonal variations Site investigations carried out in the summer months may not reveal water problems encountered in the period from October to February periods. ‘Where clay strata are known to be present the plasticity index of the clays needs tobe determined, especially if there are tees on site or trees have been removed from the site ‘This information is required in order that foundations can be designed in accordance with the NHBC Chapter 4.2, formerly NHBC Practice Note 3. Information about the ste and its underlying stability may have an influence on the type of housing layout and the construction programme: avoiding long terrace blocks in ‘mining areas, provision of public open space in any no-build zones, and providing movement joints at changes in storey heights, for example. ‘Where British Coal opencast plans or old quarry record plans show no-build zones atthe high wall batter planes the 3 Site investigations housing layout may need to be modified to avoid placing hhouses in these areas if the site is 10 be developed economically. 13. SITE INVESTIGATION: FIELD WORK For low-rise housing itis generally considered tha simple tril pits are the most useful and economic way of deter- ‘mining ground conditions. When excavated, they stould be deep enough to confirm that the strata below the proposed {oundation level remain competent and adequate for atleast a further metre below a standard-width footing of 40 mm. ‘The minimum depth of the tral pits should range from 2.5 10 3.0 m and where possible they should be atleast 3.0m from proposed dwellings I the position of dwellings has not been finalized then the trial pits should be accurately located for he site survey. If an adequate formation depth is not encountered within the reach of a mechanical excavator then a larger machine may be required. If this is likely to be too disruptive, a in-situ field tests are needed, then shell and auger boreholes will need to be drilled If poor ground conditions are evident during the delling of ‘boreholes then the boreholes should be taken well below any suitable strata which may have to support piles. 13.1 Trial pit logs ‘The following data should be recorded in the wal pit logs together witha ite plan showing an accurate location ofthe trial pits Fig. 1.8) ‘© depth and nature of the strata encountered: e.g, ston clays, wet loose sands; «© dapeription of the various stata in regard to their srength cg, firm to stiff clays, loose, medium dense or dense sands ‘© depths at which groundwater entered the tral pit and the final depth at which it stabilized; © whether the sides of the tial pit collapsed, either during excavation or shortly after excavation (in sands and gravels this can be a good indication of the state of compaction), During the excavation of the trial pit the following information should be taken, '» Penetrometer or shear vane results enable the undrained shear values for clay strata to be determined. These values, ‘when doubled will give an approximate allowable bearing pressure allowing fora factor of safety of 3.0. Clay samples can be obtained for laboratory testing (.Okg bulk samples). These can be tested for natural ‘moisture content, plastic limit, liquid limit, plasticity index, soluble sulphates and pH (acidity). « If filed ground is evident, this should be described: eg topsoil, vegetation, organic refuse, rags, metal, timber. If possible the percentage of organic matter such as timber should be indicated, 13.2 Borehole record This should indicate the following information (Fig. 1.9), ‘© Ground level at the borehole postion. Ths is very import ant, but regretably itis often omitted. When the investi- sation is being done to assess the site stability for possible shallow coal workings, iis essential that ground levels are know if accurate strike lines of the seam are tobe drain. ‘¢ Depths and description ofthe various strata encountered, 4 Depths of any water entries and the final standing level, «© Piezometer readings if applicable, ‘© Depths at which various samples o field tests are taken, eg. standard penetration tests or U-100mm samples (samples obtained undisturbed from the borehole) Figure 1.10 shows the standard key symbols for annotating ‘rata variations 14 E INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE Site investigations should be carried out in accordance with BS 5930 (1999). The tests carried out on samples ‘obtained in the fieldwork are to be in accordance with the procedures laid down in BS 1377 (BSI, 199). L Borehole logs ‘These show the ground conditions only atthe positon of the borehole. Ground conditions between boreholes can be correlated but the accuracy cannot be guaranteed, 142° Trial pit logs ‘These enable soil conditions to be examined in more detail and bulk sampling to be cartied out. The stability of the tench sides and details of groundwater ingress provide useful indicators ofthe soil strengths 143, Groundwater Groundwater levels can vary because of seasonal effects and some allowance may be required depending on the time of year when the works are cartied out. The use of temporary casings may seal off scepage into the borehole 1.44 Standard penetration tests These are generally used in sands and gravel strata but can also be taken in cohesive soils and made ground. They can also be performed in soft or weathered rock strata. (See (Chapter 4 for a description of the standard penetration test.) Because of the difficulty in obtaining accurate N’ values especially in filled strata containing large stones, the results should only be used as a guide when assessing the ground strength. Tables 1.1 and 1.2 give an approximate guide to soil strengths based on SPT values. Site investigation procedure ‘TRIAL PIT RECORD he. £19). SITE SURVEYS LTD 3 Bote: 16 MARCH 7991 possible ‘Otent: C.M, JACKSON (BUILDERS) LTD 1 ad levels are he drawn, She habeas: Rowan Avenue, Leads, Yorkshire umered Location: Phase 4 hg level tare taken, samples From | | key Description of stata ol) TIADE GROUND comprising loose bricks, GL | 0-30 lumps of conerete, soll 4 anotating genes "and fragmenis of timber E (MADE GROUND, comprisin cE J 020 | 170 moderably compact dark Black - brown Clayex “Fine to coaree-grauned "ston ashes with, stones and Pirm brow! E clay. E accordance, Brick footings encountered down to E samples 4 080 m [- + swith the E sition ofthe ¥70 | a0 TADE GROOWO, compris f cs can be frm medion gray Brown’ silky clay wilh i 4 black ashes aad sows fF dono Soft to firm medion fo dark ery silky CLAY. Lore detail ' 7 reo Fim madiom gray brouh eilky any iy of the - wi “friable udetone fe atti! 270 Firm to aHiF wadiom gray with sandstone Fragmnaats End of triel pit affects and he time of + F temporary Tat rents, water absevatons and remarks Slow ground water ingress at 200m ee Bulk Samples taken at O7Sm & [50m rata. (See ¥ a oy Vase test readings af 220k 250m from bulk sample NV values the results| B the ground date guide to vrata but cen Fig. 18 Typical wil pit log, Site investigations an ome oe Site Address: Vale Avenve [Location - a Dien Wise fabme mag ene | 8 oe aa cern Sears Dare BASING WA} Death 2 res en” beat | ae Key Description of tata oto [AOD = Wade Ground ~ Black Ach Flow wadion brent sandy ea silky 20 8 E | F tounge ee a | Sokol tants of shave 7 CBP bar pam) wate ings | |b ew Ta EP GEES Caifale Oh Reset a Beene Medium to dark ‘brown Ree, eae scene al eee Mediom e> aa ey black, « Sado HK bands! of biaek coaly shales 210 i | | End o Gurchole Temata and poondwater bearvalons Gromdwaier ingress at om bg! L Fig. 19 Typical borehole log procedure sous SEDIMENTARY ROCKS 3 ace gun Fa] ome 4 ee iG Boulder and obties [EZSE] crete cxmes roc sande Sandstone veers) ca LEE] sitstone | ‘Mudstone = ' = 4 oat : TAT] Procaste 4 es) stysana Sin] Nocmesen . rs pain. 2 Reset oe METAMORPHIC ROOKS rexeous Rocks 1 — =] coarse-grained TATE] conrse-grines = Z| wectemgrnet Tere] eum grained FES] rneranes ave | Fre-orained Fig. 110 Key to sol symbols i wil pt logs. Site investigations LABORATORY RESULTS: SYMBOLS B_ Balk sample: disturbed © Cohesion (KN/m?) © Bective cohesion intercept (kN/t?) CBR California Bearing Ratio D___Jarsample: disturbed LVT Laboratory vane test my Coefficient of volume decreas (n NN’ Standard penetration est value (blows 300 mm) pH Acidity alkalinity index PL Plasticity index (%) SOs Soluble sulphate content U.—Undiseurbed 100 mm dia, samples U — Undrained triaxial compression test W Watersample w Natural moisture content (%) Wi Liquid limit (%) W, Plastic limit (%) % Bulk density (kefa’) ta Dry density (kg/m?) 9 Angle of shearing resistance (degrees) 9 Bifective angle of shearing resistance (degrees) Soil strengths. Soil tests used on cohesive strata fall into ‘two main categories. The undrained triaxial testis carried ‘out on a soil which is stressed under conditions such that no changes occur in the moisture content. This reproduces the Table L1. SPT values for cohesive soils Consistency Undrained shear Wale strength x) Very att > 150 > 20 suf 75-130 10-20 Firm 40.75 «10 Soft 20-40 24 Very soft =20 <2 ‘Table 1.2, SPT values for sands and gravels Cowsisteney value Very dense >30 Dense 30-50 “Medium dense or compact 10-30 Loose 10 Very lose <4 ‘Table 1.3, Field assessment of soil strengths Consistency Method of esting Approximate ndrained of sil shear strength (Nn Very soft des between fingers <0 when squeezed in one’s hand Soft Moulded by igh finger 20-40 pressure Firm Moulded by strong finger 40-80 pressure suite Tndented by thumb pressure 80-150 Very stiff indented by thambeail 130-300 Hard Difficult to indent with > 300 thumbnail Table LA. Typical ground bearing capacities “Types of rock and sol “Maximum ste beating Nim?) eapacty Rocks Tgncous and gneissc rocks in sound 10-700 condition “Massively bedded limestones and hard 4300 sandstones Schiss and slates 3200 Had shales, mudstones and soft 2200 sandstones Clay shales 1100 Hard sold chalk 650 Tnly bedded imestones and sandstones * Heavily shatered rocks 7 Nomcohesive sil? Dey Submerged Compact, welgraded sands and 430-650 220-320, ravel-tand mintures Loose, wel graded sands and 220-490 110-220 sgravel-sand mixtures (Compact uniform sands 220-430 110-220 ‘Loose uniform sands 10-220 $5-110 Cohesive site ‘Very tif boulder clays and had clays witha shay srvcture 430-650 Sif elays and sandy clays 220-430 Firm clays and sandy clays 110-220 Soft clays and sits 5-110 Very soft clays and silts! 55 Peats and made ground! Tote acne ater impection With rans the with f foundation io bens ess than 90 ‘Dy ean hat he gounvater level at» Spe ot ss hn 900 mn Below the oundson tase Cohesive soils are suscep wo long tem consaition ‘Tobe dermioed ar mvetiation Soure: BSI (1986) BS 8008 conditions most. likely under the actual foundations. The undrained test gives the apparent cobesion Cy and the angle of shearing resistance 6. With saturated non-fissured clays @, tends to zero and the apparent sprees) {safe bearing )eapacity Submerged 0 220-320 110-220 110-220 0 55-110 sttan900 mm. ‘sthan 990 mm the actual znt cohesion | With saturated the apparent cohesion Cy is equal to one-half of the unconfined compression strength qu. The drained triaxial test can also be carried out using the triaxial compression apparatus and is known as the slow test. ‘The approximate consistency ofa clay sol can be assessed inthe field by handling the sample. Table 1.3 lst the criteria used in arriving at approximate values for the uncrained shear strength. Table 1.4 gives typical ground bearing capacities for various soils; these figures should only be used as a guide, 15_ INTERPRETATION OF LABORATORY TESTING ‘Once the results of the laboratory tests are determined they can 'be used in conjunction with field tests to determine the sxength of the soil strata below the site. By examining the borehole logs it is possible to build up a picture ofthe stratification of| soils below the foundations. Fig. 1.10 shows the standard symbols adopted in soil reports carried out in accordance with BS 5930 (BSI, 1981) and tested in accordance with BS 1377 (BSI, 1990). Generally, suitable 100 mm samples are subjected te quick undrained triaxial compression testing using three speci- mens, 38 mm dia by 76 mm long, taken from each sample, ‘The samples ae tested under lateral pressures of 70, 140 and 210 kN/m? ata constant rate of strain of 2% per minute. The results ofthese tests, comprising shear strength parameters. apparent cohesions, angle of intemal friction ¢, natural ‘moisture contents, field dry density and Atterberg lim.s can then be determined. ‘Table 1.5 illustrates the results of several quick undrained ‘compltssion tests. When the angles of intemal friction are indicated by the test results then Mohr circle stress ‘diagrams are drawn (Fig. 1.11). From these values the shear strength parameters can be determined. The allowable bearing capacities can then be determined using the appro Driate factors of safety Table 1.8. Compression est resulte Interpretation of laboratory testing Using the bulk samples the Atterberg limits can be determined and the values obtained for liquid limit, and plasticity index can be plotted on the standard Casagrande plasticity chart (Fig 1.12) to confirm the clay classification, If the bulk samples are sands or gravel mixtures, grading tests will be carried out to determine the particle size distribution, The results are plotted on a chart (Fig. 1.13) Which indicates which zone the materials fall into These tests will not reveal the bearing strength of the ‘materials but they are of particular value when considering {ground improvement techniques such as vibro-compaction, dewatering or grouting operations. 15.1 Chemical tests ‘The tests generally carried out are those which determine Whether there are aay substances in the ground which could bbe aggressive to Ordinary Portland Cement. The most ‘common are the soluble sulphur trioxide (SOs) and the hhydrogen ion pH tests. Table 1.6 lists the clasifcation of sulphates in soils and groundwater. BRE Digest 363 (BRE, 1991) gives various recommen- ations for the design of suitable concrete mixes to res sulphate attack, These are listed in Table 1.7. In addition to using the required minimum cement contents and water ‘cement ratios the concrete should be dense, well cured and of Tow permeability to provide the maximum resistance 10 ‘chemical attack. These recommendations only apply to cconerete with a low workability. ‘When examining a number of tests carried out on a site, the greater emphasis should be placed on those samples Table 6, Classification of sulphates in soils and groundwater Class TouslS0;—-SOyin21 Th groundwater % aqueousextract (ge) elie) 1 <020 =10 <030 2 020-050 10-190 030-1.20 3 050-10 190-310 1202.50 4 10-20 310-560 250-50 5 >20 25.60 350 Borehole Depth Cohesion Angle of Natural Bulk no. (=) (N/m?) intemal —-moistere density friction content (eares) 5 oso as 4 302018 5 150" 20 6 242050 5 2st u i cain) 5 30 100 1B 82108. 7 03046, 9 2 2035 7 08050) 4 18 2090 7 Lat 10 21 2070 7 230° 138 0 Liss “odie ress edo podice he Mab es cles a 1.1 ‘which fall nto the higher elasification. For example, if six cut of ten samples are found to be within the Class I range and are hence non-aggressive, while the other four fall into Class 2, then the site should be placed into the Class 2 ‘category of risk. ‘The pH values of soils and groundwater can be critical when determining concrete mix designs, Table 1.8 gives the acidity classification for various pH values. Any foundations placed in soils with organic acids of pH values less than 6 will need to have special precautions taken to ensure the durability of the concrete used below ground, Site investigations Table 1.7. Requirements for well compacted cat-insity concrete 140-450 mm thickness exposed on all vertical faces toa permeable sulphated soi or fill materials containing sulphates ‘Concentration o and magnesium Tnsoil or fill Class Byacid By 2:1 wateroil_ In groundwater (g/) Cement ype_—-Minimum cement Maximum ree extraction (8) extract content (kgm?) waterfcement ratio a ‘Notes I and 2 Note 1 504 SO, Mg 50 Mg 1 024 <2 oa AL Note 3 065 2 1223 as AG 330) 050 H 230 03s HL 300 03s . —— 3 poz 23.37 1430 " 320 050 clasity HL 340 030 4 bas «3767 <12. 3060 to H 360 as of HL 380 04s 24 exmct 37-67 912 30-600 H 360, 04s: s 6751260 310 As for Clase 4 plus surface protection 26712360 >L0 Noe 1 Cement conta! nlos pls and ag NNoe2 Cement contents rete to 20 mm nominal maximum sv aggregate. I order to mins the cement content of the mortar faction at sii ales, ‘he minimum cement content given shoud be increased by 40 kp for 10 sa aoa manmum ste aggre and may te destesed by 50 gn for 40 mm nominal maximum size aggregate as desc a Table 8 of BS 332 Pt | Note 3 The mininam vase equed in BS 8110: 1985 and BS3328; Pr I: 19908278 kp for nreinforced structural one cont with no suaresive sol A minimum cement cote’ of 300 ky? (BS 6110) and maximum fee watrcement ato of 060i routed foreiforced once. A minimum cement content of 220 Kgl? and maimum fe wate rato of 080s pelle for CBD grade conc. when sing Source: Based on BRE Digest 353. uly 191 Table L8 pH Values ‘The pH values should also be taken into account when the ae Le sulphate contents are borderline between the various classes. ° —E If the pH is less than 6 the sample should be placed in the PH value Negligible 360 ‘more severe class of sulphate classification. Table 1.9 relates Moderate 50-60 the acids in groundwater to the probable aggressiveness to High 350-50 ‘ordinary Portland cement. Very high 3.50 ‘Table 1.9. Acids in groundwater: probable aggressiveness to ordinary Portland cement concrete (This table is imtended as abroad guide only) Category pHrange Comments @ 70-465 Atack probably unlikely o 65-50 Slight atack probable ‘Where the pH and chemicel analysis of the groundwater suggest that some sigh attack may occur, and if this can be tolerated, then the concrete shouldbe flly compacted made with ether ordinary Portland cement ‘or Portland blast fue cement and aggregates complying with BS 882 (BSI,1973). The maximum free Waterfcement rato shouldbe 0.50 by weight with a minimum cement content of 330 kg/m’ © 50-450 Appreciableatack probable For conditions where appreciable attack i probable, the concrete shouldbe fully compacted, made with wea and it fawons in the gical Survey, th organic tion is t0 sum. Ls eould also Fast mining pers. This ical and past ered in the vort should -al pits and investigation ‘allow coal Case study 1.1 Case study 1.1 (contd.) RESEARCH SOURCES In compiling this report we have examined information and records and made enquiries from the following sources: 1. British Coal Mining Surveyors at Technical Head- (uarcers. Burton upon Trent to examine the shaft register held in the archives; Fig. 1.15 Case study 1.1:ste location ad layout 2. The British Coal Opencast Division at Burton upon Trent; 3. Ordnance Survey County Series plans 1850 edition and 1905 edition; 4. The County Series geological maps and memoirs including consultations with the Britih Geological Survey at Keyworth, Notingham; Site investigations Case study 1.1. (contd.) 5. Sheffield City Technical Services Dept; 6. Mining Records Ofice at Rawmarsh, Rotherham, South Yorkshire; 7. Plans of abandoned mines and quarries contained in the archives of the Health and Safety London; 8. Mineral Valuer District Offices; Sheffield SITE GEOLOGY ‘The 1:10 560 scale County Series geological map NZ282 SE published by the British Geological Survey shows most of the site to be overlain by deposits of boulder clay of glacial origin. The thickness of these drift deposits is not recorded fon the geological maps but from information gleaned from 5 i 7 i : carbontaous ‘Siketone rock coal ‘Sandstone ‘Sikstone coal Sandstone Sandstone Penistone tage) pt coat Sandstone Coat Sandstone Sandstone Winmaor coal Fig. 116 Case study 1.1: generalized vertical section of strata below the superficial deposits. Unlabeled areas are shales or mudstones, 16 Case study 1.1 Case study 1.1 (contd.) 1NZ282 SE + most of +f placial ae recorded aned from previous site investigations in the site locality, the boulder clay has been proven up to depths of 8 m beneath the existing surface levels, Research into the history of the site, described later in this report, also established the existence of previous colliery spoil heaps within the site boundaries. There is a possibility therefore that some areas of the site could be ‘overlain by deposits of colliery spoil. In addition there may be backfilled pits on site as a result of ironstone extraction; these were indicated on the 1905 Ordnance Survey map, ‘The old Ordnance plans show the Thorncliffe conworks to be close to the northern boundary of the site. The boundary is in fact marked by the old mineral line which served the ironworks and is now disused. A local shaft is noted to have been worked close to the ironworks from Thornelitfe Colliery and a generalized vertical section of the site is shown in Figs 1.16 and 1.17 taken from the Thorneliffe Colliery shafe records. Description of Som | brass band ‘atone coal Stkatone coal ARK ane, Stengstone Deserintion of strata rom Bitish Geological Survey ‘ot Mining Tors Imperfect laminated MODSTONES orany te ‘raned rock hon pyrite Soft haley materia) intrboaded with coat Seatearth ~ coarse clay ‘rmudstone with ‘oot Sandstone Fig. L17 Case study 1.1: vertical section of strata at Thomnciffe colliery u Site investigations Case study 1.1 (contd.) SOLID GEOLOGY the Carboniferous Age. These consist of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones with interspaced coal and fireclay ‘The published geological maps show thatthe drift measures horizons. Several collieries existed close to the site, notably tre underlain by Middle and Lower Coal Measure strata of the Thomcliffe Colliery about 0.50 miles east of the aite ‘Tiial Pe No. St @ Sovider clay = aia ® son — Sandy topscit ee o ce Sak ey, - cobbles , ccasional coal fragments, rootlals NB Trench dry and sides stable . Hare dig Teal Rt Wo 2 . tomy som E Sateen! w © oy Kak fr @ LERD sop mute Zs @ Fun: loose grey clay jack , bricks obe Sor Be eterass Sample: BL fn a Bt ® ig. 1.18 Case study 1.1: tril pit logs SI and 82, 18 Case study 1.1 stones, 1 (fireclay te, notably of the site Case study 1.1 (contd.) ‘There was also an ironworks close to the site referred to as the Thomnclife Iron Works. ‘The Silkstone coal seam, average thickness 1.60 m, is conjectured to outerop south of Wortley Road with the @ ru @ cay: Bovider @ @ ru @ Fig. 119 Case study 1.1: al pit logs $3 and 4, Lense wi santo TSsial tis , dark brows , shiff sandy with “abundant gravel oe Nore Trench diy , sides stable @ Fit, cay and ack Tepsoil + sandy tepsil toast days uh ash mishore CUNY + Bowler clay = very iff, mist ‘Whinmoor coal seam in excess of 40 m below the site. Other ‘workable coal seams are the Hard Bed coal seam (Ganister), the Coking coal seam and the Pot Clay coal seam. However, it is considered that if these seams have been worked in the 19 Site investigations Case study 1.1 (contd.) past then any surface subsidence associated with the workings will have long since ceased. British Coal have stared in theit ‘ining report that no future mining is expected to take place The coal seams are known to dip to the north at a cuy ? Bevider ©O0O Thal Fit_No_ $5 w 1 dark beau. Bovider SHE, sand ome cassonad nl font @ Kore — Sithy sondetone , very Fie arined tet Sicck ode, seabhured Belk fron@ and vm SOL + Tpsoil, sandy Fin © Lense gray clay ond ash dark oroun, Vey shie Woh abundant greta oot sone coal aradient varying between I in 5 and 1 in 15 and it is therefore considered that the Silkstone seam wil be at such ‘depth below the site that there will be sufficient rock cover lover any possible workings. Toial Pt No 66 ig. 1.20 Case study 1.1: til pit logs S$ and $6 20 Bibliography Case study 1.1 (coned.) and it is ( eatsuch, ‘rock cover Geological faults ‘The geological maps also show that the site localiy is raversed by numerous geological faults which have resulted in localized variations in the stratification of the coal seams in regard to their depth beneath the site and degree of dip. ‘The Silkstone Coal is present at depths which should provide an adequate cover of competent rock over any possible old workings. SITE HISTORY ‘The various editions of the Ordnance Survey County Series were examined. The 1850 and 1905 publications recced the position of the old Thorneliffe Colliery northeast of the ste, and the Thorneliffe Iron Works. ‘The 1905 Ordnance plans show several ironstone pits on the site and an air shaft in the northwest comer. ‘The later Ordnance Survey plan also shows ponds together with colliery spoil heaps in the northern area adjacent to the mineral line. An inspection of the site reveals that the spoil heaps have been removed ot regraded. PAST MINING ACTIVITY ‘The available records show that coalmining has taken place beneath che sie in several main seams. The depth of the Silksypne seam dips from approximately 16m south of Wortley Road away to the north. It is likely thst the Silkstone coal seam has been mined by pillar anc stall ‘methods in the past but i is considered that they present no tisk wo stability on this sie. Researches of mine records and topographical plans have confirmed the positions of one air shaft within the site area. The recorded position of this shaft has been investigated and identified using a JCB backecting ‘excavator to carry out slit trenching under our supervision, Detailed records of the shaft do not exis; it will require capping off at rockhead, Coalmining has ceased in the locality, the main collieries hhaving been closed. The possibility of future underground ‘mining for coal or any other mineral can reasonably be discounted, ‘TRIAL PITS ‘The trial pic investigation proved up to 1.50 m of colliery spoil and ironstone debris in various parts of the site, underlain by natural brown boulder clays. The maximum thickness of boulder clay recorded in the trial pits was 3.0m, ‘There may be other areas of the site which are overlain by colliery spoil and which have not been revealed in this investigation The tril pit records are included in the appendix to this report (see Figs 1.18-1.20) CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The site is underlain by superficial deposits which are ‘arable in thie thickness and lateral extent. These deposits ae generally natural boulder clas but parts of the site are shown to be overlain by approximately 1.50 m thickness of colliery spoil and ironstone minerals. These fills could be a result of bell pie wockings for ironstone. In those areas of the ste underlain dicetly by natural boulder clays itis recommended that standard-width stip footings be used for dwellings of 2-3 storeys. These foundations should be reinforced with a nominal layer of mesh type B283 op and bottom ‘Where colliery spoils evident, foundations will need to be taken down below the fil nto che natural boulder clays fora minimum distance of 300 mm. Though the soluble sulphate content of the colliery spoils ‘05 within the Class I range i is recommended that a Class 3 concrete mix be adopted owing othe low pH values. All ‘mortar below ground should use sulphate-esisting cement. Ground floor construction should be a voided precast ‘beam and block system. ‘We are ofthe opinion thatthe Silkstone coal seam is at such a depth beneath the site that any abandoned mine workings within these seams would not present a source of potential surface instability leis therefore recommended that excavations during the site strip are examined to ensure there are no other mine shafts present on the site. Should any be encountered the local rsh Coal mining surveyor should be informed. Ic is recommended that the old ar shaft be capped off at rockhead level. Should the depth to rockhead be excessive the shaft infil shouldbe grouted down to rockhead prior to capping atthe surface. BIBLIOGRAPHY BRE (1991) BRE Digest 363: Concrete in sulphate-bearing soils and groundwater, Building Research Establishment. BSI (1992) BS 882: Part 2. Specification for aggregates from ‘natural sourees for concrete, British Standards Institution, BSI (1999) BS 5930: Code of practic for site investigations, British Standards Institution, BSI (1986) BS 8004: British Standard code of practice for foundations, British Standards Institution, 2 Site investigations BSI (1990) BS 1377: Methods of testing for civil engineering urpores, British Standards Institution, Edmonds, C.N. and Kirkwood, JP (1989) Suggested approach to ‘round investigation and the determination of suitable substructure Solutions for sites underlain by chalk. Proc. International Chalk Symes, paper 12, Thomas Telford, London, Joyee, M.D. (1980) Site Investigation Practice, E. & FN, Spon, London. 2 NHBC (1977) NHBC Foundation Manual: Preventing Foundation Failures in New Buildings, National Howse-Building Council, London (now rewritten as NHBC Standards Chapter 4,1). ‘Tomlinson, M.J. (1980) Foundation Design and Construction, dts da, Pitman, ine Foundation iF ng Couneit, 2 erdi, snsruction, 4h 24 INTRODUCTION (nce all the relevant desk study and feldvork: data have teen collected and collated the spe of foundation most suitable for the ste conditions can be established. THe mest Simple foundation for low-rise welings sa stip fooing or trl ones. Generally in good Sala, contortion is taghforvard operation but insome stutions whee hae tedou rood colton we encore spell cre mt be an, This chapter pins out where tit special ee is teeded and offer some practical advice on economic sien tnd constroction chines, "The following foundation types can be clsied based on ‘where the load is carried by the ground: * shalow foundations: sip footings o pd foundations, tlffoundations et, General the depth over width (ato of foundation dep to foundation wi is ss than 0 + Deep foundations: piles, pier and pd foundations, deep teach fl: Generally the depth over width exceds 40 If we consider shallow foundations in natural clay or granu- lar strata the following conditions apply. 2.1 Width of footing This is governed by the allowable bearing capacity of the sround atthe foundation depth. In clay soils with plasticity index greater than 20% the minimum recommended feunda- tion depth is 900mm. In areas of the UK where clay soils have a plasticity index less than 20%, foundations are tradi- tionally placed at a minimum depth of 750 mm below final xound level For most two-storey housing, wall-line loads of 35- 45kN/m run are achieved using traditional brick-and-block construction. Where the allowable bearing pressure of the stratum exceeds 75 kN/m?, andthe stratum remains eompe- tent for approximately 1.0 m below the footing, then a ‘600mm wide footing will suffice and will be well within Chapter 2 Foundation design allowable settlements. These footings can be unreinforced except when building in a mining area. Where ground bearing capacities of between 50 and ‘75KN/m? exist, the strip footings may need to be widened, and they usually require transverse reinforcement in the bottom of the footing. It is often good practice to use a structural mesh with the main wires spanning across the footing width (Fig. 2.1) ‘Where ground conditions result in bearing capacities be- tween 25 and 50 kN/mn* then the use of stip footings should ‘be avoided because of the excessive widths required, ‘To keep settlements within a tolerable magnitude the use of ‘pseudo'-raft foundations is recommended. Such rafts are based on empirical rules and usually take the form of a reinforced concrete slab within downstand edge beams and internal thickenings designed to span 3m and cantilever 1.5m at the comers (Fig, 2.2) 21.2 Soft spots ‘Where soft spots are encountered in a footing excavation and firm ground exists at a lower level the soft stratum should be ‘dug out and replaced with a lean-mix concrete, of C7.5 oF C1000 strength. ‘Where the soft spot is found to be too deep to dig out then it may be practical to reinforce the foundation to span across the weak section of ground. When this is done the founda- tion at each end of the reinforced section will need to be checked forthe additional loading condition and may need t0 bbe widened out locally. 2.3 Stratum variation in excavation Where strip footing excavations reveal a variation in soil strata from firm clays to compact sands then a layer of light fabric mesh should be added in the bottom of the footing. 1B283 spanning along the length of the footing is the most suitable reinforcement. 23 Foundation design A Is Widen reinforced ‘ip footing, Omics 625° Concrete Depth vais 225 mm thickness - High yield . faeces What varies andi dependent on |__teswndeeoai >" Fig. 2.1 Widened reinforced strip footing. EPmm suit the 13.0 mand 1 stals itis he formation oe recompac- 1 able grad- 1 depths of e on sites um thick- Ie 1.0 mo » ites where 1 potential house plots and where the upper clays have become desiccated and could be affected by tees which are to remain, NHBC ‘Chapter 4.2 recommends that the thickness of stone fil below the underside of the raft slab should be $0% of the depths required from ther tables, up toa maximum of 1.0mm Upfil in excess of 1.0 m is only permitted if the NHBC can be sat- jsfied that the correct fll is being used and it is being ‘compacted properly. This generally requires the builder 1 have the works supervised by qualified engineers who may cery out various tests to confirm the adequacy ofthe compaction. ‘There are situations where pseudo rafts can be placed at a lower level and the poorer fills removed can be replaced on top of the raft. This type of construction is often used on sites where a band of peat is present below firm soils and the peat is underlain by soft alluvium or soft silty clays. The ad- ‘vantages of this form of construction are that no materials requite to be taken off site, and thatthe amount of imported stone is reduced. Where the formation is very soft itis good practice to place a layer of geotextile fabric down prior to placing the stone cushion (Fig. 2.17). Rafts are also used in areas where old shallow mine ‘workings are present and require grouting up. Where the old Fig. 2.16 Stepped-edge beam raft Z procast concrete floor Rafi foundations workings have rock cover of less than six times the seam thickness and have been grouted up there is still a risk of residual subsidence; a raft is better able to withstand local- ined crown hole subsidence. ‘Example 2.1 Semi-rigid raft design Consider a typical semi-detached dwelling of brick and block onstruction to be built of a raft foundation placed on to weak clayey sands which havea high water table, The ground floorplan {is shown in Fig. 2.18 DESIGN INFORMATION Loading: 10 BS 6399 Reinforced concrete design in accordance with BS 8110 Imposed loads on roof: 0.75 KNim? fo 25" pitch Imposed loads on floors: 1.50 KN/m? Concrete: 38.0 Nim? a 28 days Reinforcement: high-yield bars and high-yield fabric. onstruction fit Weesrable Tenbor joist or ec o4 Venta akepace | Fatteveror concrete verte evel tobe ator shove outside Fig. 2.17 Voided raft. ‘round vet No dpm required Untse for Protection rom Etipates in tho ground Foundation design ‘The ste investigation reveals tat the upper stratum of shallow fils overlies weak clayey sands. In view ofthe high water table it is ‘considered prudent to adopt a pseudo or semi-rigid raft foundation with edge beams designed to span 3.m and cantilever 5m, 2240 kia? ‘Total factored Noor loads = 3.66 kN? ‘oval unfactored lor loa LOADINGS External walls basa! (evin?) Service lads Facoredouds Brick 225 Nin’) (Nim?) ‘Blok (100mm) 125 Ties 035 Plaster 025 Battens and fel 005 = “Trusses 023 ae Ceiling board os Insulation 02 100 x 140 = 1.40 Spine walls (kitchen/lounge) {Imposed loads 100 mm blockwork 125 mee Passer 030 Snow 25 pitch 075 = Storage 025 18 x 140 10 x 160 1.60 “otal unfactored roof load =2.0 kN? : otal factored roof load = 3.0 Nin? boehecie 100 mm blockwork 125 First floor Plaster 050 Factored WS x 1.40 Toads Nin?) Nin) Boarding (22mm) 010 Joists 25 x 0 ois Party wall eli 5 Par a) x0 2 ne Bachna 250 090 x 140 = 126 coats plaster 050 Imposed loads = 1.50 kN?» 1.60 240 30 x 140 a + 3408 229 um af | remit var . Ie | a Uf ‘ ; i — women II § VL A beawanen J = dl § Ht E ‘| 7. oe : La oa so: i fj ig. 2.18 Example 2.1: ground-floor plan Figures in brackets ate fctored loads. 36 Gein?) 528 24s 24s 420 WALL LOADINGS Ignore windows and doors. Front walls Untactored (Nin?) — om sos Roof 100 x 1 = 52s x 10s 10 x sas Watts 375 x $20 1950 aus ed 3000 Rear walls aim 245 Roof 100 x 195 sas 7 x 18 10 x 1 52s Firs floor ox 32 420 150 x 340 ass + . Watts ais x 520 = 1950 wo Party walls ‘Average eight 6 50% Spine wall Nim) First oor 09028 133 x34 130%! 255 100 mm block 1.25%24= 3.00 Plaster 050% 2.4 120 328 x 140 x 160 x 140 x 140 x 160 x 140 x 1.60 x 140 x 140 x 140 x 160 x 1.40 x 1.60 x 140 x 140 2730 Bas aNim) 138 8.40 214 408 2730 war cei) 730 630 1200 50 Rafi foundations Staircase wall inttoora90x422 = 229 x 149 = 3.08 Loo mmtionk 125%24= 300 x 140 = 420 Pawerosoe2a 1 x10 he wo 6 Gabe wat Nim 756s omer Lan Total oad (unfactored) ow om wal 300% 1275 an Ker wll 340831275 as Caer aaa 2 aT Spocwakaaswaxs 2 ian Strwaitesosaces =| Pary wall 3150363 20s rary wall: 1930.3 30 & Tat ai 4.8kNim? ag ices sev? Soe Aesotest — =1090%13150= Maat Wiper 2 iex60. = SISAN woL515 Grind press = 22612913 = erin? hs impo oat = 10 oni “Maximum line Toad = 34.08 kN Consider edge beam and raft slab as comporite with slab acting asati. If overall with is taken as 900 mm: Line load = 34.08 kN/n Fdge beam = 6.85 kNim 40.93 EN 4093 Pressure under edge strip = 4993 = 46 kN? unfactored ‘This is Joss than the allowable ground bearing pressure of 50 kN in? With the pseudo raft the centroid of loading on the walls at ‘foundation level generally coincides with the centri ofthe edge strip. The raft slab is therefore not subjected to any torsional ‘moments In practice, the ground pressure under the edge strip is ‘more likely to approach a triangular distribution with higher edge pressure. The slab therefore needs to have sufficient reinforeement inthe top section o eater for this rotating fore. Is main function i to act a a structural ie while at the same time enhancing the edge ‘beam stiffness. Where fled ground occur itis pradent to provide a layer of bortom reinforcement to enable the raft slab to span over any soft spots. ‘To produce a theoretical edge pressure twice the allowable would sult in an equivalent eccentricity of 150 mm. The slab wil therefore have to cater fran ultimate moment of 0.15 x 40.93% 1.5 20 EN/m, 37 Foundation design Face of raft paints ‘wth bituminous solution, ~ Construction joint Wéesirabie Fisted a q Wath of toe {out ground. bearing capacity ‘op fabric mesh supported on stool chee Fabric mest 4150 mm minimum with extra hardoore wat Bare and inks compacted Fig. 2.19 Example 2.1: raft edge beam details Fig. 2.20 Example 2.1: pressure under edge beam, Feg=35 Nima? and Fy = 460 Nim? Therefore M___9.20%10° Barf W155 5 ‘Therefore J, factor = 0.95 ‘Therefore 4 920x108 Tar A600 9SNISS (0.13200 «1000 Minimum percentage = 213% 20021000 percentage oa Provide top and bottom layer of A252 fabric mesh in the raft la, =136 mm? 260 mn PERIMETER GROUND BEAMS ‘Self weight of beam setion per mete run: 23.6 ((045 0.45) + 045 x0.15)] = 637 kNim. 38 Edge beams (sagging mode) Use w/10 to take account of some fit “Maximum line load = (6.37 x1.) + 49.27 = 58.18 KNim Utimate design moment From Design Chart No.t 5236%10" 8x 0001 50400" 33 95, __ 5336x108 ae 7% 460% 4005095 ca ‘A252 Fabric 500 mm wide = 252%300 196 mn? 7000 | ‘Two TIS bars =402 mm? 528mm Provide A252 Fabric plus wo T16 bars in bottom of edge beam. ge beam. i i Corner cantilever ‘Uttimate design moment = 28:180%1.50" _ 65.45 kim 20 M___ 65.45x10° Bef, Bsoxa0o? as “98 | factor = 098. 65.45x10° heel A = 57 460 400098 ‘A252 Fabric $00 mm wide = 252%500 ‘Two TI6 basin top Provide A282 Fabric plus two T6 bar i top and botiom of edge ‘beams at comers. Place raft on stone fil 1200 gauge polythene dpm laid on sand-Alinded Toe design Design as a cantilevered slab, to carry shear loading from outer leat of cavity wal. Take height of wall as 6.8 m using 130 mam thick toc reinforced with A252 fabric meth in bottom, Consider 1.0 m length. ‘Therefore by = 1000 mm d=150~(00+3.5)= 106.50 mm 110mm brickwork 2:50 x6. = 15.66 kN 3.6 x 015x045 Loasing / metre un ‘Toc selfoveight ‘Therefore ge ‘Therefore design shear V= 140% 17.24-= 24,136 kNin Shear stress Vv _ 2413610" 5,4" Too0x105.56 “929 Nm Reference BS 8110 clause 3.55 (shear resistance of solid slabs) and elause (shear stress in beams) Permissible concrete shear stress Reference BS 8110 Table 3.9: Joo, __ 100x252 bd 1000x1053 vis less than therefore from BS 8110 Table 3.17 no shear tee is required. 0236, 050 Check toe for bending Upward design load from GHP = 1.50 x 46% 045 =31.05 kim Downward design load (wall)= 40% 15.64 = 21.89 Nin. (oe set weight) = 1.40 1.60 24 iB Rafi foundations = 2189%0.10 — 2819 Reinforcement Using design formulae method (BS 8110 Cl. 3.44.4): ‘By inspection kis greater than 0.95, therefore = 095 d. ‘Therefore Mu 365.10" Danfe Tat aco x0.9sxi085 Minimum percentage = 0.13% = 195 ma? therfore use A252 90 men? A Fabric in botom of toe. Internal ground beam (party wall) Factored wall line load = 4560 Self-weight of beam 23.6x045%080% 140 = 11:90 5730KNIm ‘Ground beam considered to act as partially fixed element: 57.50%3.0? 10 Hien tn layers of AIS? in slab with one layer of A2S2 in thickening Consider A252 in bottom plus wo T16. Therefore: 00 ‘Area of fabric = 200, = fabric = 200, = 176 mnt ‘Ubimate design momer 51.75kNm ‘Two TI6 bars 402mm? samme = 800m, = 095d Therefor: A = A ince = A087 2 ‘Therefore: Design moment of res M= 578 0.87 460x095 «398.0 104 = 8746EN my, OK >51.75 Consider both layers of A252 in slab when checking cantilever mode. ‘Utimate design momes “Moment of resistance of two layers of mesh 176 x 0.87 x 460x095 x 415 x 10%=27.76KN 176 0.87 = 460 0,93 x 300% 10°5= 19.65kN m “Moment of resistance of two T16 bars = 402 x 0.87 «460 0.95 x 405 1061.89 EN m ‘Total moment of resistance = 109.30 kNm Use one layer of A252 in botiom of raf thickening with two layers in lab with two T16 in top and bottom of beams (Fig. 221). 39 Foundation design Table 23. Summary of ground beam loadings Wall cation Ground beam type Maximum factored val fine oud enim) [Extemal font 900 mm wide edge bear ‘05 wall with two TI6 bars in top and botom with A252 fabric mesh in toe beam, 10 links at 250 mm centres Extemal rear 900mm wide edge beam 227 wall with to T16 bars in {op and bottom with A252 fabric mesh in toe beams. “THO links at 250 mm centres Panty wall 800mm wide slab thickening 45.60 with A252 in bae and two layers of A252 in 200 mm slab with two T16 top and bottom Gable wall 750mm wide edge beam 3412 wih 0 T16 bars in top and botiom with A2S2 fabric mesh in toe beam "T10links at 250 mm centres Spine wall 600mm wide sab thickening 12.10, ‘with A252 in base and two layers of A252 in 200 mm slab Staircase Av spine wall 596 wall Example 2.2 Structural calculations for three- storey flats DESIGN INFORMATION Design codes © BS 6399 Part Loading BS 648 1964 Schedules of weights of building materials © BS 5628 Structural use of mazonry © BS 8110 Structural use of concrete Foundation concrete: Fay = 35Ninm? Reinforcement: fy = 460N/mm? 172 1.80 for dead pls imposed loads. The site investigation has revealed thatthe upper fim clays are underlain at about 2 m below ground by 2 100 mm band pet, In ‘dion, the ste is in an azea known tobe afecied by subsidence arising from solution features in gypsum strata at dep In view of, {his a sit edge beam raft wil be ued, LOADINGS Roof (Nin?) Concrete tiles 055 Battens and felt 00s 40 Self-weight of trusses at 600 mm centres Insulation Plasterboard Dead ond Imposed load: Snow Ceiling ‘Therefore total roof load taken as 1.00 + 1.0 Floors 150mm deep beam and block floor 0mm concrete screed Plasterboard ‘Stud partitions Dead oad Imposed toad ‘Therefore total lor load taken a5 4.10-+ 1.50 = External walls 100 mm blockwork 102mm brickwork 120mm plaster Internal walls 100mm blockwork Two coats of plaster Staircases 175 mm in-situ coneete Finishes Imposed load Total Loadings to walls External wall A wall 42590 3x5.60%40 Thre fi ot oval External wall B Walt 425%780 Roof 023 1.00 07s 025 10 2.004Ni? Nim?) 225 120 ois 050 410, 130 S.OOKN/nt Gin?) 20 20 02s as anime) 20 050 230 Nin) 420 030 450 3.00 T30KNin? im 3825 33.60 Tas 023 002 O15, 1.00 075 025 10 200KNin® in?) 235 120 ous 050 410 150 S.6OKNIn? im’) 20 20 02s rd ime) 20 050 250 in?) 420, 030 430 30 TS0RN iat Nin) 3825 33.60 ns 3315 83 ans 200mm @ 278mm blockwore party wall 200 mm, Rafi foundations 150 me reinforces its ig, 221 Example 2.1 reinforcement deals to raft foundatca (a) External edge beam; () party wall thickening, ® Spine wall C Watt 250x809 35.6070 Three Hors So Toul Staircase wall wat 4.25 «9.0 (average height) Thee Sxsax3 200 38.80 7380 38.25 25.20 Tic lndngs 32750022 ag Teal as GROUND FLOOR BLOCKWORK DESIGN Maximum tine toad on spine wall = 7880kN/m. Using 10N ‘crushing strength blocks with mortar designation (ii), f, = 8.2 ‘Design vertical resistance of wall / unit length: n, = Sh 41 Foundation design where is a capacity eduction factor based on slenéemess ratio (Table 7 BS 5628 (BSI, 1978) fis the characteristic strength of the masonry obtained from Clause 23 10 be taken as 8.20 Nima ‘Is the patil safety factor for blockwork obtained from Clause 25, taken a8 3.10; = wall thickness in millimetres, Eccentricity at {op of wal taken as 0.05 ha _ 2400 fg 2400 94 te 100 Therefore 3 ‘Therefore 0.5310028.20 Vertical oad resistance 30 40kNie Design lo 78.801 50= 118kNin ‘Therefore for ground floor walls use 1ON crushing strength blocks (Check first to second floor 58.80 Applied load = 7.802852 (2.505.270) = 5235 Nin Using .0N strength blockwork, f= 6.40 ‘Therefore vertical load resistance = 2-53%100%6.40 «199.4 3:0 = 109 Nien Design loud = 52.53 1.0 = 78.825 N/m: OK ‘Therefore use 7.0N crushing stength blocks from fist floor to second flr. ‘Check second floor to roof level Ape on = $2.55 -$839 (250%270)=2620 Nim Using SON segs = 330-Teee Vert rece = 2528100. 99 pm 900m Design load = 26.20 1.50 = 39.30 N/m ‘Therefore use 3.50 N crshing stength blocks from second floor to roof level. (Check inner leaf of external walls Wall A Foor osd Blockwork 250% 9.0 Using 2.0N strength blockwork, Vertical load resistance = 253%100%6.40 3:0 = 109kN/m Design load = $6.10 1.50 = 84.15 Nim ‘Therefore use 7.0 crushing strength blocks for ll the iner leat to the extemal walls from ground floor upto the second floor level RAFT DESIGN Design edge beams to span a 4 m diameter solution feature and cantilever 2 m at the comers. Use w/10 to take account of some - — i oT szawm ___[f—]L_ & Ta : opr] | fs ||— 4s] ———f]/a ma || 8) gE aay a al eg | — sown IL T 7) aaa Rum ]| | E asm | sorm Ld" Boom | | 200m | | eso 20mm 28d Fig. 222 Example 2.2: ground-floor plan of three-storey fats, 2 sin Nin second floor to Cm 360 250 610 + nner leaf to sor level dn feature and (© ant of some Ob [ees aoe 0mm K 3.5 N blockwork Tussed rafter roof TON blockwork Provide 35 mm x5 re ‘abarized toe Fostrant straps at 2.0m AON blockwork 38 800m, 250mm fixity. Maximum line load = 85.25 N/m. With load factor of 1.50 for dead plus imposed loads the ultimate line load equals 1.50 x 85.25 = 127.875kNm, Therefore vninte nen gene = 2S ou gou Vain sn in =A assim 2 ‘Try 600mm > 600 mm edge beam, d= 600 — 40 ~ 10 = 550mm, From Fig. 2.11: 9 __23875x108 BE Goons ‘Therefore lever arm factor = 0.945, and therefore == 0.945 x50 = 519mm. poe M__ 258521096)? BF 87 xA60 x31 ‘Therefore use fourT20 high-yield bars top and boom (1256). k =004 Shear ¥=8525%20% 15025571 V _255.75x10° 2 1004, bd" ssoxeon “°7SNm Gao 550 = 08 ve=045 inn? “Therefore minimus inks required 5= 250mm ‘n> asng, = 087x460 ‘Therefore minimum ewo leg THO links at 250mm centres. Ay = stmt Maximum spacing of lis = 0.75 d =0.75 x50= 412mm. Raft foundations 230m 2.0) 260 1 }- Fig. 223 Example 22: typical cross-section of three- sory Aas b design Total oad on raft on) Bx7185x10 315 8x7880%10 eo 8x8525x10 = 682 7S0%A128%20 = «20 Load spread = 8.73 x 8.315 = 72.60 m?. Therefore average bearing pressure below slab = 2507/72.60 = 34.50kN/m?. Assume slab spans simply supported. Maximum span Nin’) Uhimate design oad = 1.50%3450 SLs Less weight of slab = 140x020%24 6m 5.03 ‘Therefore net uplift pressure = 45.03 KN/n?. Try two-way spanning slab, simply supported at edges. Provide spine beam across cenze of rf. 140m, 1,=40 Img = gl mye yl? From Table 3.14 me = 006245 04? = 44.66 KN my =0062 4505.4? = 4466 4Nm 1,40 1°30 33a, = 0.093 a, = 0055 im, = 0.093% 45.03x3? = 37.69 Nm 1m, =0.085%45.03%3" = 2228 Nm Foundation design b Fig. 224 Example 2.2: raft edge deal Forfa 5 Nim? and f, = 460 Nd? u. 466x108 ‘af T000% 135% 155935 083 From Fig. 2.11, z= 0.93. Therefore: 4466210" ‘0871550935460 Use fabric A393 supplemented with T1O at 200 mm centres in top ‘of slab both ways with A393 in bottom of slab For the 40m x:3.0m bay, moment = 37.69 kN m. Therefore Me 3769x108 Ba R WH1SSx150SS ‘Therefore 2=0935, A =715 mm? jm 3769x108 TiaT 460 «1350935 Use fabric A393 supplemented with TIO at 300 mm centre in top in both dretions with A393 in bottom of sab Therefore A, 650 mm? 26 PAD AND PIER FOUNDATION ‘This type of foundation (Fig. 2.25) can be used in situations ‘where piling is being considered. If only one or two dwell- ings are affected the cost of piling can be prohibitive because of the initial cost of geting the piling rg to the ste. t's used in situations where very soft clays, peat and fill materials overlie firm or stiff strata at depths up to 3-4m. On sites, where foundations are on rock strata and a deep face is 44 Fabre ref A300 ~ aes 50m min wal ‘consolidated ‘randlar tt encountered because of past quarrying or geological faulting, depths of up to 6m are still more economic than piling and construction delays can be reduced, ‘The piers can often be constructed using manhole ring sections placed on a concrete pad foundation and filed with mass concrete. The top section ofthe pier can be reinforced to form a connection for the reinforced concrete ring beams Placed at or close to ground level ‘This method of construction can also be used where exis. ing drainage is too close to a proposed wall foundation. In all cases the pad foundations must be wholly on similar bearing strata 26.1. Disused wells Quite often old disused wells are encountered on housing sites, usually during excavation for the foundations. When such wells ate found itis wise to make the well safe without altering the water source which supplies the well. Filling a well with mass concrete is not a recommended solution: it ‘could be very expensive and changes in the groundwater regime could occur. The most suitable method if the well is deeper than 2 isto fill the well with 150 mm single-size stone and, if in a garden area, provide a reinforced concrete cap twice the diameter of the well. If the well is under or very close to a foundation then, after filling, a beam system will be required to span over the well. The beams should extend a sufficient distance beyond the well; this minimum distance is ‘generally taken asthe well diameter each side, al faulting, ‘an piling and hole ring 1 filled with be reinforced © ing beams | where exist- dation, Ta all ar bearing 1.0n housing ations. When 1 afe without Loa. Filling a xd solution: it roundwater the well is sile-size stone concrete cap der or very {system will ould extend a distance is Pad and pier foundation so mm c10P ‘overate concrete ‘0n 1200 gauge potthene pm “Timber suspended ground foor Fal — oun Fig. 225 Pad and pier foundations. Example 2.3 Disused well During excavation for 2 house footing a well was discovered following removal ofa large sandstone cover (Fig. 2.26). The well, was found to be 6m deep and water was within 1.0m ofthe ground 350m TL level. The well was approximately 2.0m in diameter and the top 2.0m was brick-lined. The well was positioned below the junction ‘ofthe rear wall and party wall twas not posible o reposition the ‘welling so a beam system in the form ofa tee configuration was adopted, 350m { Foca a ZZ» 600 mn 60 ren B 3 ‘112200 mm ‘ontes Bling with 100 men Giaymaster ow Sewanee Scam ig.226 Example 2.3: disused well — foundations. Concrete mix 30 N/mm? at 28 days reinforcement tobe high-ensile bars ‘round bearing pressure 80 kN/n? minimum, 300mm t ‘Wel filed with so mm min single size stone owable Foundation design Corng tube Stage 1 Stage 2 Fig. 2.27 Bored pile construction sequence. Stage I: Coring tube with cuting edge to suit ground conditions. ‘Stage 2: Shaft fully formed. A temporary casing may be required in water-bearng gravels and sands. ‘Stage 3: Helical enforcement placed and spaced of ses of shaft. High slump conerete poured. Temporary casing may be required while maintaining head of concrete in shat, Stage 4: Top of ple cut down and pile cap cast Factored dead toad 36kNin x14 = s04e Factored live load 2kNimx16 = 19.20 Self weight of beam SkNimxi = 1120 Toul load = B08DEN/m Beam spans 3.50™m on toa pad foundation. Unimate moment = #250%3.50° «195.75 kN imate shear = £089%3-50 144.40 aN a 20 Make beam 600mm x 600 mm section. d = 600 = 40 — 16 ‘40mm, Using Fig. 2.1 b= 600mm fas = 30h M___12375%10" _ yoy Wf, fooxsio a 22098d Therefore an 123251106 ay Dare” 087% A60x095%54 ‘Therefore provide four T20 mm bars in botom of beam with tree ‘T12in op. Shear aLa0 x10? 1140-10" 9.438 Nim? 0% 540 = 100A, _ 1004x314 bd etoxsa0 9% ¥.=046, As v<¥_ + 04, provide minimum links throughout beam, Therefore: 04033003600, 07460 A 180 men?/n 46 Therefore use four leg T8 links at 300 mm centres to siisty clause 34.55, which stipulates tha no longitudinal tension bar should be further than from a vertical leg ofa shea ink BEAM A. Make span of bearn 7.0m Reaction from beam B = 141.40kN, Factored dead load = 23.60kNimx 140 = 330 Factoredliveload = 3.20KNimx 1.60 = 5.12 Self-weightofbeam = 8kN/mx 140 = 1120 Total load == 49.32. 1414x710 , 4932x707 40 80 Vig =141.400.50+.4932%0.50%7. M____ss0x108 BER, Boxs40" 30 550kNm kw 0.105 55010" ‘ar xa6oxs40x0R6 75? ™ A= ‘Therefore provide four 32 mm bar in botiom of beam with three TH in wp. 2Udx10? _ 94 + awhile > satisfy clause (ar should be am with three ‘Therefore ve = 0.63, and hence Ay is Tess than ve + 0.6 and inimim Kinks ae required. Provide fou leg T8 at 300mm centres. PAD FOUNDATIONS Maximum unfactred line load on pany wall = 48 + 8 = S6kNim. With 2 600mm wide footing, bearing pressure = S6/.60 = 93k Maximum unfactored line load on external wall 3480KNin, ‘With a 450 mm wise footing, bearing pressure 2680+ 8 = 80. 34.80=77kNim ‘oas In order that differential setlements between the pad foundation and the strip footings can be kept within acceptable limits, a maximum allowable bearing pressure of 100KN/n? sheuld be ‘adopted under the pad foundations even though the natual stiff ‘las are good for about 200 kN/n® In ation some section of the round beam between the bearing pads and the well willbe sup- ported on natural ground, educing ground bearing pressures even Further. Party wall pad Unfactored reaction 256x322 98 KN Self-weight of tase. = 04x24 9.6 KNin? $80 084 m* Areagequired =: ‘say 1.05 m 1.05 m>400 mm tick pad foundation. External wall pad Veto son =34901224 2809016 400mm thick pad foundation Base reinforcement 4=400- 49-10 = 380mm ‘Maximum ukimate moment M___1osssx10"__ BEET x350" 30 Piled foundations ‘Therefore use T12 at 200 mm centres both directions in botom. Party wall pad ‘Maximum vlimate moment oars 2 = (100-946) x1 59225" 23.43 km By inspection, nominal stel willbe required. 0.13 19° 350= 455 mm? Minimum percentage = 952 x10? x350= 455, ‘Therefore use 12mm at 200 mm centres each way. 27. PILED FOUNDATIONS Where a lot of dwellings require special foundations and the fills or weak ground are not suitable for ground improvement techniques, piling can be carried out at very little extra cost provided the design details are carefully considered. In most situations driven ples are used, driven toa predetermined set and subjected to a random load test of 1.50times the working load. Driven piles should be avoided in situations where the bedrock profile can vary over a short distance, as in infilled railway cuttings and backfilled stone quarries, for example, Ta these situations driven piles are prone to drifting out of plumb during the driving stage and often end up damaged because of the eccentric loads applied. If piling is being used then the ground beams should be kept as high as possible. It is often more economic to design 1 scheme based on large piles, especially ifthe piles are taken down on to rock or hard clays. One ofthe problems in using small minitype piles in yielding strata, such as clays. and sands, is that the end bearing component ofthe working, load required is usually of a low magnitude and the piles need to be driven deeper to pick up sufficient skin friction. ‘What may seem to be an economic piling scheme based on estimated driven lengths may, on final remeasure, end up being very costly. ‘Where piles are driven or bored through filled ground still settling under its own weight, due allowance must be made for the additional load arising from negative skin friction. Also, on sites where highly compressible strata such as peat are likely t0 be loaded, due to the site levels being raised, ‘additional loads will be transferred to the pile shaft. 2.71 Bored piles ‘These are generally formed using a simple tripod rig. Where there are groundwater problems, or very soft clays which may cause necking, then temporary casings or permanent steel sleeves should be used. Great care must be exercised when withdrawing temporary casings, and a sufficient head ‘of concrete should always be maintained in the pile shaft to prevent necking or concrete loss. Bored piles usually rely on end bearing and skin fiction to ‘support the pile loads. They are best suited to clay sites ‘where no groundwater problems exist and the upper strata a7 Foundation design are strong enough to maintain an open bore. Once steel casings have to be considered, the bored pile can be uneco: ‘nomic compared with ther faster systems, ‘Their main advantage is that they can be installed quietly with minimum vibration; ideal when piling close to existing buildings, ‘Where end bearing is required it is important to ensure thatthe stratum below the pile toe remains competent for distance of at least 3m. If no site investigation is available this can be checked by overboring several piles, Figure 2.27 shows the sequence of operations for installing 2 bored pile. Different cutting tools are required for the various soil conditions Safe loads for bored piles in clay soils are generally calculated using the Skempton formulae which combine both end bearing and frictional properties of the ple For varying soil strengths the skin friction is considered for the separate elements of the pile shaft with negetive skin fiction being considered when passing through filled ground, 2.72 Design of a bored pile Adopt a factor of safety of 3 for end bearing and a factor of safety of 2 for skin friction. Qy = the ultimate resistance of the pile = Qs + Q>- Qe isthe ultimate Value for skin frictien = shaft area x 0.45¢ = m dh x O.4Sc. Qy isthe ultimate value for end. bearing = base area x9e = 1x d? x 9e where cis the cohesion value of the clays determined by laboratory testing or by the Use of field tests: ie, penetrometer or shear vane tests Thus Allowable working osd fora pile = 24 2s te werkng od for apie = + 2 1 1 (nt? x9) inxoase) 4 LOE leanxoseys 2.7he Eel27h+94) 12 ‘Where the clay cohesions vary, the pile shaft is split into vertical elements using the appropriate values down the pile Tength, 2.73 Design of bored and driven piles Estimation of approximate working loads is as follows. ‘The ultimate load capacity Q, ofa pile is 2.=0+0. Where Q, = ultimate shaft resistance, Qy = ultimate bese area resistance, q = ultimate unit end bearing resistance, Ay = effective cross-sectional area of the base of the pile, f ultimate unit shaft resistance on sides of pile, A, = effective surface area of ple shaft considered as loaded, Base resistance: clay strata ‘The ultimate base resistance of a bored or driven pile in cohesive strata given by 4 48 where Ne = bearing capacity factor, Cy = undrained shear strength ofthe cohesive strata atthe pile base. Values of Ny. for cohesive strata can be variable and are dependent on the angle of intemal friction, 6. For estimating purposes a value of 9 is generally used for pile diameters up to 450 mm diameter, Base resistance: granular strata ‘The base resistance in a granular stratum is given by 421% Where Ne is the bearing capacity factor obtained from the Berezantsev graph (Berezantsev, 1961) based on the angle of shearing resistance @ for the stratum. The value of is usually determined from the standard penetration test results, carried out in the field. For bored piles an Ny value appropriate for loose soil conditions is recommended as the boring operation loosens the strata, and ¢ values of 28 30° ean be used. 1 = average effective unit weight of soil surrounding the pile, and D = depth to the base of the pile ‘The value of g should not exceed 11 MN Shaft resistance in clay soils ‘The shaft resistance f is given by frac, where = 0.45 for bored ples, C, = undeined shear strength. cris taken as 1.0 for driven piles in contact with susta with Cy < 50 RN For strata with C, > 50 KN the value of ales between 0125 and 1.0 and is dependent onthe depth of penetration into the clay srata and the prevaling round conditions, The shaft resistance fin pranulr Soll s piven by fa}eO +o ketnd where D = depth to base of pl or bas ofthe granular trata wiichever is the lesser d= depth othe top a the granu Stata; 5 = angle of fiction between the granular stata and the pile shat; Ky = cath pressure coefficient dependent on the relative density ofthese Broms (1966) related the values of Ky and 6 10 the ef fective angle of shearing resistance of granular sls for various types of piles and slave densities For dven ples K 6 a ——— Lowrelative High density relative density Steel 2° os. 10 Concrete 3.9 10 20 ee is generally taken to be the value of @ as obtained from the SPT tests, For bored piles, values of 6 = 22° and K,= 10 should be used to cater for the loosening effect when boring. out “ned shear 7 ues of Ne saent on the oses a value 1 450 mm by ou from the the angle of, 12 of bis > sstresults Ny value eded as the 28-30 ‘gut of soil of the pile sined shear = tact with lies between snetration by dar strata, the granular strata and 510 the ef- oils @ for ven piles: ‘The expression § + (D + d) K, tan Scan only be used for penetration depths up to 10-20 times the pile diameter. Between 10 and 20 times the pile diameter a peak value of unit skin Friction is reached and ths value isnot exceeded at seater depths of penetration. Its prudent to adopt a peak ‘ale of 100 KN? for straight-sided piles ‘Tomlinson (1980) suggested that the following approx- imate value can be adopted for f (N/m) Relative density f (ef?) 0.35 Loose 10 035-065 Medium dense 10-25 0465-085 Dense 25-70 20.85 Very dense 70 but < 110 {A factor of safety of 25 should be adopted to these ukimate values to obtain the allowable or safe working load oa the pile Example 2.4 Bored piles A site investigation has revealed that loose colliery wate fills about 44m thick overlie firm-to-siff clays which are underliin by ‘weathered modstones. The maximum pile loading is 300 KN but an ditional load resulting from negative skin friction has to be catered for asthe fills have only een in place for one yearend are sill consolidating under their own weight. The tata ae described In Figs 2.28 and 2.29, ‘An existing culvert passes under the proposed dwelling snd its Shale, DN and same “coal Fem o afF grange bw aad oR ae sets getteg 2 a ee rey “silly faces ik oun and dark arey Coo Comptes Geathered. mdaroas a Bon ded. aa) ties Blin iol “ ston} modstowe at 7-20 m Fig. 2.28 Example 24: borchole 274 Driven piles ‘The main advantage of these types of ple is that they can be placed through weak or water-bearing strata without any Inthe housing field these usually consist of steel tubes filled changes occurring in their cross-section. They are generally with concrete, precast concrete segmental piles, concrete end bearing piles but additional loads resulting from skin segmental shell piles or other similar types 50 fiction (adhesion) can be developed when driven through i Piled reinforcement Sit Zoos = SG WaT foe ie LIGHT CAGLE PERCUSSION AT [50MM DIAMETER ae HvDdERSFIELO Dina conrerand fend e120 MD. rasesa] SET] RS «send Seale keeper 8 | ed Descrition of Sata eth | esend ‘Type | Test i” ; k MADE GROUND = Shala ard : ‘modsbonte , Brick frogmanks, and timber 20 : | 49 I 60 2-90 | MADE GROUND? Gricks, stones | E 7 and clays } E cH) 3-60 so. MADE GROwND : Black ash and E brick fragments i Evo | E, 120 eo THADE GROUND = Gandatons. fragment : and blac ch 20/4 i Safe ark grey «very E= grewelly, ody ~silty “chewy inclusions dnd decaying rout i Fragments 250 Dark gay ark binck weak, bagels —— waatrered easrly bedded SS N Chess anton = sa) E Borstg eusparded. in stro nes at TBO M “4 200 ena Traces of waber entered borehole during drilling at 770 M Borehole dry on wittevawal of casing Fig.229 Example 24; borehole 2 wibey ean ithout any the clays or gravels overlying the bearing strata ‘When using this concept itis essential that a random ple be are generally ‘These piles are usually driven to predetermined setbased load tested using kentledge or by jacking against tension from skin ‘on the Hiley formula which is a dynamic criterion releted to piles 0 coifirm that the pile driving assumptions and 1 through the weight of the driving hammer and height of the drop. established set criteria are valid. st Foundation design 122.00 400. ‘yor 18 KN? Made ground” oho Slum ° oo Fig. 2.31 Example 24: ground conditions at borehole 2 mudstones $82 5 ‘The Hiley piling equation is Wha Note: This equation should never be used Ru" Teel) when driving into silts or soft clays. where Re = ultimate resistance to be overcome by driving; he effective drop height of piling hammer; w = weight of the piling hammer; n = hammer blow efficiency, which can ‘vary for different arrangements of pile, helmet and dciving dolly; s = Set or penetration per blow; c= total temporary ‘compression of pile, soil, dolly and driving cap. ‘When driving ples a good check on the driving fora is to re-strike the piles. Re-strike is best carried out the day following driving to allow a period of rest, especially in ‘round with pore water pressures. If a smaller set is achieved on re-strike this indicates the validity ofthe predetermined set. Ifthe restrike set exceeds the previous set obtained before rest then the piles should be driven further or load tested. It may at this stage be necessary to examine the soils data and review the piling design. Provided the weight ofthe drop hammer is adequate to drive the pile through the upper strata at an acceptable rate without damaging the pile head, a satisfactory set is generally con- sidered to be 10 blows giving a penetration of 25 mm, ie. 2.5 rumyblow, but these sets can vary for different piling systems. Some piling contractors and firms specializing in remedial ‘ini-piling use vibratory hammers; these should only be used when the operating characteristics ofthe vibratory hammers, penetration and soils data have been proven on similar soils. 27.5. Driving precast piles ‘These are usually driven using the modified Hiley formula: Ee. 7000 Using a 3 tonne hydraulic hammer with a 400 mm drop this should result in a set for 10 blows of 70 mm or less. General notes (2) The Hiley formula should only be applied to piles which ‘oblain their support in cohesionless soils such as sands and gravels, or in very stiff or hard clays or rock stata. ‘The formula is not applicable to pure “friction piles” penetrating into and obtaining their support in soft clays fr silts throughout most of the pile length. () Ifa reduction of resistance is shown following a re-drive check, the Hiley formula should not be used, and Ry should be determined by means of a load test. (©) When driving ples in backiiled stone quartes or inflled railway cuttings a rock shoe should be provided t0 enable the pile toe to obtain good penetration. Driven Design philosophy piles can be unsuitable in such situations because the rock profile is not visible and may be steeply sloping. could give rise to instability atthe toe ofthe pile. Extreme care should be exercised during the driving ‘operation for any sigs ofthe pile losing its vertical (@) The recommended tolerances for ple positions are: 75 mm out of position on plan; ‘maximum 1 in 75 out of plumb, Where ples are outside the 75 mm allowed, various alterations can be made to the ground beams t9 accom modate the eccentric moments developed. Where piles are placed out of plumb it may be sufficient just to dlownate the pile load capacity. However, ifthe out of plumb is as a result of sloping rock at the pile toe then @ new ple should be installed using a rock socket. 2.7.6 Test loading ‘Two types of test loading are in general use. In the frst, the ‘maintained load test, the kentledge load or adjacent tension piles are used to provide a reaction for the test load. This load is applied by hydraulic jacks placed over the pile being tested and the load applied is measured by a proving ring or similar load-measuring device which should be calibrated before and after each series of tests. The load is increased in fixed incremental steps and is held at each stage of loading ‘until all setlement has either ceased or does not exceed a specified amount in a given period of time. Figure 2.32 shows a typical ple-testing arrangement using tension piles and Figs 2.33 and 2.34 show the load / settlement recorded, “The second type of test isthe constant rate af penetra tion method. The test arrangement is the same as for the ‘maintained load test but the load is increased continuously at arate such that settlement of the pile occurs ata constant rate pper minute. Generally the applied ‘proof’ load is 1.50 times the working load of the pile. In proof-loading tests itis usually required that the pile shall not have failed at the specified proof load, and that the net or gross settlement of the pile head shall not exceed a stated figure Example 2.5 Detached house: pile and ground beam design ‘The site investigation has revealed made ground resulting from a Silled-in clay pit lose toa brickworks. The fills consist of soft clays and mixed rubble which were of loose consistency. No organic ‘materials were evident ‘The maximum depth of the clay pit was 4.50 m and the base of the pit revealed stiff brown clays containing small boulders underlain by sandstone rock at a depth of 8.0 m. Owing to the condition ofthe that 150 mum steel tube driven piles shouldbe ured DESIGN PHILOSOPHY ‘Where continuous beams are approximately equal spans itis reasonable to design them as simply supported and provide op stel ‘over the supports equivalent to the bottom stel. This will satisfy the serviceability requirements of BS 8110 in preventing any 53