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Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC)[1] was

a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.

His writings cover many subjects, includingphysics, metaphysics, poetry,
theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology,
and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is
one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's
writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western
philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics
and metaphysics.
Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval
scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although
they were ultimately replaced byNewtonian physics. In the zoological
sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the
19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which
was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. In
metaphysics,Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and
theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages,
and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. His
ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of
Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many
elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"),[2] it is thought that the
majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived.[3]

René Descartes (French pronunciation: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; 31 March 1596 –

11 February 1650) (Latinized form: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form:
"Cartesian")[3] was a natural philosopher and writer who spent most of his
adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern
Philosophy", and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his
writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations
on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university
philosophy departments. Descartes's influence in mathematics is also
apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system—allowing geometric shapes to be
expressed in algebraic equations—was named after him. He is credited as
the father ofanalytical geometry. Descartes was also one of the key figures in
the Scientific Revolution.
Descartes frequently sets his views apart from those of his predecessors. In
the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the Early
Modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes
so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on
these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in lateAristotelianism, the
revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like St. Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he
differs from the Schools on two major points: First, he rejects the analysis of corporeal substance into matter
and form; second, he rejects any appeal to ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena.[4] In
his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God’s act of creation.
Descartes was a major figure in 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch
Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting
ofHobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Hume.
Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and
Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well. As the inventor of the Cartesian coordinate system, Descartes
founded analytic geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal
calculus and analysis.
He is perhaps best known for the philosophical statement "Cogito ergo sum" (French: Je pense, donc je
suis; English: I think, therefore I am; or I am thinking, therefore I exist or I do think, therefore I do exist), found in
part IV of Discourse on the Method (1637 – written in French but with inclusion of "Cogito ergo sum") and §7 of
part I of Principles of Philosophy (1644 – written in Latin).
Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942)
is an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, whose scientific books
and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity. He is
an Honorary Fellow of theRoyal Society of Arts,[2] a lifetime member of
the Pontifical Academy of Sciences,[3]and in 2009 was awarded
the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United
Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of
Cambridge for thirty years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on 1
October 2009.[5][6] He is now Director of Research at the Centre for
Theoretical Cosmology in the Department of Applied Mathematics and
Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge. He is also
a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and a Distinguished
Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in
Waterloo, Ontario.[7] He is known for his contributions to the fields
of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes.
He has also achieved success with works of popular science in which he
discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; these include the
runaway best seller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the
BritishSunday Times bestsellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.[8][9]
Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger
Penrose,theorems regarding gravitational singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical
prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation (or sometimes
as Bekenstein–Hawking radiation).[10]
Hawking has a motor neurone disease that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition that has
progressed over the years and has left him almost completely paralysed.

Ludwik Hirszfeld (August 5, 1884 Warsaw – March 7, 1954 Wroclaw) was

a Polishmicrobiologist and a serologist. He is considered one of the co-discoverers of the
inheritance of ABO blood type. He established a laboratory of experimental medicine at the
State Institute of Hygiene in Poland shortly after World War I. In 1946, he published his
autobiography, The Story of One Life.

Albert Einstein ( /ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (

listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical
physicist who discovered the theory ofgeneral relativity, effecting a
revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as
the father of modern physics.[2] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in
Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his
discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[3]
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian
mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical
mechanics with the laws of theelectromagnetic field. This led to the
development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that
the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and
with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on
the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems
of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations
of particle theory and themotion of molecules. He also investigated the
thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of
light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.[4]
He escaped from Nazi Germany in 1933, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences,
and settled in the U.S., becoming a citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President
Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U.S.
begin similar research. Later, together with Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto,
which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein taught physics at theInstitute for Advanced
Study at Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.
Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works, and received
honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American
universities;[4] he also wrote about various philosophical and political subjects such as socialism, international
relations and theexistence of God.[5] His great intelligence and originality have made the word "Einstein"
synonymous with genius.[6]

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