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Amul kee chaal

(The Distribution and Supply

Chain Management of Amul



Supply chain management (SCM) is a business practice that aims to improve the way a
business sources its raw materials, and delivers it to end users. For any product or service
offered by any business, there are usually a number of different business entities involved in
the various stages of the supply chain, including manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors and
retailers; the last group supply chain is consumers. SCM is important for
modern businesses because it coordinates and synchronizes activities of partner businesses,
giving efficiency..


Innovation & Research is always a cloud in the air until it green the earth and
guidance is a lentil of strong building. Hence I take this opportunity to express my profound
sense of gratitude to & for providing me the opportunity to work for such an interesting &
knowledgeable project & providing every possible help and guidance. I am immensely
grateful to my project guide Ms. PREETI SINGH for this meticulous guidance, constructive
criticism and valuable suggestions during the entire duration of the project.

I would also like to thank to all those who could not find a separate mention but have
helped me directly/indirectly.


I ,Brijesh Kumar, as a student of M.B.A.(marketing

+P.G.P. in retail), Delhi Business School, want to state that work conducted on project was
performed under the supervision of Ms. PREETI SINGH sincerely prepared the project and
reported in the study are genuine and authentic.




AMUL means "priceless" in Sanskrit. A quality control expert in Anand suggested the
brand name “Amul,” from the Sanskrit “Amoolya,” Variants, all meaning "priceless", are
found in several Indian languages. Amul products have been in use in millions of homes
since 1946. Amul Butter, Amul Milk Powder, Amul Ghee, Amul spray, Amul Cheese, Amul
Chocolates, Amul Shrikhand, Amul Ice cream, Nutramul, Amul Milk and Amulya have
made Amul a leading food brand in India. (Turnover: Rs. 25 billion in 2002). Today Amul is
a symbol of many things. Of high-quality products sold at reasonable prices, of the genesis of
a vast co-operative network, of the triumph of indigenous technology, of the marketing savvy
of a farmers' organization and have a proven model for dairy development.


. Besides India, Amul has entered overseas markets such as Mauritius, UAE, USA, Bangladesh,

Australia, China, Singapore, Hong Kong

and a few South African countries. Its bid to enter Japanese
market in 1994 did not succeed, but now it has fresh plans entering the Japanese markets [6].
Other potential markets being considered include Sri Lanka.


The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd, Anand (GCMMF) is the largest
food products marketing organization of India. It is the apex organization of the Dairy
Cooperatives of Gujarat. This State has been a pioneer in organizing dairy cooperatives and
our success has not only been emulated in India but serves as a model for rest of the World.
Over the last five and a half decades, Dairy Cooperatives in Gujarat have created an
economic network that links more than 2.8 million village milk producers with millions of
consumers in India and abroad through a cooperative system that includes 13,141 Village
Dairy Cooperative Societies (VDCS) at the village level, affiliated to 13 District Cooperative
Milk Producers’ Unions at the District level and GCMMF at the State level. These
cooperatives collect on an average 7.5 million litres of milk per day from their producer
members, more than 70% of whom are small, marginal farmers and landless labourers and
include a sizeable population of tribal folk and people belonging to the scheduled castes. The
turnover of GCMMF (AMUL) during 2008-09 was Rs. 67.11 billion. It markets the products,
produced by the district milk unions in 30 dairy plants, under the renowned AMUL brand
name. The combined processing capacity of these plants is 11.6 million litres per day, with
four dairy plants having processing capacity in excess of 1 million Litres per day. The
farmers of Gujarat own the largest state of the art dairy plant in Asia – Mother Dairy,
Gandhinagar, Gujarat – which can handle 2.5 million litres of milk per day and process 100
MTs of milk powder daily. During the last year, 3.1 billion litres of milk was collected by
Member Unions of GCMMF. Huge capacities for milk drying, product manufacture and
cattle feed. Ever since the movement was launched fifty-five years ago, Gujarat’s Dairy
Cooperatives have brought about a significant social and economic change to our rural
people. The Dairy Cooperatives have helped in ending the exploitation of farmers and
demonstrated that when our rural producers benefit, the community and nation benefits as

GCMMF: An overview

Members: 13 district cooperative milk producers'

No. of Producer Members: 2.9 million
No. of Village Societies: 15,322
Total Milk handling capacity: 13.07 million litres per day
Milk collection (Total - 2009-10): 3.32 billion litres
Milk collection (Daily Average 9.10 million litres
Milk Drying Capacity: 647 Mts. per day
Cattlefeed manufacturing 3740 Mts per day


The birth of Amul at Anand provided the impetus to the cooperative dairy movement in the
country. The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Limited was registered on
December 14, 1946 as a response to exploitation of marginal milk producers by traders or
agents of existing dairies in the small town named Anand (in Kaira District of Gujarat). Milk
Producers had to travel long distances to deliver milk to the only dairy, the Polson Dairy in
Anand . Angered by the unfair and manipulative trade practices, the farmers of Kaira District
approached Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (who later became the first Deputy Prime Minister and
Home Minister of free India) under the leadership of the local farmer leader Tribhuvandas Patel.
Sardar Patel advised the farmers to form a Cooperative and supply milk directly to the
Bombay Milk Scheme instead of selling it to Polson (who did the same but gave low prices
to the producers). He sent Morarji Desai (who later became Prime Minister of India) to organize
the farmers. In 1946, the farmers of the area went on a milk strike refusing to be further
oppressed. Thus the Kaira District Cooperative was established to collect and process milk in
the District of Kaira in 1946. Milk collection was also decentralized, as most producers .
were marginal farmers who were in a position to deliver 1-2 litres of milk per day. Village
level cooperatives were established to organize the marginal milk producers in each of these
villages. The Cooperative was further developed & managed by Dr. V Kurien along with
Shri H M Dalaya . in 1973, the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation was
established. The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. which had

established the brand name AMUL in 1955 decided to hand over the brand name to GCMMF
(AMUL). With the creation of GCMMF (AMUL), we[who?] managed to eliminate
competition between Gujarat’s cooperatives while competing with the private sector as a
combined stronger force. GCMMF (AMUL) has ensured remunerative returns to the farmers
while providing consumers with products under the brand name AMUL.



• Amul Butter
• Amul Lite Low Fat Breadspread

Cheese Range:

• Amul Pasteurized Processed Cheddar Cheese

• Amul Processed Cheese Spread
• Amul Mozarella Cheese
• Amul Emmental Cheese
• Amul Gouda Cheese
• Amul Malai Paneer (cottage cheese)
• Utterly Delicious Pizza

Mithaee Range (Ethnic sweets):

• Amul Shrikhand (Mango, Saffron, Almond Pistachio, Cardamom)

• Amul Amrakhand
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamuns
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamun Mix
• Amul Mithaee Kulfi Mix

UHT Milk Range:

• Amul Taaza 3% fat Milk

• Amul Gold 4.5% fat Milk
• Amul Slim-n-Trim 0% fat milk
• Amul Chocolate Milk
• Amul Fresh Cream
• Amul Snowcap Softy Mix

Pure Ghee:

• Amul Pure Ghee

• Sagar Pure Ghee

Infant Milk Range:

• Amul Infant Milk Formula 1 (0-6 months)

• Amul Infant Milk Formula 2 ( 6 months above)
• Amulspray Infant Milk Food

Milk Powders:

• Amul Full Cream Milk Powder

• Amulya Dairy Whitener
• Sagar Skimmed Milk Powder
• Sagar Tea and Coffee Whitener

Sweetened Condensed Milk:

• Amul Mithaimate Sweetened Condensed Milk

Fresh Milk:

• Amul Taaza Toned Milk 3% fat

• Amul Gold Full Cream Milk 6% fat
• Amul Shakti Standardised Milk 3% fat
• Amul Smart Double Toned Milk 1.5% fat

Curd Products:

• Amul Masti Dahi (fresh curd)

• Amul Butter Milk

Amul Icecreams:

• Royal Treat Range (Rajbhog, Cappuchino, Chocochips, Butterscotch, Tutti Frutti)

• Nut-o-mania range (Kaju Drakshi, Kesar Pista, Roasted Almond, Kesar Carnival,
Badshahi Badam Kulfi, Shista Pista Kulfi)
• Utsav Range (Anjir, Roasted Almond)
• Simply Delicious Range (Vanilla, Strawberry, Pineapple, Rose, Chocolate)
• Nature's Treat (Alphanso Mango, Fresh Litchi, Anjir, Fresh Strawberry, Black
• Sundae Range (Mango, Black Currant, Chocolate, Strawberry)
• Millennium Icecream (Cheese with Almonds, Dates with Honey)
• Milk Bars (Chocobar, Mango Dolly, Raspberry Dolly, Shahi Badam Kulfi, Shahi
Pista Kulfi, Mawa Malai Kulfi, Green Pista Kulfi)
• Cool Candies (Orange, Mango)
• Cassatta

• Tricone Cones (Butterscotch, Chocolate)
• Megabite Almond Cone
• Frostik - 3 layer chocolate Bar
• Fundoo Range - exclusively for kids
• SlimScoop Fat Free Frozen Dessert (Vanilla, Banana, Mango, Pineapple)

Chocolate & Confectionery:

• Amul Milk Chocolate

• Amul Fruit & Nut Chocolate
• Amul Eclairs

Brown Beverage:

• Nutramul Malted Milk Food


1. First plant is at ANAND, which engaged in the manufacturing of milk, butter, ghee,
milk powder, flavored milk and buttermilk.

2. Second plant is at MOGAR, which engaged in manufacturing chocolate, nutramul,

Amul Ganthia and Amul lite.

3. Third plant is at Kanjari, which produces cattelfeed.

4. Fourth plant is at Khatraj, which engaged in producing cheese.


The Amul Model is a three-tier cooperative structure. This structure consists of a Dairy
Cooperative Society at the village level affiliated to a Milk Union at the District level which
in turn is further federated into a Milk Federation at the State level. The above three-tier
structure was set-up in order to delegate the various functions, milk collection is done at the
Village Dairy Society, Milk Procurement & Processing at the District Milk Union and Milk
& Milk Products Marketing at the State Milk Federation. This helps in eliminating not only
internal competition but also ensuring that economies of scale is achieved. As the above
structure was first evolved at Amul in Gujarat and thereafter replicated all over the country
under the Operation Flood Programme, it is known as the ‘Amul Model’ or ‘Anand Pattern’
of Dairy Cooperatives.
Responsible for Marketing of Milk & Milk Products Responsible for Procurement &
Processing of Milk Responsible for Collection of Milk Responsible for Milk Production.

1. Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS)

• The milk producers of a village, having surplus milk after own consumption, come
together and form a Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS). The Village Dairy
Cooperative is the primary society under the three-tier structure. It has membership of
milk producers of the village and is governed by an elected Management Committee
consisting of 9 to 12 elected representatives of the milk producers based on the
principle of one member, one vote. The village society further appoints a Secretary (a
paid employee and member secretary of the Management Committee) for
management of the day-to-day functions. It also employs various people for assisting
the Secretary in accomplishing his / her daily duties. The main functions of the
VDCS are as follows:
• Collection of surplus milk from the milk producers of the village & payment based on
quality & quantity
• Providing support services to the members like Veterinary First Aid, Artificial
Insemination services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed
sales, conducting training on Animal Husbandry & Dairying, etc.
• Selling liquid milk for local consumers of the village
• Supplying milk to the District Milk Union
• Thus, the VDCS in an independent entity managed locally by the milk producers and
assisted by the District Milk Union.

2. District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union (Milk Union)

• The Village Societies of a District (ranging from 75 to 1653 per Milk Union in
Gujarat) having surplus milk after local sales come together and form a District Milk
Union. The Milk Union is the second tier under the three-tier structure. It has

membership of Village Dairy Societies of the District and is governed by a Board of
Directors consisting of 9 to 18 elected representatives of the Village Societies. The
Milk Union further appoints a professional Managing Director (paid employee and
member secretary of the Board) for management of the day-to-day functions. It also
employs various people for assisting the Managing Director in accomplishing his /
her daily duties. The main functions of the Milk Union are as follows:
• Procurement of milk from the Village Dairy Societies of the District
• Arranging transportation of raw milk from the VDCS to the Milk Union.
• Providing input services to the producers like Veterinary Care, Artificial
Insemination services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed
sales, etc.
• Conducting training on Cooperative Development, Animal Husbandry & Dairying for
milk producers and conducting specialised skill development & Leadership
Development training for VDCS staff & Management Committee members.
• Providing management support to the VDCS along with regular supervision of its
• Establish Chilling Centres & Dairy Plants for processing the milk received from the
• Selling liquid milk & milk products within the District
• Process milk into various milk & milk products as per the requirement of State
Marketing Federation.
• Decide on the prices of milk to be paid to milk producers as well on the prices of
support services provided to members.

3. State Cooperative Milk Federation (Federation)

The Milk Unions of a State are federated into a State Cooperative Milk Federation. The
Federation is the apex tier under the three-tier structure. It has membership of all the
cooperative Milk Unions of the State and is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of
one elected representative of each Milk Union. The State Federation further appoints a
Managing Director (paid employee and member secretary of the Board) for management of
the day-to-day functions. It also employs various people for assisting the Managing Director
in accomplishing his daily duties. The main functions of the Federation are as follows:
• Marketing of milk & milk products processed / manufactured by Milk Unions.
• Establish distribution network for marketing of milk & milk products.
• Arranging transportation of milk & milk products from the Milk Unions to the
• Creating & maintaining a brand for marketing of milk & milk products (brand
• Providing support services to the Milk Unions & members like Technical Inputs,
management support & advisory services.
• Pooling surplus milk from the Milk Unions and supplying it to deficit Milk Unions.
• Establish feeder-balancing Dairy Plants for processing the surplus milk of the Milk
• Arranging for common purchase of raw materials used in manufacture / packaging of
milk products.

• Decide on the prices of milk & milk products to be paid to Milk Unions.
• Decide on the products to be manufactured at various Milk Unions (product-mix) and
capacity required for the same.
• Conduct long-term Milk Production, Procurement & Processing as well as Marketing
• Arranging Finance for the Milk Unions and providing them technical know-how.


Procurement Channel (Upstream flow)

Distribution GCMMF
Head office

MU…1 MU...n


Village…1 Village…n


Distribution channel

GCMMF Manufacturing
Head office

First leg (from manufacturing units)

Depot...1 Depot...n

Second leg

WD…1 WD…n

Third leg

Retail…1 Retail...n

Downstream flow

Downstream Channel, it is the distribution part of the supply chain, from the manufacturing
units to the retailers.

• First leg of transport is from the manufacturing unit to the company depots. This is
done using 9 and 18 MT trucks any lesser quantity will be uneconomical to the
company there for is some time the quantity ordered is lesser then club loading is
done which means that the product ordered is supplied with some other products.
• Frozen food the temperature of these trucks is kept below -18˚C
• Dairy wet the temperature of these trucks is kept between 0-4˚C

• Second leg is from the depot to the WD’s, this transport is carried out in insulated 3
and 5 MT TATA 407’s here a permanent dispatch plan (PDP) is prepared where the
distributor plans out the quantity of various products to be ordered on a particular

• Third leg this is the flow of good from WD’s to retailers, a beat plan is prepared and
transportation is done on auto-rickshaws, rickshaws and bicycles.

Amul products are available in over 500,000 retail outlets across India through its network
of over 3,500 distributors. There are 47 depots with dry and cold warehouses to buffer
inventory of the entire range of products.
GCMMF transacts on an advance demand draft basis from its wholesale dealers instead of
the cheque system adopted by other major FMCG companies. This practice is consistent
with GCMMF's philosophy of maintaining cash transactions throughout the supply chain
and it also minimizes dumping. All GCMMF branches engage in route scheduling and have
dedicated vehicle operations Depots with dry and cold warehouses to buffer inventory of the
entire range of products
Wholesale dealers carry inventory that is just adequate to take care of the transit time from
the branch warehouse to their premises. This just-in-time inventory strategy improves
dealers' return on investment (ROI). All GCMMF branches engage in route scheduling and
have dedicated vehicle operations.

Policy regarding unsold/spoilt goods

• If product crosses the shelf life, the retailer bears the costs.
• If the product gets spoilt during the transportation or if there is any customer
complaint, Amul bears costs.
• Unsold goods are not returned to the manufacturer.
• No reverse logistics.



The strategy, design and practices in AMUL’s network are strongly driven by the objective
of establishing and operating an efficient supply chain from milk production and
procurement to product delivery to customers. Management of this network is built around
two key elements –
1. Coordination of the diverse elements of the network and
2. Use of appropriate technology that includes product, process and information
technology and managerial practices and systems.

Simultaneous Development of Suppliers and Customers: From the very early

stages of the formation of AMUL, the cooperative realized that sustained growth for the
long-term was contingent on matching supply and demand. The member-suppliers were
typically small and marginal farmers with severe liquidity problems, illiterate and untrained.
AMUL and other cooperative Unions adopted a number of strategies to develop the supply of
milk and assure steady growth.

• First, for the short term, the procurement prices were set so as to provide fair and
reasonable return.
• Second, aware of the liquidity problems, cash payments for the milk supply was
made with minimum of delay.
For the long-term, the Unions followed a multipronged strategy of education and support.
Only part of the surplus generated by the Unions is paid to the members in the form of
dividends. A substantial part of this surplus is used for activities that promote growth of milk
supply and improve yields. These include provision of veterinary services, support for cold
storage facilities at the village societies etc. In parallel, the Unions have put in place a
number of initiatives to help educate the members.

Managing Third Party Service Providers:

Well before the ideas of core competence and the role of third parties in managing the supply
chain were recognized and became fashionable, these concepts were practiced by GCMMF
and AMUL. From the beginning, it was recognized that the core activity for the Unions lay
in processing of milk and production of dairy products. Accordingly, the Unions focused
efforts on these activities and related technology development. Marketing efforts (including
brand development) were assumed by GCMMF. All other activities were entrusted to third
party service providers. These include logistics of milk collection, distribution of dairy
products, sale of products through dealers and retail stores, some veterinary services etc.

Coordination for Competitiveness

Robust coordination is one of the key reasons for the success of operations involving such an
extensive network of producers and distributors at GCMMF. Some interesting mechanisms
exist for coordinating the supply chain at GCMMF. These range from ensuring fair share
allocation of benefits to various stakeholders in the chain to coordinated planning of
production and distribution. More importantly, the reason for setting up of this cooperative is
not amiss to anyone in this large network organization. Employees, third part service

providers, and distributors are constantly reminded that they work for the farmers and the
entire network strives to provide the best returns to the farmers, the real owners of the
cooperative. It may be remembered that coordination mechanisms have to link the lives and
activities of 2.12 million small suppliers and 0.5 million retailers!

There appear to be two critical mechanisms of coordination that ensure that decision making
is coherent and that the farmers gain the most from this effort.
These mechanisms are:

• Inter-locking Control: - The objective for developing such an inter-locking control

mechanism is to ensure that the interest of the farmer is always kept at the top of the
agenda through its representatives who constitute the Boards of different entities that
comprise the supply chain. This form of direct representation also ensures that
professional managers and farmers work together as a team to strengthen the
cooperative. This helps in coordinating decisions across different entities as well as
speeding both the flow of information to the respective constituents and decisions.
• Coordination Agency: Unique Role of Federation:- In addition to being the
marketing and distribution arm of the Unions, GCMMF plays the role of a
coordinator to the entire network within the State – coordinating procurement
requirements with other Federations (in other states), determining the best production
allocation for its product mix from amongst its Unions, managing inter-dairy
movements, etc. It works with two very clear objectives:
1. To ensure that all milk that the farmers produce gets sold in the market either
as milk or as value added products and
2. To ensure that milk is made available to increasingly large sections of the
society at affordable prices.

Supplier Enhancement and Network servicing:- Their objective is to ensure that

producers get maximum benefit and to resolve all their problems. They manage the
procurement of milk that comes via trucks & tankers from the VS’s. They negotiate annual
contracts with truckers, ensure availability of trucks for procurement, establish truck routes,
monitor truck movement and prevent stealing of milk while it is being transported.

Technology for Effectiveness:-

Technology or knowledge that was embodied in products, processes, and practices became
an important factor in delivering effectiveness to the network of cooperatives. One
distinguishing feature of AMUL (in comparison with other similar cooperatives globally) is
the large variety in their product mix. Most of its plants are state of art and automated.
AMUL’s innovations in the areas of energy conservation and recovery have also contributed
to reduction in cost of its operations. AMUL also indigenously developed a low cost process
for providing long shelf life to many of its perishable products.
The extent of IT usage includes a B2C ordering portal, an ERP based supply chain planning
system for the flow of material in the network, a net based dairy kiosk at some village
societies (for dissemination of dairy related information), automated milk collection stations
at village societies and a GIS based data network connecting villages societies to markets.
Milk collection information at more than 10,000 villages is available to all dairies (or

Unions) to enable them make faster decisions in terms of production & distribution planning,
and disease control in more than 6,700,000 animals. This is linked with information at all 45
distribution offices and 3900 distributors. This network is being extended to cover all related
field offices in the network. The GCMMF cyber store delivers AMUL products at the
doorsteps of the consumers in 125 cities across the country.
Now, going back to the supply chain of Amul, Amul has gone the e- commerce way. The 1st
initiatives taken for an ERP system was in ’94. Tata Consultancy Services was hired to
guide in
its implementation. The implementation project was named as Enterprise- wise Integrated
Application System (EIAS). Automatic Milk Collection System units (AMCUS) at village
were installed in the first phase to automate milk producers logistics. Amul also connected its
offices, regional offices and member’s dairies through VSATs for seamless exchange of
information. Amul is also using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for business
planning and
optimization of collection processes. Indian Institute of Management – Ahmedabad
Amul’s IT strategy by providing an application software – Dairy Information System
to facilitate data analysis and decision support in improving milk collection. There are plans
introduce features like Internet banking services and ATMs which will enable the milk
societies to
credit payments directly to the seller’s bank account. Distributors can place their orders on
website especially meant for accepting orders from stockists and
Amul’s products via e-commerce

TQM (Total quality management) at the grassroots has been a strong movement to develop
leadership, operational and strategic capabilities in the entire network – farmers, village
cooperatives, dairy plants, distributors and wholesalers and retailers. Key elements of this
TQM movement have been:
• Friday Departmental Meetings : Each Friday, at a prescribed time, everyone in the
network (from the farmers to the carry & forwarding agents) joins their respective
departmental meeting to discuss quality initiatives and share policy related
• Training for Transformational Leadership so that individuals are able to control
their thoughts, feelings and behavior and take more responsibility in one’s life and
surrounding environment.
• Application of Hoshin Kanri principles to bring about a bottom-up setting of
objectives – aligning policies for effective management of Unions & village societies
on hand with those of channel member on the other hand. ISO/HACCP certification

was obtained for all the Unions and each village society is in the process of obtaining
the same.
• Training for farmers and their families emphasizing the need for good health care
for not only cattle during its pregnancy and feeding but also for expecting and feeding
mothers and the whole family. This effort has brought about a significant social
change towards such issues in villages that have cooperative milk societies.
• Retail Census: GCMMF undertakes a census of all retail outlets (over 500,000) to
evaluate customer perceptions and distribution efficacy of their network. This is
being done by wholesalers in their respective territories at their own cost. This
information is used for policy deployment exercise.


Milk is procured from the villages and collected at Village Cooperative Societies (VCS),
from there the milk is taken to manufacturing units where the milk is processed into various

The products are then transporters to the company Depots located in various parts of the
country. The products are then sent to Wholesale Distributors (WD) and from there to the

The fact sheet

• Milk is procured twice a day from 2 million from Gujarat alone

• The payment is made under twelve hours of procurement
• There are 10000 village cooperative societies
• There are 3600 wholesale distributors in the country
• 45 depots
• The C&F agents are not fixed and are decided by the local company offices
• There are aproxx. 4,50,000 retailers spread all over India
• Total house hold consumers covered are 100,000
• The milk procured per day is 5 million liters
• Where the total capacity of operation is 7 million liters per day
• The peak processing till date has been 6 million liters per day
• These co operative societies are bound to supply there produce only to
• Amul products are available in over 500,000 retail outlets across India
through its of over 3,500 distributors.
• 47 depots with dry and cold warehouses to buffer inventory of the entire
range of products


With products being highly perishable, the supply chain ought to have to maintain correct
temperature, humidity etc and the chain should move fast.

To reach out its consumers more directly and let them the total brand experience, Amul has
come up with Amul parlors. These are called “Utterly delicious parlors”. They have come up
in major cities like Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Baroda, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Surat
already, and many more starting up real soon. Till date there are about 400 Amul parlors
across the country. These parlors are set at prominent locations such as campuses of Infosys,
Wipro, IIM-A, IIT-B, temples, Metros etc.

Amul has franchisee plans in regards of the Amul parlors. This might start pretty soon, since
the talk is almost at the end.

– 2300 Amul Parlors in 2007-08
– Goal of setting up 10,000 outlets by March 2010

Selection, Motivation & Evaluation of Channel Members

The company takes into consideration a host of factors while selecting the channel members.
This is because GCMMF believes that selection of channel members is a long run decision &
the rest of the decision regarding the supply chain depends upon the efficiency & coverage
by the channel members. The following are the host of factors considered by the company in
selecting the channel members:

• Authentication is required by the regarding the identity of the channel members, which
includes the name & address, photograph of the location.

• Proof of solvency which requires name & address of the channel member’s bankers

• Safety of the inventory, which means that the distributor/ dealer should get the stock of
the company insured.

• Inventory or the perishable goods kept by the distributor/ dealer should be in good
condition which means a detail of storage space & Refrigeration facility is to be
provided. Refrigeration system should have deep freezers, cold room & walk in coolers.

• Details of the delivery vehicle, which includes Light Commercial Vehicles, Matador, 3
Wheeler Van, Tricycle Van & Hand/Push cart. The number & model of each of the
vehicle needs to be furnished to the company.

• GCMMF acknowledges the fact that it needs to be sensitive to the market demands. For
this it requires that a number of salesmen needs to be present on the field. The salesmen
too are divided into various categories like the Field salesmen & Counter salesmen. Also
the details of Clerical Staff & Mazdoors are to be provided. The technical competence of
the salesmen needs to be mentioned

• Details of the product kept of other companies have to be provided. The annual sales of
these products too have to be mentioned. Also details of complementary products &
product lines need to be mentioned.

• Dealers of the company must carry a good reputation. This is due to the fact that the
company believes reputation of the dealer affects the clientele.

• Market coverage by the distributors needs to be defined which includes details of
Geographic coverage & Outlets per market area.

• The company also requires the dealers to furnish any Advertising & Sales initiative
undertaken by them on behalf of the company.

Motivation of Channel Members

GCMMF strongly believes in maintaining a good relationship with the channel members so
that they are genuinely motivated to work for the company. Also if the channel members are
motivated, they can also initiate advertising & sales promotion schemes on behalf of the
company. However to keep the channel members motivated to work, the company has to
incur certain costs but the benefits of it are felt in the long run. The following are the
motivation programs run by the company:


• One of the main factors, which keep the distributors motivated, is the margin. Usually the
margins offered by the company are 8% & it is raised to 8.5%. Volume wise this comes
out to be a big figure since Amul’s product has a good demand in the market. However
compared to the other companies the margins are still lower since the new players in the
market offer a much higher margin. But the very fact that Amul’s products have good
demand in the market motivates the distributors to stock it.

• Amul being a cooperative cannot afford to give heavy monetary incentives. Amul’s
products are considered to be value for money since the company does not believe in
charging high margins. In fact all monetary incentives are just the short run means to
promote the company’s product. In order to keep the Channel members motivated in the
long run, Amul builds on the concept of “Trade Marketing” which makes the dealers &
the distributors believe that the company’s products are worthy of being pushed in the

• The company is organizing various Total Quality Management initiatives & workshops.
Here various counseling measures are undertaken by the company to improve the overall
working of the distribution network.

• Vision and mission statement: the company cascades down the vision to the various
channel members, this is done through various events organized by the company at
different locations where the values of the company are made clear and enforced to the
channel members. Also the fact that Amul being a cooperative society cannot afford to

spend exorbitantly on such events therefore it has a very traditional way of organizing
these get together which leaves an impact on the members.

• Amul yatras: this includes taking the channel members on a guided tour of the
manufacturing and procuring facilities in Gujarat. So that the channel members can have
an experience of the working of the company and can pick up some quality measures that
can help them to synchronize and improve their own functioning at various levels. This
in turn help the company to co ordinate the entire value chain, as the channel members
understand the various constraints and liberties the company goes through. The company
has already got the Rajiv Gandhi award for quality.

The Retailers

• Trade schemes: these are undertaken by the company only for the hard selling items
e.g. Ice creams, flavored milk etc. for these the company raises the margins by 2%, also
schemes like good packaging incase of butter and cheese is undertaken by the company.
However this is only a short-term initiative to push the products of the company.

• Glow boards: the company puts up glow boards at the retailer and pays the major
portion of the cost.

• Schedule of the salesmen: they provide the retails with this schedule so the retailers
can pre estimate the quantities of the various products needed.

• Infrastructure facilitation: the company facilitates the retailers to buy freezers and
fridges by formulating an easy payment program and a commitment to buy back the
equipment at a reasonable price when the value of the equipment has depreciated.

Evaluation of channel members

• Beat plan: this plan is generated for the various product categories i.e. diary dry,
diary wet, Dhara and ice cream. A weekly schedule is prepared for various markets
and the retailers the turnover for each of the product is calculated for the wholesale

• Cumulative performance: the performance of the dealers is averaged out over a

period of three years where a comparison is made of the present performance vis-à-
vis the previous ones.

• Target versus achievement: the performance and the targets are compared and
therefore the gaps are identified which help in evaluating the WD and planning for
the next year as well. This is done for each of the product category.

• Other criterion

o Details of the bank guaranty

o Photographs of the offices
o Details of the WD salesmen and the product lines he deals in
o The computerization facility available
o The storage space
o Refrigeration facility with photograph
o Details of the delivery vehicle with photograph
o Summary of the monthly potential sales of markets
o Summary of the product wise monthly sales potential of institutions

Conflicts And Co-Operation Among Channel Members


• Ownership of assets: Previously the company used to give the cooling equipment on
lease to the retailers, when the company wanted the stuff back; the retailer disagreed
to comply and created issues of ownership.

• Stocking issues: The company doesn’t want the retailers to stock the competing
brand in the company leased fridges, which at times s hard to manage as retailers tend
to do it often.

• Replacement of products: The deterioration in the product calls for fail in

replacement by the company this major issue of vertical conflict.

• Credit policy: Compared to the market, the company’s credit period is less that
specially incase of institutional sales is very important.

• Packaging: The channel members for easy storing demand a better quality of

• Replenishment: The replenishment of the stocks is not prompt in case of amul

cheese and all hard selling items.

• Margins: The Company provides least margins to all the channel members. For e.g.
The retailer’s margin in case of butter is 8% as compared to Britannia’s 12%

Co-operation among channel members

• Amul quality circles: The members of the local channel meet together every month
to share issues and the achievements of the channel members. This is an ongoing
activity facilitated by the company offices in different locations; this enables the
channel members to learn together and reduces the horizontal conflicts among the

• Pilot salesmen scheme: To reduce the financial burden of the distributors this
scheme is run whereby half the cost of the salesmen is born by the company and the
rest half by the distributor

• Scheduling of sales: The WD’s provides Schedule of the distributor’s sales men to
the retailers so that the retailers can plan out and place the orders in advance.

• Agreement defining rights: The company makes the distributors sign an agreement
where the areas of operation for each of the distributors are defined, therefore
avoiding any conflict amongst the distributors regarding their areas of operation.



WEIGHT- 500 ml Nett

PRICE- Rs. 16

FAT-6.0 AND SNF-9.0


Serving size 200 ml

Amount per 100 ml

Energy 87 kcal

Energy from fat 54 kcal

Total fat :6g Phosphorus :130 mg

Saturated fat : 3.7g Sodium :50 mg

Cholesterol :16 mg Thiamine :42 mcg

Total carbohydrate :5.0g Rivoflavin :120mcg

Added sugar :0g Niacin :100mcg

Protein :3.3g Folic acid :7.5 mcg

Calcium :150mg Vita(retinol) :85mcg


Manufactured by-Mehsana District Co-operative Milk producers, Union ltd. Mehsana

Packed at- kwality dairy (India), Softa Village, Tehsil- Palwal ,Dist-Faridabad (Hariyana)

Total no of distributiors of Amul gold pasteurized full cream milk in Mohan baba nagar
(Badarpur Boder Delhi)- 1

Distributor name – Mr. Sachin kumar

Contact no- +91 -9911545221

Total no of dealers of Amul gold pasteurized full cream milk in Mohan baba nagar and
Molar Band (Badarpur Boder Delhi)- 5

There are so many retailers to whom product is distributed by 5 dealers


Total volume distributed by distributer to dealers in Badarpur Bodor-800-1000 liter

Total volume purchased by each dealers- 160-180 liters (i.e. total no of packets of amul gold
milk purchased by each dealer)- 320-360

Total volume purchased by each retailers-10-12 liter (20-25 packets)


Sales and profit for Distributer

Total volume of milk distributed by distributer -800-1000 liters(i.e. total no of packets

distributed 400-450 approx)

Profit margin for distributer per liter-60 paise

Total profit for each distributer- 480-600 Rs

Sales and profit for dealers

Total sale done by each dealer- 160-180 liters

Profit margin for each dealer per liter-40paise

Total profit generated by each dealer-64-72 Rs

Sales and profit for retailers

Total sales done by each retailers-10-12 liters

Profit margin for retailers per litre-50paise

Profit generated by each retailers- 5-6 Rs









Since milk is a fast moving consumer goods daily used by each household in India. So Amul
gold pasteurised full cream milk is supplied by distributer everyday to dealers and retailers.
Stock is purchased within 24 hours (early in the morning).


They manage the procurement of milk that comes via trucks & tankers from the VS’s to
manufacturing unit and then to distributers and dealers .They negotiate annual contracts with
truckers, ensure availability of trucks for procurement, establish truck routes, monitor truck
movement and prevent stealing of milk while it is being transported.


The main competitor of Amul is Mother dairy in Delhi. Most of the market share is
captured by mother dairy products (55% (approx) market of pasteurized full cream milk is
covered by Mother dairy

product % of market share
Amul 30
Mother dairy 55
others 15




Price 16Rs 17Rs
Weight 500 ml 500 ml
Margin for distributors’ 60paise/liter 60paise/liter
Margin for dealers 40paise/liter 40paise/liter

Margin for retailers 50paise/liter 50paise/liter

Sales and profit of Mother dairy pasteurized milk

Mother diary full cream milk is purchased in more quantity as compared to Amul full cream
pasteurized milk.

For distributor

Total quantity of mother dairy full cream pasteurized milk is distributed by distributor at
Badarpur Boder-2300-2500 liters

Profit margin for distributer-60paise/liter

Total profit generated by distributer- 1380Rs-1500

For dealers

Total quantity purchased by each dealer at Badarpur Boder-400-500 liters

Profit margin for dealers-40paise/liter

Total profit generated by dealers-160-200Rs

For retailers

Total quantity purchased by each retailer at Badarpur Boder-25-30 liters

Profit margin for retailers- 50paise/liter

Total profit generated by retailer-12.5-15Rs

Table of total Sales done each channel member

Channel member Amul (in liters) Mother dairy(in liters)

By distributer 800-1000 2300-2500
By dealers 160-180 400-500
By retailers 12-15 25-30

Table of profit generated by each member per day

Channel member Amul(in Rs) Mother dairy(in Rs)

For distributor 480-500 1380-1500
For dealers 64-72 160-200
For retailers 10-12 12-15

As compared to amul, mother dairy has more market share and more quantity of mother
dairy full cream pasteurized milk is distributed and supplied by channel members. Hence
more profit is generated by each channel member inspite of having equal margin on each

Distribution channel

As compared to amul mother dairy has more own retail outlets where they can directly place
their products.

Amul distribution channel Mother dairy distribution channel











• Amul has loyal cooperatives that provide milk only to them, over time the
relationship of trust has built up with these people that amul leverages now.

• Transport channel is another strength as the transporters have grown with the
company overtime the bonding with them enables the company to give least margins
when it comes to the distributors in the industry, lowering the costs.

• The company believes that there is an ongoing demand in the market and therefore no
promotions are needed to increase the sales, also the fact this would affect the cost of
the product the company doesn’t undertake many promotion schemes.

• The not being a profit driven organization, is able to provide products at the least
price in the industry, and is able to give least channel margins as the channel
members earn through volumes and not through high margins.

• Amul has very few exclusive retail outlets in Delhi. Amul is not able to capture
market share in delhi and NCR.

Comments and Suggestion:

• Amul should go in for exclusive outlets in at least all the shopping malls coming up
these days and any location where footfalls are large in number. The advantages of
this channel will be:

i. Full range display

ii. Easier to promote new products
iii. Easy to push impulse purchase products
iv. Brand building will be facilitated

• Trade promotion should be formulated for newly launched products instead of just
tagging them onto best sellers.

• The company should start a home delivery where a particular household will order
full range of products required by it over a period of time. For this the company could
provide a deliveryman with cycle to reach the different houses.

• In order to motivate the channel members it is also very essential for the company to
increase the margins for the hard selling items e.g. Amul dahi where it faces
competition from Nestle & Mother dairy.

In order to remain sensitive to market demand, it is essential for the company to place
additional salesmen on the field since the brand as such commands a high demand in the
market but fails to match it with the supply.


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