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Introductory Chemistry, 3rd Edition Combustion Reactions

Nivaldo Tro
• Reactions in which O2 is consumed by combining with
another substance are called combustion reactions.
! Always release heat and/or other forms of energy.
! Produce one or more oxygen-containing compounds.
Chapter 7 • Combustion reactions are a subclass of
Chemical oxidation–reduction reactions.
! aka redox reactions.
Reactions ! Involve the transfer of electrons between atoms.
Reactants ! Products
Roy Kennedy
Massachusetts Bay Community College
Wellesley Hills, MA
4
2009, Prentice Hall

Experiencing Chemical Change Precipitation Reactions


• Chemical reactions are happening both around • Some reactions involve the combining of ions
you and in you all the time. resulting in formation of a material that is
• Some are very simple, others are complex. insoluble in water. These are called precipitation
! In terms of the pieces—even the simple ones have a lot reactions.
of interesting principles to learn from. ! Formation of soap scum.
• Chemical reactions involve changes in the • Precipitation reactions are generally done with the
structures of the molecules, and many times we reactants dissolved in water to allow the ions to
can experience the effects of those changes. move more freely.
• What are some examples of chemical reactions ! Allowing the ions to contact each other more
you experience? frequently.
! Resulting in the reaction occurring faster.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 2 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 5
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Evidence of Chemical Reactions


Chemical Reactions
• Look for evidence of a new substance.
• Reactions involve chemical changes in matter
resulting in new substances. • Visual clues (permanent).
• Reactions involve rearrangement and exchange of !Color change.
atoms to produce new molecules. !Precipitate formation.
"Solid that forms when liquid solutions are mixed.
! Elements are not transmuted during a reaction.
! Atoms of different elements can combine to make new !Gas bubbles.
compounds. !Large energy changes.
! Molecules can combine to make bigger molecules. "Container becomes very hot or cold.
! Molecules can decompose into smaller molecules or atoms. "Emission of light.
! Atoms can be exchanged between molecules or transferred • Other clues.
to another molecule. !New odor.
! Atoms can gain or lose electrons, turning them into ions. !Whooshing sound from a tube.
"Or changing the charge on ions that are already there. !Permanent new state.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 3 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 6
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

1 2
Evidence of Chemical Change Chemical Equations
• Short-hand way of describing a reaction.
• Provides information about the reaction.
!Formulas of reactants and products.
Release or Absorption of Heat Emission of Light
Color Change !States of reactants and products.
!Relative numbers of reactant and product
molecules that are required.
!Can be used to determine masses of reactants
used and products that can be made.
Formation of a Gas Formation of Solid Precipitate
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 7 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 10
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Evidence of Chemical Change,


Conservation of Mass
Continued
• In order to be absolutely • Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
sure that a chemical !Therefore, the total mass cannot change.
reaction has taken place, !And the total mass of the reactants will be the
you need to go down to the same as the total mass of the products.
molecular level and • In a chemical reaction, all the atoms present
analyze the structures of at the beginning are still present at the end.
the molecules at the Is boiling water !If all the atoms are still there, then the mass will
beginning and end. a chemical change?
not change.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 8 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 11


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice—Decide Whether Each of the The Combustion of Methane


Following Involve a Chemical Reaction.
• Photosynthesis Yes, CO2 and H2O combine into carbohydrates
• Heating sugar until it turns black Yes, sugar decomposing
• Heating ice until it turns liquid No, molecules still same
• Digestion of food Yes, food decomposing and combining
with stomach acid
• Dissolving sugar in water No, molecules still same • Methane gas burns to produce carbon dioxide
• Burning of alcohol in a flambé dessert gas and gaseous water.
Yes, alcohol combining with O2 to make CO2 and H2O
!Whenever something burns it combines with
O2(g).
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 9 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 12
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

3 4
Combustion of Methane
• Methane gas burns to produce carbon dioxide gas and Chemical Equations, Continued
gaseous water.
! Whenever something burns it combines with O2 (g).
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) ! CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g)
CH4(g) + O2(g) ! CO2(g) + H2O(g) • This equation is balanced, meaning that there
What incorrect assumption was made when writing this equation? are equal numbers of atoms of each element on
This equation reads “1 molecule of CH4 gas combines with 1 the reactant and product sides.
molecule of O2 gas to make 1 molecule of CO2 O
gas and 1 molecule ! To obtain the number of atoms of an element,
H H
of H2 O gas”.
C + O O C + HO H multiply the subscript by the coefficient.
H H 1"C!1
O 4"H!4
1C+4H + 2O 1C+2O +2H+O 4"O!2+2
1C+2H+3O
We are assuming that all reactants combine 1 molecule : 1 molecule;
and that 1 molecule of each product is made – an incorrect assumption Tro's "Introductory Chemistry",
Chapter 7
16

Combustion of Methane,
Symbols Used in Equations
Balanced
• To show the reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of • Symbols used to indicate state after chemical.
Mass the equation must be balanced. !(g) = gas; (l) = liquid; (s) = solid.
! We adjust the numbers of molecules so there are equal !(aq) = aqueous = dissolved in water.
numbers of atoms of each element on both sides of the arrow.
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) ! CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) • Energy symbols used above the arrow for
decomposition reactions.
O O O O
H H H H ! # = heat.
C + + C + + ! h$ = light.
H H
O O O
O H H
!shock = mechanical.
1C + 4H + 4O
!elec = electrical.
1C + 4H + 4O
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 14 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 17
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Chemical Equations Writing Balanced Chemical Equations


CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) ! CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) 1. Write a skeletal equation by writing the formula of each
reactant and product.
• CH4 and O2 are the reactants, and CO2 and H2O 2. Count the number of atoms of each element on each side
are the products. of the equation.
! Polyatomic ions may often be counted as if they are one
• The (g) after the formulas tells us the state of the “element”.
chemical. 3. Pick an element to balance.
! If an element is found in only one compound on both sides,
• The number in front of each substance tells us balance it first.
the numbers of those molecules in the reaction. " Metals before nonmetals.
! Called the coefficients. ! Leave elements that are free elements somewhere in the
equation until last.
" Balance free elements by adjusting the coefficient where it is a free
element.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 15 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 18


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

5 6
Writing Balanced Chemical Equations, Example, Continued
Continued • When magnesium metal burns in air, it
4. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of the produces a white, powdery compound
number of atoms on each side. magnesium oxide.
! The LCM of 3 and 2 is 6. Mg(s) + O2(g) ! MgO(s)
5. Multiply each count by a factor to make it equal '" Use factors as coefficients in front of the compound
to the LCM. containing the element.
6. Use this factor as a coefficient in the equation. ! We do not write 1 as a coefficient, its understood.
! If there is already a coefficient there, multiply it by Mg(s) + O2(g) ! 2 MgO(s)
the factor.
! It must go in front of entire molecules, not between
1 " Mg ! 1
atoms within a molecule. 1x2"O!1x2
7. Recount and repeat until balanced.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 19 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 22
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Example Example, Continued


• When magnesium metal burns in • When magnesium metal burns in air, it produces a
air, it produces a white, powdery white, powdery compound magnesium oxide.
compound magnesium oxide. Mg(s) + O2(g) ! MgO(s)
(" Recount—Mg not balanced now—That’s OK!
!" Write a skeletal equation
Mg(s) + O2(g) ! 2 MgO(s)
Mg(s) + O2(g) ! MgO(s)
1 " Mg ! 2
#" Count the number of atoms on each side.
2"O!2
Mg(s) + O2(g) ! MgO(s) (" and Repeat—attacking an unbalanced element.
1 " Mg ! 1 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) ! 2 MgO(s)
2"O!1 2 x 1 " Mg ! 2
2"O!2
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 20 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 23
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Example, Continued Another Example


• When magnesium metal burns in air, it produces a white, • Under appropriate conditions at 1000°C, ammonia gas reacts
powdery compound magnesium oxide. with oxygen gas to produce gaseous nitrogen monoxide and
Mg(s) + O2(g) ! MgO(s) steam
$" Pick an element to balance. !" write the skeletal equation
! Avoid element in multiple compounds. )* first in words
! Do free elements last. ! identify the state of each chemical
! Since Mg already balanced, pick O. ammonia(g) + oxygen(g) ! nitrogen monoxide(g) + water(g)
%" Find the LCM of both sides +* then write the equation in formulas
&" and multiply each side by factor so it equals LCM. ! identify diatomic elements
! LCM of 2 and 1 is 2. ! identify polyatomic ions
Mg(s) + O2(g) ! MgO(s) ! determine formulas
1 " Mg ! 1 NH3(g) + O2(g) ! NO(g) + H2O(g)
1x2"O!1x2
21 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 24
Chapter 7

7 8
Another Example, Continued Another Example, Continued
• Under appropriate conditions at 1000°C (* Recount – N & O not balanced
ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to 2 NH3(g) + O2(g) ! NO(g) + 3 H2O(g)
produce gaseous nitrogen monoxide and 2"N!1
steam
6"H!6
NH3(g) + O2(g) ! NO(g) + H2 O(g)
2"O!1+3
#* count the number of atoms of on each side
(* and Repeat – attack the N
NH3(g) + O2(g) ! NO(g) + H2 O(g) 2 NH3(g) + O2(g) ! 2 NO(g) + 3 H2 O(g)
1"N!1 2"N!1x2
3"H!2 6"H!6
2"O!1+1 2"O!1+3
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 25 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 28
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Another Example, Continued Another Example, Continued


• Under appropriate conditions at 1000°C ammonia gas reacts
with oxygen gas to produce gaseous nitrogen monoxide and
gaseous steam
(* Recount Again – Still not balanced and the
NH3(g) + O2 (g) ! NO(g) + H2O(g) only element left is O!
$* pick an element to balance - H 2 NH3(g) + O2(g) ! 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g)
! avoid element in multiple compounds on same side - O
%* find least common multiple of both sides (6)
2"N!2
&* multiply each side by factor so it equals LCM 6"H!6
NH3(g) + O2(g) ! NO(g) + H2O(g) 2"O!2+3
1"N!1
2x 3"H!2 x3
2"O!1+1
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 26 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 29
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Another Example, Continued Another Example, Continued


• Under appropriate conditions at 1000°C ammonia (* and Repeat Again
gas reacts with oxygen gas to produce gaseous ! A trick of the trade - when you are forced to attack an
nitrogen monoxide and gaseous water element that is in 3 or more compounds – find where it is
uncombined. You can find a factor to make it any amount
NH3(g) + O2(g) ! NO(g) + H2O(g) you want, even if that factor is a fraction!
6) use factors as coefficients in front of 2 NH3(g) + ? O2(g) ! 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g)
compound containing the element 2"N!2
6"H!6
2 NH3(g) + O2(g) ! NO(g) + 3 H2 O(g) 2"O!2+3
! We want to make the O on the left equal 5, therefore we
1"N!1 will multiply it by 2.5
2x3"H!2x3 2 NH3(g) + 2.5 O2(g) ! 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g)
2"N!2
2"O!1+1 6"H!6
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 27
2.5 x 2 " O ! 2 + 3 30
Chapter 7

9 10
Another Example, Continued Practice #2
Acetic acid reacts with the metal aluminum to make aqueous
(* You can’t have a coefficient that isn’t a whole aluminum acetate and gaseous hydrogen.
number. Multiply all the coefficients by a !Acids are always aqueous.
number to eliminate fractions !Metals are solid except for mercury.
! If ?.5, then multiply by 2; if ?.33, then 3; if ?.25,
then 4
{2 NH3(g) + 2.5 O2(g) ! 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g)} x 2
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) ! 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)
4"N!4
12 " H ! 12
10 " O ! 4 + 6
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 31 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 34
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice #1 Practice #2, Continued


Acetic acid reacts with the metal aluminum to make aqueous
When aluminum metal reacts with air, it aluminum acetate and gaseous hydrogen.
produces a white, powdery compound called !Acids are always aqueous.
aluminum oxide. !Metals are solid except for mercury.
!Reacting with air means reacting with O2: Al(s) + HC2H 3O2 (aq) ! Al(C2H3O2)3(aq) + H2(g)
Aluminum(s) + oxygen(g) ! aluminum oxide(s) 2 Al(s) + 6 HC2H3 O2(aq) ! 2 Al(C2H3O2)3(aq) + 3 H2(g)
Al(s) + O2(g) ! Al2O3(s)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 32 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 35


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice #1, Continued Practice #3


When aluminum metal reacts with air, it Combustion of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) in
produces a white, powdery compound called flambé (a brandied flaming dessert).
aluminum oxide. !Combustion is burning, and therefore, reacts with O2.
!Reacting with air means reacting with O2: !Combustion of compounds containing C and H
Aluminum(s) + oxygen(g) ! aluminum oxide(s) always make CO2(g) and H2O(g) as products.
Al(s) + O2(g) ! Al2O3(s) C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) ! CO2(g) + H2O(g)
4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) ! 2 Al2O3(s)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 33 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 36


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

11 12
Practice #3, Continued
Combustion of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) in Aqueous Solutions
flambé (a brandied flaming dessert). • Many times, the chemicals we are reacting
!Combustion is burning, and therefore, reacts with O2. together are dissolved in water.
!Combustion of compounds containing C and H !Mixtures of a chemical dissolved in water are
always make CO2(g) and H2O(g) as products. called aqueous solutions.

C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) ! CO2(g) + H2O(g) • Dissolving the chemicals in water helps them
to react together faster.
C2H5OH(l) + 3 O2(g) ! 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(g) !The water separates the chemicals into individual
molecules or ions.
!The separate, free-floating particles come in
contact more frequently so the reaction speeds up.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 37 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 40


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice #4
Combustion of liquid butane (C4H 10) in a lighter.
Predicting Whether a Reaction
C4H10(l) + O2(g) ! CO2(g) + H2O(g) Will Occur in Aqueous Solution
• “Forces” that drive a reaction:
! Formation of a solid.
! Formation of water.
! Formation of a gas.
! Transfer of electrons.
• When chemicals (dissolved in water) are
mixed and one of the above-noted forces
occur, the reaction will generally happen.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 38 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 41


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice #4, Continued


Combustion of liquid butane (C4H 10) in a lighter.
Dissociation
• When ionic compounds dissolve
C4H10(l) + O2(g) ! CO2(g) + H2O(g) in water, the anions and cations
2 C4H10(l) + 13 O2(g) ! 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g) are separated from each other.
This is called dissociation.
! However, not all ionic compounds
are soluble in water!
• When compounds containing
polyatomic ions dissociate, the
polyatomic group stays together
as one ion.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 39 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 42


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

13 14
Dissociation, Continued
• Potassium iodide dissociates in water into Electrolytes, Continued
potassium cations and iodide anions. • In strong electrolytes, all the
KI(aq) ! K+1(aq) + I-1(aq) electrolyte molecules or formula
units are separated into ions.
K I K+1 I-1 • In nonelectrolytes, none of the
molecules are separated into
• Copper(II) sulfate dissociates in water into ions.
copper(II) cations and sulfate anions. • In weak electrolytes, a small
CuSO4(aq) ! Cu+2(aq) + SO4-2(aq) percentage of the molecules are
separated into ions.
Cu SO4 Cu+2 SO4-2

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 43 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 46


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Types of Electrolytes
Dissociation, Continued • Salts = Water soluble ionic compounds.
! All strong electrolytes.

• Potassium sulfate dissociates in water into • Acids = Form H+1 ions and anions in water solution.
! In binary acids, the anion is monoatomic. In oxyacids, the anion
potassium cations and sulfate anions. is polyatomic.
K2SO4(aq) ! 2 K+1(aq) + SO4-2(aq) ! Sour taste.
K+1 ! React and dissolve many metals.
K SO4 K SO4-2 ! Strong acid = strong electrolyte, weak acid = weak electrolyte.

K+1 • Bases = Water-soluble metal hydroxides.


! Bitter taste, slippery (soapy) feeling solutions.
! Increases the OH-1 concentration.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 44 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 47


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Electrolytes When Will a Salt Dissolve?


• Electrolytes are • A compound is soluble in a
liquid if it dissolves in that
substances whose water liquid.
solution is a conductor ! NaCl is soluble in water, but
of electricity. AgCl is not.
• A compound is insoluble if a
• All electrolytes have significant amount does not
ions dissolved in water. dissolve in that liquid.
! AgCl is insoluble in water.
" Though there is a very small amount
dissolved, but not enough to be
significant.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 45 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 48
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

15 16
Using the Solubility Rules to Predict an
When Will a Salt Dissolve?, Ionic Compound’s Solubility in Water
Continued • First check the cation: If it is Li+ , Na+ , K+ , or
• Predicting whether a compound will NH4+, then the compound will be soluble in water.
dissolve in water is not easy. ! Regardless of the anion.
• If the cation is not Li+ , Na+, K+ , or NH4+, then
• The best way to do it is to do some
follow the rule for the anion.
experiments to test whether a compound
• If a rule says the compounds are mostly soluble,
will dissolve in water, then develop some then the exceptions are insoluble.
rules based on those experimental results.
• If a rule says the compounds are mostly insoluble,
!We call this method the empirical method. then the exceptions are soluble.
! Note: slightly soluble % insoluble.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 49 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 52
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Solubility Rules:
Compounds that Are Generally Soluble in Water
Determine if Each of the
Following Is Soluble in Water
Compounds containing the Exceptions • KOH
following ions are generally (when combined with ions on the
soluble left the compound is insoluble) • AgBr
Li+ , Na+ , K+ , NH4+ none • CaCl2
NO3–, C2H3 O2– none • Pb(NO3)2
Cl–, Br–, I– Ag+ , Hg22+, Pb2+ • PbSO4
SO42– Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 50 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 53


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Solubility Rules:
Compounds that Are Generally Insoluble
Determine if Each of the Following Is
Soluble in Water, Continued
Exceptions
Compounds containing the (when combined with ions on the • KOH Soluble, because the cation is K+.
following ions are generally left the compound is soluble or • AgBr Insoluble, even though most compounds
insoluble slightly soluble) with Br! are soluble, this is an exception.
OH– Li+ , Na+ , K+ , NH4+ , • CaCl2 Soluble, most compounds with Cl! are
Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ soluble.
S2– Li+ , Na+ , K+ , NH4+ , • Pb(NO3 )2 Soluble, because the anion is NO3!.
Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ • PbSO4 Insoluble, even though most compounds
CO32–, PO43– Li+ , Na+ , K+ , NH4+ with SO42! are soluble, this is an exception.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 51 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 54


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

17 18
No Precipitate Formation =
Precipitation Reactions
• Many reactions are done by
No Reaction
mixing aqueous solutions of KI(aq) + NaCl(aq) ! KCl(aq) + NaI(aq)
electrolytes together. All ions still present, & no reaction.
• When this is done, often a
reaction will take place from
the cations and anions in the
two solutions that are
exchanging.
• If the ion exchange results in
forming a compound that is
insoluble in water, it will come
out of solution as a precipitate.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 55 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 58
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Process for Predicting the Products of


Precipitation Reactions, Continued a Precipitation Reaction
!"Write the formula for the reactants and Determine
2 KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) ! 2 KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s) what ions each aqueous reactant has.
#"Exchange ions.
! (+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from the other.
$"Balance charges of combined ions to get formula of
each product.
%"Balance the equation.
! Count atoms.
&"Determine solubility of each product in water.
! Use the solubility rules.
! If product is insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate.
! If neither product will precipitate, no reaction.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 56 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 59


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Example 7.7—When an Aqueous Solution of Sodium


Precipitation Reactions, Continued Carbonate Is Added to an Aqueous Solution of
Copper(II) Chloride, a White Solid Forms.
2 KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) ! 2 KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)
1. Write the formulas of the reactants and
Determine the ions present when each reactant
dissociates.
Na2 CO3(aq) + CuCl2(aq) !
(Na+ + CO32-) + (Cu+2 + Cl- ) !
2. Exchange the ions.
(Na+ + CO3 2-) + (Cu+2 + Cl-) ! (Na+ + Cl-) + (Cu+2 + CO3 2-)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 57 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 60


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

19 20
Example 7.7—When an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Practice–Predict the Products and Balance the
Carbonate Is Added to an Aqueous Solution of Equation, Continued
Copper(II) Chloride, a White Solid Forms, Continued.
• KCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) !
3. Write the formulas of the products. • KCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ! KNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)
! Cross charges and reduce.
Na2 CO3(aq) + CuCl2(aq) ! NaCl + CuCO3
4. Balance the equation. • Na2S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) !
Na2 CO3(aq) + CuCl2(aq) ! 2 NaCl + CuCO3 • Na2S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) ! 2 NaCl(aq) + CaS(aq)
• No reaction.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 61 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 64


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Example 7.7—When an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Practice—Write an Equation for the Reaction
Carbonate Is Added to an Aqueous Solution of that Takes Place when an Aqueous Solution
Copper(II) Chloride, a White Solid Forms, Continued. of (NH4)2SO4 is Mixed with an Aqueous
Solution of Pb(C2H3O2)2.
5. Determine the solubility of each product.
Write an (s) after the insoluble products and a
(aq) after the soluble products
NaCl is soluble.
CuCO3 is insoluble.
Na2 CO3(aq) + CuCl2(aq) ! 2 NaCl(aq) + CuCO3(s)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 62 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 65


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice–Predict the Products and Balance


the Equation Practice—Write an Equation for the Reaction
that Takes Place when an Aqueous Solution
• KCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) !
of (NH4)2SO4 is Mixed with an Aqueous
Solution of Pb(C2H3O2)2, Continued.
(NH4) 2SO4 (aq) + Pb(C2H 3O 2) 2(aq) ! 2 NH4C 2H 3O2(aq) + PbSO4 (s)
• Na2 S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) !

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 63 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 66


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

21 22
Ionic Equations
Writing Net Ionic Equations
• Equations that describe the chemicals put into the water and
the product molecules are called molecular equations. • First, identify the spectator ions in the
2 KOH(aq) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) ! 2 KNO3 (aq) + Mg(OH)2(s) complete ionic equation.
• Equations that describe the actual dissolved species are !Identical ions on both sides of the equation.
called complete ionic equations.
• Cancel out the spectator ions—the result is
! Aqueous electrolytes are written as ions.
" Soluble salts, strong acids, strong bases.
the net ionic equation.
! Insoluble substances and nonelectrolytes written in molecule form.
" Solids, liquids, and gases are not dissolved, therefore, molecule form.
2K+1 (aq) + 2OH-1(aq) + Mg+2(aq) + 2NO3-1(aq) ! 2K+1(aq) + 2NO3-1(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 67 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 70


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Summary
Writing Complete Ionic Equations
• A molecular equation is a chemical
• Rewrite the molecular equation, but dissociate equation showing the complete, neutral
strong electrolytes into individual ions. formulas for every compound in a reaction.
! Strong electrolytes must be aqueous.
" Solids, liquids, or gases cannot be electrolytes. • A complete ionic equation is a chemical
! All soluble ionic compounds are strong electrolytes. equation showing all of the species as they
! Strong acids are strong electrolytes. are actually present in solution.
" HCl, HNO3 , H2 SO4 . .
" Weak acids are not written in the dissociated ion form. • A net ionic equation is an equation
! Molecular compounds do not have ions, leave in the showing only the species that actually
molecular form.
participate in the reaction.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 68 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 71
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice–Write the Ionic and Net Ionic


Ionic Equations Equation.
• Ions that are both reactants and products are called K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) ! 2 KNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s)
spectator ions.
2K+1(aq) + 2OH-1(aq) + Mg+2(aq) + 2NO3-1(aq) ! 2K+1(aq) + 2NO3 -1(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s)

• An ionic equation in which the spectator ions are Na2 CO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) ! 2 NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
removed is called a net ionic equation.
2OH-1(aq) + Mg+2(aq) ! Mg(OH)2(s)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 69 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 72


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

23 24
Practice–Write the Ionic and Net
Ionic Equation. Properties of Bases
K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3 )2 (aq) ! 2 KNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s) • A.k.a. alkalis.
2K+ (aq) + SO4 2" (aq) + Ba2+(aq) + 2NO3 " (aq) ! 2K + (aq) + 2NO3 " (aq) + BaSO4 (s)
• Taste bitter.
Ba2+(aq) + SO4-2(aq)! BaSO4(s)
• Feel slippery.
• Change color of vegetable dyes.
Na2 CO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) ! 2 NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) !Different color than acid.
2Na+(aq) + CO32"(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2 Cl"(aq) ! 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl"(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
!Litmus = blue.
CO3-2(aq) + 2 H+1(aq) ! CO2(g) + H2O(l) • React with acids to form ionic salts.
!And often water.
!Neutralization.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 73 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 76
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Properties of Acids Common Bases


• Sour taste.
• Change color of vegetable dyes.
• React with “active” metals, not noble
metals.
! I.e., Al, Zn, Fe, but not Cu, Ag or Au.
Zn + 2 HCl ! ZnCl2 + H2
! Corrosive.
• React with carbonates, producing CO2.
! Marble, baking soda, chalk, limestone.
CaCO3 + 2 HCl ! CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
• React with bases to form ionic salts.
! And often water.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 74 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 77
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Common Acids Acid–Base Reactions


• Also called neutralization reactions because the acid
and base neutralize each other’s properties.
• In the reaction of an acid with a base, the H+1 from the
acid combines with the OH-1 from the base to make
water.
• The cation from the base combines with the anion from
the acid to make the salt.
acid + base ! salt + water
2 HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) ! Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
• The net ionic equation for an acid-base reaction often is:
H+1(aq) + OH-1(aq) ! H2O(l)
! As long as the salt that forms is soluble in water.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 75 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 78
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

25 26
Process for Predicting the Products of Example 7.11—Write the Molecular, Ionic, and Net-
an Acid–Base Reaction Ionic Equation for the Reaction of Aqueous Nitric
!"Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has. Acid with Aqueous Calcium Hydroxide, Continued.
#"Exchange ions.
! (+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from the other. 5. Determine the solubility of the salt.
! H+ combines with OH" to make water. Ca(NO3)2 is soluble.
$"Balance charges of combined ions to get formula of
the salt.
a. Write an (s) after an insoluble salt and an (aq)
%"Balance the equation. after a soluble salt.
! Count atoms.
2 HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) ! Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
&"Determine solubility of the salt.
! Use the solubility rules.
! If the salt is insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 79 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 82
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Example 7.11—Write the Molecular, Ionic, and Net- Example 7.11—Write the Molecular, Ionic, and Net-
Ionic Equation for the Reaction of Aqueous Nitric Ionic Equation for the Reaction of Aqueous Nitric
Acid with Aqueous Calcium Hydroxide. Acid with Aqueous Calcium Hydroxide, Continued.
1. Write the formulas of the reactants. 6. Dissociate all strong electrolytes to get complete ionic
HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) ! equation.
a. Determine the ions present when each reactant ! HNO3 is a strong acid, Ca(OH)2 and Ca(NO3) 2 are ionic.
dissociates. ! Not H2O.
(H+
+ NO3 + ")
+ ! (Ca2+ OH" ) 2H+(aq) + 2NO3 "(aq) + Ca2+(aq) + 2OH"(aq) ! Ca2+(aq) +
2NO3"(aq) + H2 O(l)
2. Exchange the ions, H+1 combines with OH" to
make H2O(l). 7. Eliminate spectator ions to get net-ionic equation.
(H+ + NO3") + (Ca2+ + OH") ! (Ca+2 + NO3") + H2O(l) 2 H +(aq) + 2 OH"(aq) ! 2 H2O(l)
H+(aq) + OH"(aq) ! H2O(l)
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 80 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 83
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Example 7.11—Write the Molecular, Ionic, and Net- Practice—Complete and Balance These
Ionic Equation for the Reaction of Aqueous Nitric Acid–Base Reactions.
Acid with Aqueous Calcium Hydroxide, Continued. NH4OH(aq) + H2SO4 (aq) !
3. Write the formula of the salt product.
! Cross charges and reduce.
HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) ! Ca(NO3)2 + H2O(l)
4. Balance the equation. Al(OH)3(aq) + H2SO3(aq) !
! May be quickly balanced by matching the
numbers of H and OH to make H2O.
! Coefficient of the salt is always 1.
2 HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) ! Ca(NO3)2 + 2 H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2 SO4(aq) !

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 81 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 84


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

27 28
Practice—Complete and Balance These Process for Predicting the Products of
Acid–Base Reactions, Continued. a Gas-Evolving Reaction
!"Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has.
2 NH4OH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ! (NH4 )2 SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) #"Exchange ions.
! (+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from the other.
$"Balance charges of combined ions to get formula of
each product.
2 Al(OH)3(aq) + 3 H2SO3(aq) ! Al2(SO3)3(s) + 6 H2O(l) %"Check to see if either product is H2S.
&"Check to see if either product decomposes. If so,
rewrite as H2O(l) and a gas.
! See Table 7.4
Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2 SO4(aq) ! BaSO4(s) + 2 H2O(l) '"Balance the equation.
("Determine solubility of other product in water.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 85 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 88
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Gas Evolution Reactions Example—When an Aqueous Solution of Sodium


• Reactions in which the driving force is the production of a Sulfite Is Added to an Aqueous Solution of Nitric
material that escapes as a gas are called gas evolution Acid, a Gas Evolves.
reactions.
• Some reactions form a gas directly from the ion exchange. 1. Write the formulas of the reactants.
K2S(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ! K2SO4(aq) + H2S(g) Na2 SO3(aq) + HNO3(aq) !
• Other reactions form a gas by the decomposition of one of a. Determine the ions present when each reactant
the ion exchange products into a gas and water. dissociates.
K2SO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ! K2SO4(aq) + H2SO3(aq)
(Na+1 + SO3-2) + (H+1 + NO3-1) !
H2SO3 ! H2O(l) + SO2(g)
2. Exchange the ions.
(Na+1 + SO3-2) + (H+1 + NO3 -1) ! (Na+1 + NO3-1) + (H+1 + SO3-2)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 86 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 89


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Compounds that Undergo Example—When an Aqueous Solution of Sodium


Gas Evolving Reactions Sulfite Is Added to an Aqueous Solution of Nitric
Acid, a Gas Evolves, Continued.
Reactant Reacting Ion Decom- Gas Example 3. Write the formulas of the products.
type with exchange pose? formed ! Cross charges and reduce.
product
MetalnS, Acid H2 S No H2 S K2S(aq) + 2HCl(aq) ! Na2 SO3(aq) + HNO3(aq) ! NaNO3 + H2SO3
metal HS 2KCl(aq) + H2S(g)
4. Check to see if either product is H2S. No.
MetalnCO3, Acid H2CO3 Yes CO2 K2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) !
metal HCO3 2KCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
5. Check to see of either product decomposes. Yes.
MetalnSO3 Acid H2SO3 Yes SO2 K2SO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) ! ! H2SO3 decomposes into SO2 (g) + H2O(l).
metal HSO3 2KCl(aq) + SO2(g) + H2O(l)
Na2 SO3(aq) + HNO3(aq) ! NaNO3 + SO2(g) + H2O(l)
(NH4) nanion Base NH4OH Yes NH3 KOH(aq) + NH4Cl(aq) !
KCl(aq) + NH3(g) + H2O(l)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 87 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 90


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

29 30
Example—When an Aqueous Solution of Sodium
Sulfite Is Added to an Aqueous Solution of Nitric Other Patterns in Reactions
Acid, a Gas Evolves, Continued. • The precipitation, acid–base, and gas evolving
6. Balance the equation. reactions all involved exchanging the ions in the
Na2SO3(aq) + 2 HNO3(aq) ! 2 NaNO3 + SO2(g) + H2O(l) solution.
7. Determine the solubility of other product. • Other kinds of reactions involve transferring
electrons from one atom to another. These are called
NaNO3 is soluble.
oxidation–reduction reactions.
a. Write an (s) after the insoluble products and an ! Also known as redox reactions.
(aq) after the soluble products. ! Reactions of materials with O2 are redox reactions.
Na2SO3(aq) + 2 HNO3 (aq) ! 2 NaNO3(aq) + SO2 (g) + H2O(l)
! Unlike the others, many of these reactions are not done by
dissolving the reactants in water.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 91 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 94
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice—Complete the Following Reactions. Oxidation–Reduction Reactions


• We say that the element that loses electrons
PbS(s) + H2SO4(aq) ! in the reaction is oxidized.
• And the substance that gains electrons in the
reaction is reduced.
HNO3(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) ! • You cannot have one without the other.
• In combustion, the O atoms in O2 are
reduced, and the non-O atoms in the other
material are oxidized.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 92 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 95


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice—Complete the Following Reactions,


Continued. Combustion as Redox
PbS(s) + H2SO4(aq) ! PbSO4(s) + H2S(g) • In the following reaction:
2 Mg(s) + O2(g) ! 2 MgO(s)
• The magnesium atoms are oxidized.
HNO3(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) ! NaNO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Mg0 ! Mg2+ + 2 e'
• The oxygen atoms are reduced.
O0 + 2 e' ! O2'

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 93 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 96


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

31 32
Combustion as Redox, Continued Ionic Compound Formation
• Even though the following reaction does not involve ion
formation, electrons are still transferred. as Redox
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) ! CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) • In the reaction:
• The carbon atoms are oxidized. Mg(s) + Cl2(g) ! MgCl2(s)
C'4 ! C+4 + 8 e'
! These are not charges, they are called oxidation numbers, but • The magnesium atoms are oxidized.
they help us see the electron transfer. Mg0 ! Mg2+ + 2 e'
• The oxygen atoms are reduced.
O0 + 2 e' ! O'2
• The chlorine atoms are reduced.
Cl0 + 1 e' ! Cl'

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 97 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 100


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Recognizing Redox Reactions


Summary • Any reaction where O2 is a reactant or a product is a
redox reaction.
• Redox reactions occur when: • Any reaction between a metal and a nonmetal is redox.
!A substance reacts with O2. • Any reaction where electrons are transferred is redox.
! When a free element gets combined into a compound, it will
!A metal combines with a nonmetal. be either oxidized or reduced.
!In general, whenever electrons are N2(g) + H2(g) ! NH3(g)
transferred. ! When a metal cation changes its charge, it will be either
oxidized if its charge increases or reduced if its charge
decreases.
CuCl(aq) + FeCl3(aq) ! FeCl2(aq) + CuCl2(aq)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 98 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 101


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals Practice—Decide Whether Each of the


(Oxidation–Reduction) Following Reactions Is a Redox Reaction.
• Metals react with nonmetals to form ionic 2 Al(s) + 3 Br2(l) ! 2 AlBr3(s)
compounds.
! Ionic compounds are solids at room temperature. CaSO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ! CaCl2(aq) + SO2(g) + H2O(l)
• The metal loses electrons and becomes a cation.
! The metal undergoes oxidation. Fe2O 3(s) + C(s) ! 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO(g)
• The nonmetal gains electrons and becomes an anion.
! The nonmetal undergoes reduction.
SO2(g) + O2(g) + H2O(l) ! H2SO4(aq)
• In the reaction, electrons are transferred from the
metal to the nonmetal.
2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) ! NaCl(s)
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 99 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 102
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

33 34
Practice—Decide Whether Each of the Following Combustion Products
Reactions Is a Redox Reaction, Continued.
• To predict the products of a combustion
2 Al(s) + 3 Br2 (l) ! 2 AlBr3(s)—Yes, metal + nonmetal. reaction, combine each element in the other
CaSO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ! CaCl2(aq) + SO2(g) + H2O(l)—No, this
reactant with oxygen.
Reactant Combustion product
is a gas evolving
Contains C CO2 (g)
reaction. Contains H H2O(g)
Contains S SO2(g)
Fe2O3(s) + C(s) ! 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO(g)—Yes, the Fe is reduced
Contains N NO(g) or NO2(g)
and the C gets Contains metal M2O n(s)

combined. Tro's "Introductory Chemistry",


Chapter 7
103 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry",
Chapter 7
106

SO2(g) + O2 (g) + H2O(l) ! H2SO4 (aq)—Yes, O2 reactant.

Combustion Reactions Practice—Write the Equation for Each Reaction.


• Reactions in which O2(g) is a
reactant are called combustion
reactions.
• Combustion of the anesthetic cyclopropane,
C3H6.
• Combustion reactions release
lots of energy. They are
exothermic.
• Combustion reactions are a
subclass of • Combustion of the non-toxic antifreeze
oxidation–reduction reactions. propylene glycol, C3H8O2.
2 C8H18(g) + 25 O2(g) ! 16 CO2(g) + 18 H2 O(g)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 104 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 107


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Products of Combustion Practice—Write the Equation for Each Reaction,


• When a material burns that contains carbon and Continued.
hydrogen, the products are always CO2(g) and
• Combustion of the anesthetic cyclopropane,
H2O(g).
C3H6(g).
• The reaction for the combustion of ethylene,
C2H4(g) is: 2 C3H6(g) + 9 O2(g) ! 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)
C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) ! 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g)
• The reaction for the combustion of ethylene • Combustion of the non-toxic antifreeze propylene
glycol, C2H6O2(g) is: glycol, C3H8O2(l).
2 C2H6O2(g) + 5 O2(g) ! 4 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)
2 C3H6O2(l) + 7 O2(g) ! 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 105 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 108
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

35 36
Classifying Reactions Decomposition Reactions
• One way is based on the process that happens. • A large molecule is broken apart into
smaller molecules or its elements.
!Precipitation, neutralization, formation of a gas, or
!Caused by addition of energy into the molecule.
transfer of electrons.
• Have only one reactant, make 2 or more
products.

109 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 112


Chapter 7

Classifying Reactions, Continued


• Another scheme classifies reactions by what
Decomposition of Water
the atoms do.
Type of reaction General equation
Synthesis A + B ! AB
Decomposition AB ! A + B
Displacement A + BC ! AC + B
Double displacement AB + CD ! AD + CB

110 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 113


Chapter 7

Synthesis Reactions Single Displacement Reactions


• Reactions that involve one atom displacing
• Also known as composition or combination another and replacing it in a compound.
reactions. • In the reaction Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) !
• Two (or more) reactants combine together to ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g), the atom Zn displaces H
make one product. from the compound.
!Simpler substances combining together. • Other examples of displacement reactions
2 CO + O2 ! 2 CO2
are:
2 Mg + O2 ! 2 MgO Fe2O3(s) + Al(s) ! Fe(s) + Al2O3(s)
HgI2 + 2 KI ! K2HgI4 2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(aq) ! 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 111 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 114


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

37 38
Practice—Classify the Following Reactions as
Synthesis, Decomposition, Single Displacement, or
Displacement of Copper by Zinc Double Displacement.
Zn(s) + CuCl 2 (aq) ! Cu(s) + ZnCl2
3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(aq) ! 3 MgCl2(aq) + 2 Fe(s)

CO2(g) + H2O(l) ! H2CO3(aq)

3 KOH(aq) + H3PO4(aq) ! K3PO4(aq) + 3 H2O(l)

CaCO3 ( s ) !heat
!!" CaO( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 115 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 118


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Practice—Classify the Following Reactions as


Synthesis, Decomposition, Single Displacement, or
Double Displacement Reactions Double Displacement, Continued.
• Two ionic compounds exchange ions. 3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(aq) ! 3 MgCl2(aq) + 2 Fe(s)
• May be followed by decomposition of one Single displacement.
of the products to make a gas. CO2(g) + H2O(l) ! H2CO3(aq)
• X (Y) (aq) + A (B) (aq) ! XB + AY Synthesis.

• Precipitation, acid–base, and gas evolving 3 KOH(aq) + H3PO4(aq) ! K3PO4(aq) + 3 H2O(l)


reactions are also double displacement Double displacement.
reactions. CaCO3 ( s ) !heat
!!" CaO( s ) + CO 2 ( g )
Decomposition.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 116 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 119


Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Examples of Double Displacement


CaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) ! CaCO3(s) + 2 NaCl(aq)

Ba(OH)2(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) ! Ba(NO3)2(aq) + 2 H2 O(l)

Li2CO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) ! 2 LiCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", 117


Chapter 7

39 40