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Exercise on Relative Clauses (Contact clauses)

Relative clauses - defining or non-defining?

Study the situations and then decide whether the following relative clauses are defining or non-defining.

defining – no commas
non-defining – commas

1. I have three brothers.


My brother who lives in Sidney came to see me last month.
My brother, who lives in Sidney, came to see me last month.
2. I have one sister.
My sister who is 25 years old spent her holiday in France.
My sister, who is 25 years old, spent her holiday in France.
3. Bob's mum has lost her keys.
Bob's mum who is a musician has lost her car keys.
Bob's mum, who is a musician, has lost her car keys.
4. My friend Jane moved to Canada.
My friend Jane whose husband is Canadian moved to Canada last week.
My friend Jane, whose husband is Canadian, moved to Canada last week.
5. I am a shoe fanatic.
The shoes which I bought yesterday are very comfortable.
The shoes, which I bought yesterday, are very comfortable.
6. Mr Robinson is very famous.
Mr Robinson whom I met at the trade fair is a famous inventor.
Mr Robinson, whom I met at the trade fair, is a famous inventor.
7. Tamara has two cats. Both of them are black.
Tamara's two cats which can play outside are black.
Tamara's two cats, which can play outside, are black.
8. Kevin has four cats. Two of them are black.
Kevin's two cats which are black can play outside.
Kevin's two cats, which are black, can play outside.
9. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.
The church which we visited yesterday is very old.
The church, which we visited yesterday, is very old.
10. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.
St. Mary's Church which we visited yesterday is very old.
St. Mary's Church, which we visited yesterday, is very old.
1. I have three brothers.
My brother who lives in Sidney came to see me last month.
My brother, who lives in Sidney, came to see me last month.
2. I have one sister.
My sister who is 25 years old spent her holiday in France.
My sister, who is 25 years old, spent her holiday in France.
3. Bob's mum has lost her keys.
Bob's mum who is a musician has lost her car keys.
Bob's mum, who is a musician, has lost her car keys.
4. My friend Jane moved to Canada.
My friend Jane whose husband is Canadian moved to Canada last week.
My friend Jane, whose husband is Canadian, moved to Canada last week.
5. I am a shoe fanatic.
The shoes which I bought yesterday are very comfortable.
The shoes, which I bought yesterday, are very comfortable.
6. Mr Robinson is very famous.
Mr Robinson whom I met at the trade fair is a famous inventor.
Mr Robinson, whom I met at the trade fair, is a famous inventor.
7. Tamara has two cats. Both of them are black.
Tamara's two cats which can play outside are black.
Tamara's two cats, which can play outside, are black.
8. Kevin has four cats. Two of them are black.
Kevin's two cats which are black can play outside.
Kevin's two cats, which are black, can play outside.
9. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.
The church which we visited yesterday is very old.
The church, which we visited yesterday, is very old.
10. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.
St. Mary's Church which we visited yesterday is very old.
St. Mary's Church, which we visited yesterday, is very old.

Exercise on Relative Clauses (Contact clauses)


Forming relative clauses

Combine the sentences using a relative clause. Use relative pronouns only where necessary. Note that
you have to use commas in some of the sentences.

A holiday in Scotland
1. We spent our holiday in Scotland last year. Scotland is in the north of Great Britain.
Last year we

2. People live in Scotland. They are called Scots.


The people
3. We first went to Edinburgh. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland.
We first

4. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh. He wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories.
Arthur Conan Doyle

5. Then we visited a lake. It is in the Highlands.


The lake

6. Loch Ness is 37 km long. People know it for its friendly monster.


Loch Ness

7. There we met an old man. He told us that he had seen Nessie.


An old man

8. We then travelled to a mountain. The mountain is near the town of Fort William.
We then

9. The mountain is the highest mountain in Great Britain. It is called Ben Nevis.
The mountain

10. I sent you a postcard. It was written on the summit of Ben Nevis.
The postcard

1. We spent our holiday in Scotland last year. Scotland is in the north of Great Britain.
Last year we spent our holidays in Scotland, which is in the north of Great Britain.
2. People live in Scotland. They are called Scots.
The people who live in Scotland are called Scots.
3. We first went to Edinburgh. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland.
We first went to Edinburgh, which is the capital of Scotland.
4. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh. He wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories.
Arthur Conan Doyle , who wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories, was born in Edinburgh.
5. Then we visited a lake. It is in the Highlands.
The lake we then visited is in the Highlands.
6. Loch Ness is 37 km long. People know it for its friendly monster.
Loch Ness , which people know for its friendly monster, is 37 km long.
7. There we met an old man. He told us that he had seen Nessie.
An old man we met there told us that he had seen Nessie.
8. We then travelled to a mountain. The mountain is near the town of Fort William.
We then travelled to a mountain which is near the town of Fort William.
9. The mountain is the highest mountain in Great Britain. It is called Ben Nevis.
The mountain , which is the highest mountain in Great Britain, is called Ben Nevis.
10. I sent you a postcard. It was written on the summit of Ben Nevis.
The postcard I sent you was written on the summit of Ben Nevis.

Test
Choose the correct relative pronoun or relative adverb.
1. The woman __________ is sitting at the desk is Mr Winter's secretary.
2. I cannot remember the reason __________ he wanted us to leave.
3. Jane, __________ mother is a physician, is very good at biology.
4. She didn’t see the snake __________ was lying on the ground.
5. Do you know the shop __________ Andrew picked me up?

Combine the sentences with relative clauses. (Decide whether to use commas or not.)
1. A monk is a man. The man has devoted his life to God.
A monk __________
2. I have one black cat. His name is Blacky.
I have __________
3. A herbivore is an animal. The animal feeds upon vegetation.
A herbivore __________
4. Carol plays the piano brilliantly. She is only 9 years old.
Carol __________
5. Sydney is the largest Australian city. It is not the capital of Australia.
Sydney __________

Combine the sentences with contact clauses.


1. We ordered a book. It was very expensive.
__________
2. You are sitting on a bench. The paint on the bench is still wet.
__________
3. The photographer could not develop the pictures. I had taken them in Australia.
__________
4. One of the bins smells awful. You haven’t emptied the bin for 3 weeks.
__________
5. They are singing a song. I don’t know the song.
__________

Combine the sentences with relative clauses or contact clauses. Use contact clauses where possible.
(Decide whether to use commas or not.)
1. The city seems to be abandoned. It is usually crowded with people.
__________
2. You made an offer. We cannot accept it.
We __________
3. A midwife is a woman. She assists other women in childbirth.
A woman __________
4. Three youngsters were arrested by the police. They had committed criminal offences.
The police __________
5. The World Wide Web has become an essential part of our lives. It was invented by Tim Berners-
Lee.
Tim Berners-Lee __________
Test
Choose the correct relative pronoun or relative adverb.
1. The woman who is sitting at the desk is Mr Winter's secretary.
2. I cannot remember the reason why he wanted us to leave.
3. Jane, whose mother is a physician, is very good at biology.
4. She didn’t see the snake which was lying on the ground.
5. Do you know the shop where Andrew picked me up?

Combine the sentences with relative clauses. (Decide whether to use commas or not.)
1. A monk is a man. The man has devoted his life to God.
A monk is a man who has devoted his life to God.
2. I have one black cat. His name is Blacky.
I have one black cat, whose name is Blacky.
3. A herbivore is an animal. The animal feeds upon vegetation.
A herbivore is an animal that feeds upon vegetation.
4. Carol plays the piano brilliantly. She is only 9 years old.
Carol , who is only 9 years old, plays the piano brilliantly.
5. Sydney is the largest Australian city. It is not the capital of Australia.
Sydney , which is not the capital of Australia, is the largest Australian city.

Combine the sentences with contact clauses.


1. We ordered a book. It was very expensive.
The book we ordered was very expensive.
2. You are sitting on a bench. The paint on the bench is still wet.
The paint on the bench you are sitting on is still wet.
3. The photographer could not develop the pictures. I had taken them in Australia.
The photographer could not develop the pictures I had taken in Australia.
4. One of the bins smells awful. You haven’t emptied the bin for 3 weeks.
The bin you haven't emptied for 3 weeks smells awful.
5. They are singing a song. I don’t know the song.
They are singing a song I don't know.

Combine the sentences with relative clauses or contact clauses. Use contact clauses where possible.
(Decide whether to use commas or not.)
1. The city seems to be abandoned. It is usually crowded with people.
The city, which is usually crowded with people, seems to be abandoned.
2. You made an offer. We cannot accept it.
We cannot accept the offer you made.
3. A midwife is a woman. She assists other women in childbirth.
A woman who assists other women in childbirth is a midwife.
4. Three youngsters were arrested by the police. They had committed criminal offences.
The police arrested three youngsters who had committed criminal offences.
5. The World Wide Web has become an essential part of our lives. It was invented by Tim Berners-
Lee.
Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, which has become an essential part of our lives.
Test
Choose the correct relative pronoun or relative adverb.
1. A castle is a place __________ a king or queen lives.
2. An actress is a woman __________ plays in films or theatre plays.
3. This is the girl __________ mother is from Canada.
4. This is the time of the year __________ many people suffer from hayfever.
5. The flowers __________ grow in the garden are beautiful.

Decide whether the relative pronoun is necessary or not.


1. This is the picture that Jane painted.
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
2. Do you know the man who is speaking on the phone?
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
3. We ate the sweets which my mother had bought.
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
4. Is this the boy who plays the piano?
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
5. This is the house that was broken into.
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary

Complete the sentences using a relative clause.


1. Catherine and Sue are two girls (like dancing) __________
2. My mobile phone is something (be very important to me) __________
3. Antony is a friend of mine (live in Boston) __________
4. West Side Story is a musical (be very famous) __________
5. An airport is a place (planes land) __________

Combine the sentences using relative clauses without relative pronouns (contact clauses).
1. We bought a car last week. The car is blue.
The car __________
2. The girl is a singer. We met her at the party.
The girl __________
3. The bananas are on the table. George bought them.
The bananas __________
4. We watched a film last night. It was really scary.
The film __________
5. I have to learn new words. They are very difficult.
The new words __________

Test
Choose the correct relative pronoun or relative adverb.
1. A castle is a place where a king or queen lives.
2. An actress is a woman who plays in films or theatre plays.
3. This is the girl whose mother is from Canada.
4. This is the time of the year when many people suffer from hayfever.
5. The flowers which grow in the garden are beautiful.

Decide whether the relative pronoun is necessary or not.


1. This is the picture that Jane painted.
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
2. Do you know the man who is speaking on the phone?
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
3. We ate the sweets which my mother had bought.
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
4. Is this the boy who plays the piano?
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary
5. This is the house that was broken into.
relative pronoun is necessary
relative pronoun is not necessary

Complete the sentences using a relative clause.


1. Catherine and Sue are two girls who like dancing.
2. My mobile phone is something which is very important to me.
3. Antony is a friend of mine who lives in Boston.
4. West Side Story is a musical which is very famous.
5. An airport is a place where planes land.

Combine the sentences using relative clauses without relative pronouns (contact clauses).
1. We bought a car last week. The car is blue.
The car we bought last week is blue.
2. The girl is a singer. We met her at the party.
The girl we met at the party is a singer.
3. The bananas are on the table. George bought them.
The bananas George bought are on the table.
4. We watched a film last night. It was really scary.
The film we watched last night was really scary.
5. I have to learn new words. They are very difficult.
The new words I have to learn are very difficult.