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Alive Human Being Detector In war Fields

NTRODUCTION
A PIR (passive infrared) detector coupled with an electric light is now widely
used for intruder protection. PIR are also available as stand-alone units which
usually have a switched output for controlling external loads. To enable the PIR
detector to work in daylight also, you have to cover the internal light/darkness
sensor (usually an LDR).

The PIR detector used in this circuit reacts to fast temperature variations
caused by the movement of people or animals in an enclosed space. All mammals
radiate a certain amount of heat, and it is this that causes local variations in
temperature. The radiant heat energy occupies the electromagnetic spectrum
between light and radio waves, i.e. 0.74….300µ m, which is usually called the infra-
red region. The radiant energy is picked up by a Fresnel lens, at the focus of which
is a double differential pyroelectric sensor. The detector is largely unaffected by
other electrical radiation. Also, it does not react to movement outside the guarded
space.

METHODOLOGY
The space to be monitored is divided by the lens into a number of zones. The
number of zones depends on the number of segments of which the lens is
composed. When somebody moves from one zone into another, there is a change in
temperature which is collected by the lens as a variation in radiant energy. At the
focus of the lens is a pyroelectric sensor which reacts to such a change by
generating a small electric signal. That signal is processed and used to actuate the
alarm installation.

The signal generated by the sensor is filtered to filter out unwanted


frequencies. Filtered signal is amplified and fed to the schmitt trigger to shape the
pulses. The output of the schmitt trigger is used to trigger the monostable
Source: Magnum Technologies.
multivibrator. The high out of the monostable drives a relay via a relay driver. The
relay in turn activates the alarm.

1. INTRODUCTION

Until well into the twentieth century, most of devices developed for measuring distance/movements
worked on the same principle; comparison of the measured distance with the standard unit of length.
Other advanced means are available now. One of these is the measurement of time taken by an
electromagnetic / sound wave to cover a certain distance. This sound normally lies beyond human
hearing and known as Ultra-sonic waves.

The novel Ultrasonic Movement Detector presented here is suitable for detecting any moving objects
within the range between 25 cm and about 6 meters. The detected action in intimated by alarm
sound.

You will find many uses for this movement detector. It is built around a matched pair of ceramic
transducers, which convert movement energy to electrical energy and vice versa. The operating frequency
of the pair is 40kHz. Any movement in the area scanned by the pair of transducers will be detected and a
6V pulse produced. In this Ultrasonic Movement Detector system the pulse turns on a LED. Pads are
provided to take this pulse to add on circuits where it may be used to switch between an automatic reset
after the detector has been triggered or to stay triggered. The unit will work reliably upto three meters after
calibration.

Methodology:
The basic principle used in this device is the property of ultrasonic and waves of getting reflected when
medium density charges. The ultrasonic and sound waves having a frequency range from 40 kHz are
generated by an Astable Multivibrator, having 50% duty cycle. The waves generated are amplified and
transmitted through a transmitting Transducer with the help of a driver stage.

The waves travel ahead and are reflected back when they strike a moving object. The receiving transducer
selects the reflected waves and further they are processed in receiver section. The receiver section
consists of pre amplifier, buffer, driver and a buzzer, which gives the final output. The buffer is included to
provide unit gain amplification to the received waves and passes them to Driver. The output is thus
amplified to drive the output stage. The output stage is a buzzer. LED is also included in the output stage
for the convenience.

ADVANTAGES:
2 Source: Magnum Technologies.
1 Easy to use.
2 Manual error in security is nullified

APPLICATIONS:

1 For homes.
2 For industrial security etc.

Block Diagram:

RF RX
LCD 16 X 2

MONOSTABLE MICROCONTROLLER
BUFFER DRIVE
MULTIVIBRATOR 89C51
PIR SENSOR

RF ID TX

VIDEO RECEIVER

3 Source: Magnum Technologies.


2. BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

BUFFER: This buffer isolates Ultra-sonic Receiver section from the rest of the
circuit. This is necessary as Buzzer is used to give audible indication, and thus
leads to loading effect on entire circuit while buzzing. The reference signal
passes through this block and is fed to Driver block.

DRIVER: This block drives the Buzzer, which needs extra current while buzzing
the alarm. As all the blocks deal with low voltage leveled reference signal, this
Buzzer acts as strong current driving load to the system. So to avoid that loading
effect, Driver block is created. This block drives the Buzzer, as soon it receives
the reference signal from the Ultrasonic Receiver Block.

BUZZER: This buzzer is an output device, which starts sounding / alarming as


soon it receives the reference signal from the Ultrasonic Receiver Block.

POWER SUPPLY UNIT: The specially designed power supply provides +12 V for
Op-amp & Driver Stage and +5V for rest of the circuit.

APPLICATIONS

1) This system is used in shops to keep an eye on shop-lifters.


It can be used at homes to prevent intruders from invading
your privacy

4 Source: Magnum Technologies.