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MISRIMAL NAVAJEE MUNOTH JAIN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, CHENNAI - 97

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

MATHEMATICS (MA2111)

FOR

FIRST SEMESTER ENGINEERING STUDENTS ANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS

This text contains some of the most important short answer (Part A) and long answer (Part B) questions and their answers. Each unit contains 30 university questions. Thus, a total of 150 questions and their solutions are given. A student who studies these model problems will be able to get pass mark (hopefully!!).

Prepared by the faculty of Department of Mathematics

SEPTEMBER, 2010

www.engg-maths.com

3-D Analytical Geometry

UNIT II

THREE DIMENSIONAL ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY

SHORT ANSWER

Problem 1:

sphere

Write the equation of the tangent plane at (1, 5, 7) to the

2

2

2

14 .

x 2 y 3 z 4

Solution:

The equation of the tangent plane to the sphere

2

x

xx 1

y

2

z

2

2ux 2vy 2wz d 0at

yy

1

zz

1

u

x x

1

v

y y

1

w

x , y , z

1

1

z z

1

Given :

x

2

2

y

3

2

z

4

2

14

x

2

2

4

2

x

4

2



2

y

6

y

9



z

2

8

z

16

14

x Here 2u = -4, 2v = -6, 2w = -8, d = 15 x 1 =1, y 1 =5, z 1 = 7

y

z

x

1

4

x

y

5

6

y

8

z

29

14

0

 

1

z

7  2 1



x

3

y

x

5

y

7

z

2

x

2

 

3

y

15

4

z

28

15

0

x

 

2

y

3

z

30

0

 
 

.

i e

.,

x

2

y

3

z

30

0

1

is

d 0

 

5

4

z

7

15

0

Problem 2:

Test whether the plane x = 3 touches the sphere x 2 +y 2 +z 2 =9.

(1)

2

Solution: The condition that the plane lx my nz p to touch the sphere

2 2 2 x  y  z  2ux  2vy  2wz 
2
2
2
x
 y
 z
 2ux  2vy  2wz  d  0 is
l(
u)
m(
 
v)
n(
w)
p
2
2
2
u
v
w
d
2
2
2
l
m
n
2
2
2
2
2
i.e., 
lu 
mv  nw  p
l
 m
 n

u
 v

2

w

u

0, v 0, w 0, l 1, m 0, n 0, p 3, d  4

Hence  

i.e.,

The plane x=3 touches the sphere x 2 +y 2 +z 2 = 9.

1

3

2

0 0 3

9

2

10 0



0 0 0 9

2

d

Problem 3:

touches the plane 2x-y+2z = 6 Solution: Let the equation of the sphere be

Find the equation of the sphere which has its centre at (-1, 2, 3) and

2

x

y

2

z

2

2ux 2vy 2wz d 0

(1)

(1)

3-D Analytical Geometry

u 1,

v  2,

1 x y



2

2

w  3

2

z 2x

4 y 6z d 0

(2)

3

To find d:

Since the plane 2x-y+2z = 6 touches the sphere whose centre is (-1, 2, 3). The radius of the sphere is equal to the length of the perpendicular drawn from the centre (1, 2, 3) to the plane 2x-y+2z = 6 Length of the perpendicular

ax  by  cz  d 1 1 1  2 2 2 a
ax
by
cz
d
1
1
1
2
2
2
a
b
c
    
2
 
1
1
2
2
3
6
4
 
1
4
 
2
2
 
6
6
4
 r
9
3
2
2
2
We know that
r 
u
 v
 w
 d
2
2
2
2
r
u
v
w
d
2
2
2
2
d
u
v
w
r
2
 
4
2
2
2
 
1
 
2
3
  
3
 

 

1

4

 

9



2

9

x

 

x

2

2

y

2

16

9

2

y

2

z

16

110

2

9

x

9

y

6

54

36

y

4

14

z

2

18

x

z

z

110

9

110

0

0

Problem 4:

ends of a diameter.

Find the equation of the sphere having the points (-4, 5, 1) and (4, 1, 7) as

x x

Therefore the equation of the required sphere is x 4x 4y 5y 1z 1z 70

Solution: Formula:

x x

1

2

y y

1

y y

2

z z

1

z z

2

0

Problem 5:

2

x

y

2

z

2

2

x

y z 6y 8z 4 0

2

2

Check whether the two spheres

6 y 2z 8 0 and x

2

y

2

z

2

6x 8y 4z 20 0 intersect each other

orthogonally.

Solution: Given

x

x

2

2

Here

y

y

2

2

u

1

z

z

2

2

6 y 2z 6x 8y

0, v

1

3, w

1

8 0

(1)

4z 20 0

(2)

1, d

1

8

3-D Analytical Geometry

u

2

3, v

2

4, w

2

2, d

2

20

4

Condition for orthogonal spheres is 2u 1 u 2 + 2v 1 v 2 +2w 1 w 2 = d 1 + d 2 L.H.S = 0 + 24 + 4 = 28 R.H.S = 8 + 20 = 28 L.H.S = R.H.S Hence the two spheres intersect orthogonally.

Problem 6:

XOY plane.

Find the equation of the sphere with centre at (2, 3, 5), which touches the

Solution: Let

Formula: Radius = perpendicular distance from

x

1

, y , z

1

1

(2,3,5)



ax  by  cz  d 1 1 1 2 2 2 a 
ax
by
cz
d
1
1
1
2
2
2
a
b
c

x , y , z

1

1

1

to the plane ax + by + cz +d = 0

Radius = perpendicular distance from (2, 3, 5) to the plane z = 0

5   5 2 2 2 0  0  1 2 2 The
5

 5
2
2
2
0
0
1
2
2
The required sphere is
x  x
y  y
1
1
2
2
2
2
x
2
y
3
z
5
5
2
2
2
x
4
x
 
4
y
6
y
 
9
z
10
z
25
2
2
2
x
y
z
4
x
6
y
10
z
13
0

25

z z

1

2

2

r

Problem 7:

the curve x 2 + y 2 = 9, z = 3

Find the equation of the cone with vertex at the origin and passing through

Solution:

z = 3 implies z/3 = 1 Homogenizing x 2 + y 2 = 9, we get x 2 + i.e., x 2 + y 2 = z 2 This is the equation of the required cone.

y 2 = 9.1 2 = 9.(z/3) 2

Problem 8:

is

2

x

2

y

4

9

Find the equation of the cone whose vertex is the origin and guiding curve

z

2

1

1,

x y z

1

Solution:

The required equation of the cone is obtained by homogenizing

x y z 1.

i.e.,

2

x

4

2

y

9

z

2

1

  x y z

1

2

(

)

2

2

x

4

2

y

9

z

2

1

1

with

3-D Analytical Geometry

5

i.e.,

i.e.,

i.e.,

Problem 9:

cone

2

x

y

2

2

2

2

x

y

2

9

4 y

2

z x y z xy yz

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

36z

2

36(x

2

y

2

z

2

2

2

zx

4

9x

27x 32 y 72(xy yz zx) 0

2xy 2 yz 2zx)

Show that the line

4z

2

0

x

l

=

y

m

=

n z subject to

l

2

m

2

4n

2

0 generates the

Solution:

The line

cone. Also the direction ratios l, m and n should satisfy the equation of the cone.

0 . Hence the equation

of the required cone is

Problem 10: If x =

Solution:

Origin is the generator of the cone. The direction ratios 1, 1, k of the generator should

satisfy the equation of the cone. Therefore, 1 2 + 1 2 – k 2 = 0. i.e., k=

2

l

4n

=

2

m

=

n z passes through the origin. Hence origin is the vertex of the required

0 implies l, m, n satisfy the equation

x

1

y

1

x

=

2

y

2

4z

2

0.

k z is a generator of the cone

2

y

2

4z

x y z

2

2

2

2

0 , find the value of k.

2
2

x

y

l

2

m

Problem 11:

whose axis is the line x =

Find the equation of the right circular cone whose vertex is the origin,

1

y

2

=

z and which has semi-vertical angle of 30º.

3

x y z Solution: Let a generator of the cone be = = l m
x
y z
Solution: Let a generator of the cone be
=
=
l
m n
ratios.
Direction ratios of the axis are 1, 2, 3.
l
2
m
3
n
Therefore
cos30 =
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
3
l
m
n
2
(
l
2
m
3
n
)
2
cos
2
2
2
30 = 14(
l
m
n
)
2
2
2
2
14(
l
 m
n
)(3/ 4)
(
l
2
m
3
n
)
2
2
2
2
42(
l
 m
n
)
4(
l
2
m
3
n
)

Hence the equation of the cone is

i.e.,

2

42(x y

2

z

2

) 4(x 2 y 3z)

2

19x 13y 3z 8xy 42 yz 12zx 0

2

2

2

, where l,

m,

n

are its direction

Problem 12:

the axes

Find the equation of the cone of the second degree which passes through

3-D Analytical Geometry

6

Solution: The cone passes through the axes. Therefore the verrtex of the cone is the origin. The equation of the cone is homogeneous of second degree in x, y and z.

i.e.,

Given that x-axis is a generator. Then y = 0, z = 0 must satisfy the equation (1). Therefore, a = 0. Similarly, y and z axes are generators imply that b = 0 and c = 0 Hence the equation of the cone is fyz gzx hxy 0

ax by cz 2 fyz 2gzx 2hxy 0

2

2

2

(1)

Problem 13: Find the right circular cylinder, whose axis is z-axis and radius a.

Solution:

perpendicular to the z-axis. Then PM = a and OM = z 1 , where O is the origin.

Let P(x 1 ,

y 1 ,

z 1 )

be any point

on the surface of the cylinder.

Draw PM

OP 2 = OM 2 + PM 2

x 1 2 + y 1 2 + z 1 2 = z 1 2 + a 2

x 1 2 + y 1 2 = a 2

i.e.,

i.e.,

Locus of (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) is x 2 + y 2 = a 2 , which is the equation of the required cylinder.

Problem 14:

straight line x

Write down the equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is the

l

(

x

=

y

m

=

)

2

(

y

z

n

)

2

and whose radius is a  ( x   ) l  ( y
and whose radius is a
(
x
)
l
(
y
)
m
(
z
)
n
2
(
z
)
2
2
2
l
m
n


2

a

2

Solution:

is the required equation of the right circular cylinder.

Problem 15: What is the general equation of a cylinder whose generators are parallel to the z-axis?

Solution:

is f(x, y) =

The general equation of a cylinder whose generators are parallel to the z-axis

ax

2

2

2hxy by 2gx 2 fy c 0 .

LONG ANSWER

Problem 16:

Show that the plane 2x – y - 2z = 16 touches the sphere

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 4x + 2y + 2z - 3 = 0 and find the point of contact.

Solution:

A P(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 )
A
P(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 )
2 2 2 (  2) ( 1) ( 1) 3
2
2
2
(
2)
(
1)
(
1)
3
A P(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) 2 2 2 (  2)

   

The centre and radius of the sphere are A(2, -1, -1) and

Perpendicular distance of (2, -1, -1) from the plane 2x – y - 2z - 16 = 0 is

3

3-D Analytical Geometry

2(2)

   

(

1)

2(

1)

16

2 2   ( 1) 2 ( 2) 2

2

2

 

(

1)

2

(

2)

2

The plane touches the sphere.

3 = radius of the sphere

7

Let P(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) be the point of contact. Then the equation of the tangent plane at (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) is xx 1 + yy 1 + zz 1 - 2(x + x 1 ) + (y + y 1 ) + (z + z 1 ) - 3 = 0

(x 1 - 2) x + (y 1 + 1) y + (z 1 + 1) z - 2x 1 + y 1 + z 1 - 3 = 0

This plane is same as 2x – y - 2z - 16 = 0

i.e.,

x

1

2

y

1

1

z

1

1

2

2x

1

y

1

z

1

3

16

k (say)

 

2

1

Then

x 1 = 2k + 2,

Also

-2x 1 + y 1 + z 1 -

y 1 = -k - 1, z 1 = -2k - 1

3 = -16k

 

(1)

 

x

6

y

7

z

3

 

3

4

5

(

 

1)

2

(

2)

2

0

2

4

 1) 2 ( 2) 2  0 2  4 Substituting for x 1 ,

Substituting for x 1 , y 1 , z 1 from (1), we get, -2(2k + 2) + (-k - 1) + (-2k - 1) - 3 = -16k

i.e.,

-7k - 9 =16k

i.e.,

9k – 9 = 0

i.e.,

k =1

From (1) x 1 = 4, y 1 = -2, z 1 = -3, and the point of contact P is (4, -2, -3)

Show that the line whose equation is

Problem 17:

the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 2x - 4y - 4 = 0 and find the point of contact.

Solution:

The centre and the radius of the sphere are A(1, 2, 0) and Let P be the foot of the perpendicular from A to the line

x

6

y

7

z

3

 

 

3

4

5

(1)

touches

3

Then the coordinates of P are (3r + 6, 4r + 7, 5r + 3)

P A(1, 2, 0)
P
A(1, 2, 0)

The D.R’s of AP are (3r + 6 - 1, 4r + 7 - 2, 5r + 3 - 0)

i.e.,

The D.R’s of the line (1) are (3, 4, 5) and as AP is perpendicular to the line (1)

3(3r + 5) + 4(4r + 5) + 5(5r + 3) = 0

(3r + 5, 4r + 5, 5r + 3)

i.e.,

50r + 50 = 0

i.e.,

r = -1

3-D Analytical Geometry

Now AP =

2 2 2 (3  1)  (3  2)   ( 2 0)
2
2
2
(3
 1)
(3
2)
 
(
2
0)
2 2 2 (3  1)  (3  2)   ( 2 0) =

= radius of the sphere

= 3

8

The line (1) touches the sphere and the point of contact is P(3, 3, -2)

Problem 18:

Find the centre and radius of the circle in which the sphere

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2y + 4z - 11 = 0 is cut by the plane x + 2y + 2z + 15 = 0.

Solution:

The centre and radius of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2y + 4z - 11 = 0

are C(0, -1, -2) and CP =

Let N be the foot of the perpendicular from C on the plane x + 2y + 2z + 15 = 0

0

2

1

2

2

2

11

4

C N
C
N

P

(1)

(2)

0  2(  1)  2(  2)  15 Then CN  
0
2(
1)
2(
2)
15
Then
CN 
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
 The radius of the circle =
CP
 CN
2
2
=
4
3
7

The centre of the circle is N Now CN is perpendicular to plane (2).

Its D.R.’s are (1, 2, 2). Also CN passes through C (0, -1, -2).

The equation of line CN is

x

0

y

1

z

2

 

 

1 2

 

2

Any point on this line is (r, 2r - 1, 2r - 2).

If this point is N, it satisfies plane (2).

r + 2(2r - 1) + 2(2r - 2) + 15 = 0

i.e.,

9r + 9 = 0

i.e.,

r = -1.

The coordinates of N are (-1, 2(-1)-1, 2(-1)-2)

i.e.,

Thus the centre and radius of the circle are (-1, -3, -4) and

(-1, -3, -4)

7
7

Problem 19:

A sphere touches the plane x - 2y - 2z - 7 = 0 in the point (3, -1, -1)

and passes through the point (1, 1, -3). Find its equation.

3-D Analytical Geometry

9

Solution:

The equation of the point sphere with centre at (3, -1, -1) is (x - 3) 2 + (y + 1) 2 + (z + 1) 2 = 0

i.e.,

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 6x + 2y + 2z + 11 = 0

(1)

The required sphere touches the plane x - 2y - 2z - 7 = 0 at (3, -1, -1)

(2)

It contains the point circle of intersection of sphere (1) and plane (2).

Hence the equation of the required sphere is of the form

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 6x + 2y + 2z + 11 + (x - 2y - 2z - 7) = 0 and passes through (1, 1, -3)

1 2 + 1 2 + (-3) 2 - 6.1 + 2.1 + 2(-3) + 11 + (1 - 2.1 - 2(-3) - 7) = 0. 12 + (-2) = 0 = 6

The required sphere is x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 6x + 2y + 2z + 11 + 6(x - 2y - 2z - 7) = 0 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 10y - 10z - 31 = 0

i.e.,

Find the equation of the sphere that passes through the circle

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + x - 3y + 2z - 1 = 0, 2x + 5y – z + 7 = 0 and cuts orthogonally the sphere whose equation x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 3x + 5y - 7z - 6 = 0

Solution:

The equation of any sphere passing through the given circle is x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + x - 3y + 2z – 1 + (2x + 5y – z + 7) = 0

i.e.,

Sphere (1) cuts the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 3x + 5y - 7z - 6 = 0 orthogonally.

Problem 20:

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + (1 + 2) x + (-3 + 5) y + (2 - ) z – 1 + 7= 0

(1)

2uu 1 + 2vv 1 + 2ww 1 = d + d 1

i.e.,

i.e.,

1 2λ   3


2

 2   3

2

5λ

    5

  

2

  2

2 λ

2

 7   1 7λ

2

 

-3 - 6- 15 + 25- 14 + 7= -14 + 14

2

 

2

6

i.e.,

12- 18 = 0

i.e.,

= 3/2

 

i.e.,

Equation of the required sphere is x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + x - 3y + 2z -1 + (3/2)(2x + 5y – z + 7) = 0 2(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + 8x + 9y + z + 19 = 0

Problem 21: Find the equation of the cone whose vertex is (1, 2, 3) and which passes

through the circle

2

x

y z 4; x y z 1

2

2

1

2

Solution:

Any point on this line is (lr+1, mr+2, nr+3). This point will lie on the given circle, if

Any line through the point (1, 2, 3) is x

l

y

m

z

n

3

(1)

3-D Analytical Geometry

10

and

From (3),

From (2),

i.e.

i.e.

i.e.

(lr+1) 2 + (mr+2) 2 + (nr+3) 2 = 4 lr + 1 + mr +2 + nr +3 = 1

r = -5/(l + m + n)

(l

l

(

2 2

2 2

m

5(l

2

m

m n )r

(

2

2

(2l 4m 6n)r 10 0

(2

2

2

n

n

)

2

25

m

) (2l

l

n

)

2

5

l

4

m

6

n

)(

l

m

n

)

10

4m 6n)(l m n) 2((l m n)

2

5l 2 + 3m 2 + n 2 -2lm – 6mn - 4nl = 0

 

(2)

(3)

0

0

 

(4)

The equation of the required cone is obtained by eliminating l, m, n from (1) and (4).

From (1),

m

y

2

n

z

3

l

x

1

;

l

x

1

5

2

   3( y 2)

3

m

l

2

n

l

2

2

From (4),

i.e.

i.e.

the cone.

2

2

m

6

mn

2

4

n

0

( z 3)

l 2( x 1) y 2) 6( y 2)( z 3) 4( x 1)( z 3) 0

l

l

5( x 1)

5x 2 + 3y 2 + z 2 – 2xy - 6yz - 4zx + 6x + 8y + 10z – 26 = 0. This is the equation of

Problem 22: Find the equation of the cone whose vertex is at the origin and which

passes through the curve

x

2

y z x 1 0; x y z y 2 0

2

2

2

2

2

Solution:

The guiding curve is given by the equations

x

2

y

2

z

2

x

2

y

2

z

2

x

1 0

(1)

y 2 0

(2)

2

( x y z x 1) ( x y z y 2) 0

2

2

2

2

2

2

x + y = 1

(3)

2

and

The intersection is a circle in the plane i.e.

The equation of the cone is obtained by homogenizing the equation (1) or (2) with (3).

i.e.

i.e.

x

2

x

y z x ( x y ) 1( x y ) 0

3xy z

2

2

2

0 . This is the equation of the cone.

Problem 23: The plane x/a + y/b + z/c = 1 meets the axes at A, B, C. Find the equation of the cone whose vertex is the origin and the guiding curve is the circle through A, B, C.

Solution: The plane x/a + y/b + z/c = 1

meets the axes at the points A(a, 0, 0), B(0, b, 0) and C(0, 0, c). The sphere OABC

through O(0, 0, 0), A(a, 0, 0), B(0, b, 0) and C(0, 0, c) is x 2 + y 2 + z 2 –ax – by – cz = 0. Thus the guiding curve is the circle given by (1) and (2). Homogenizing (2) using (1), we get, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 –(ax + by + cz)( x/a + y/b + z/c) = 0.

(1)

(2)

3-D Analytical Geometry

11

yz(b/c + c/b) + zx(c/a +a/c) + xy(a/b +b/a) = 0 a(b 2 + c 2 )yz + b(c 2 + a 2 )zx + c(a 2 +b 2 )xy = 0 This is the equation of the required cone.

Problem 24: Find the equation of the right circular cone whose vertex is at the origin and the circle y 2 + z 2 = 25, x = 4 is the base circle.

Solution:

A(4, 0, 5) P C θ M V(0, 0, 0)
A(4, 0, 5)
P
C
θ
M
V(0, 0, 0)

Centre of the circle is C(4, 0, 0). Vertex V(0, 0, 0). Direction ratios of the axis VC are 4, 0, 0 A point on the circle is A(4, 0, 5). Direction ratios of the generator VA are 4, 0, 5.

Then

(4)(4)  (0)(0)  (0)(5) 16 41
(4)(4)
(0)(0)
(0)(5)
16
41

4

41
41

cos

Let P(x, y, z) be any point on the cone. Draw PM perpendicular to the axis.

Then, from the right angled triangle, PVM,

Direction ratios of VM are 4, 0, 0. VM is the projection of VP on the axis.

VM

VP

cos

( x  0)4  ( y  0)(0)  ( z  0)(0) Therefore
(
x
0)4
(
y
0)(0)
(
z
0)(0)
Therefore
VM
x
and
2
2
2
4
0
0
VM
x
4
Therefore,
cos 
, using (1)
VP
2
2
2
x
y
z
41
Squaring and simplifying we get, 41x 2 = 16(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )
25x 2 – 16y 2 – 16z 2 = 0
This is the equation of the required right circular cone.

VP

2 2 2 x  y  z
2
2
2
x
 y
 z

(1)

Problem 25: Find the equation of the right circular cone whose vertex is (3, 2, 1),

semi-vertical angle 30 0 and the axis the line

Solution: Let P(x, y, z) be any point on the cone with vertex V(3, 2, 1) and the axis

x

3

y

2

z

1

 

 

.

4

1

3

x

3

y

2

z

1

 

 

.

4

1

3

3-D Analytical Geometry

4( x  3)  ( y  2)  3( z  1) 0
4(
x
3)
(
y
2)
3(
z
1)
0
cos30
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
1
3
(
x
3)
(
y
2)
(
z
1)
4(
x
3)
(
y
2)
3(
z
1)
3 / 2 
2
2
2
26
(
x
3)
(
y
2)
(
z
1)
3
26
2
2
2
(
x 
3)
 y 
(
2)
 z 
(
1)
4(
x   y 
3)
(
2
2
2
2
39   ( x  3)
 ( y  2)
( z  1)
   2
4( x  3)
( y  2)

Therefore,

2)

3(

z

Squaring both sides,

Simplifying we get, 7x 2 + 37y 2 + 21z 2 -16xy -12yz - 48zx + 38x – 88y +126z -32 = 0. This is the equation of the required right circular cone.

3( z 1)

2

1)

12

Problem 26: Obtain the equation of the right circular cone which passes through the

x  2 point (2, 1, 3) with vertex at (1, 1, 2) and axis
x 
2
point (2, 1, 3) with vertex at (1, 1, 2) and axis parallel to the line
2
Solution:
P
M
A
θ
V

Direction ratios of VM are 2, -4, 3 Direction ratios of VA are 2-1, 1-1, 3-2 = 1, 0, 1

Hence

2.1  ( 4).0  3.1 5  29 2 58
2.1

(
4).0
3.1
5
29
2
58

cos

Let P(x, y, z) be any point on the cone. The direction ratios of VP are x-1, y-1, z-2

Hence

 

(

x

1).2

(

y

1)(

4)

(

z

2)3

( x  1) 2  ( y  1) 2  ( z 

(

x

1)

2

(

y

1)

2

(

z

2)

2

4  16  9
4
16
9

cos

From (1) and (2) we get,

y

1

z

2

 

4

3

 

(1)

(2)

( x  1).2  ( y  1)(  4)  ( z 
( x
1).2
(
y
1)(
4)
(
z
2)3
5
2
2
2
Squaring and simplifying, we get,
17x  7 y  7z  32xy  48 yz  24zx 18x 114 y  52z 118  0
This is the equation of the required right circular cone.
(
x
1)
(
y
1)
(
z
2)
4
16
9
58
2
2
2

Problem 27: Find the equation of the cylinder whose generators are parallel to the line x

y

z

1

2

3

and whose guiding curve is the ellipse x 2 + 2y 2 = 1, z = 3.

3-D Analytical Geometry

13

Solution: Let P(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) be any point on the cylinder. Since the generators are parallel x

to the line,

y

1

2

3

, the generator through P is

z

x

x

1

y

y

1

z

z

1

 

1

2

3

k

The line (1) meets the plane z = 3 at (x 1 + k, y 1 – 2k, 3) where k =

As this point lies on the ellipse x 2 + 2y 2 = 1, we have,

x

1

k 2 y 2k 1

1

2

2

3 z

1

3

(1)

i.e.

x

1

3

z

1

3

 

2

2

 

y

1

2

3

z

1

3

 

2

1

Therefore the locus of P(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) is

i.e. the equation of the cylinder is 3x 2 + 6y 2 + 3z 2 -2xz +8yz + 6x – 24y – 18z +24 = 0

3x z 3 2 3y 2z 6

2

2

9

Problem 28:

x

1

y

z

3

2

3

1

Find

the

equation

and radius 2.

of

the

right

circular

cylinder

whose

axis

is

Solution:

Let

P(x, y,

z) be any point on the cylinder. A(1, 0,

3)

is a

point

on

the axis of the

cylinder. Direction ratios of the axis are 2, 3, 1. Draw PM perpendicular to the axis. In the right angled triangle AMP,

AP

AP ( x 1) ( y 0) ( z 3)

2

AM

2

2

MP

2

2

2

2

Projecting AP on axis,

MP = radius = 2

( x  1)(2)  ( y  0)(3)  ( z  3)(1) AM
(
x
 1)(2)
(
y
0)(3)
(
z
3)(1)
AM 
2
2
2
2
3
1
M
P(x,y,z)
A(1,0,3)
2 x  3 y   z 5 14
2
x
3
y
 
z
5
14

3-D Analytical Geometry

(2

x

3

y

5)

2

4

Therefore,

Expanding and simplifying we get the equation of the cylinder as,

(

x

1)

2

(

y

)

2

(

z

3)

2

 

z

14

14

10x 2 + 5y 2 +13z 2 - 6yz - 4zx – 12xy – 8x + 30y – 74z + 59 = 0

Problem 29:

x

2

y

1

z

2

1

3

Solution:

Find the equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is

and passing through the point (0, 0, 3). M P(x 1 ,y 1 ,z 1
and passing through the point (0, 0, 3).
M
P(x 1 ,y 1 ,z 1 )
N
B(0,0,3)
A(2,1,0)

Radius of the cylinder be r. A(2, 1, 0) lies on the axis. B(0, 0, 3) lies on the cylinder. Draw BN perpendicular to the axis. Therefore, r 2 = BN 2 = BA 2 – AN 2

i.e.

2 2 2 r  (2  0)  (1  0)   4
2
2
2
r
(2
0)
(1
0)
 4 
2 90
2
r 
14 
14
 
7

(0

3)

2

 (2  0)2  (1  0)1  (0  3)3   
(2
0)2
(1
0)1
(0
3)3
 
2
2
2
2
1
3

2

Let P(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) be any point on the cylinder. Draw PM perpendicular to the axis. Then,

90

7

90

7

( x

1

( x

1

 ( x  2)2  ( y  1)1  ( z  3)3
 (
x
2)2
(
y
1)1
(
z
3)3 
2
2
2
1
1
1
2)
(
y
1)
(
z
0)
 
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
x
y
3
z
14
2