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ABSTRACT the image stored there. In this paper we also
In this paper we describe the concentrate on the servo mechanism which
development of Holographic Versatile is the key mechanism in storage of data in
Disc (HVD) i.e., a next generation storage the HVD.Besides having high storage
disc offering theoretical storage capacity capacity & data transfer rate HVDs offers
of 3.9 Terabytes of data -- that's 800 times advantage over a conventional DVD that
more than a single-sided DVD and 80 stores bits of information side-by-side in a
times more than a current double-sided thin layer, while HVDs use a thicker
Blu-ray, with a whopping 1Gbps recording layer & stores information in
read/write speed. Holography is a method almost the entire volume of the disc. An
of recording patterns of light to produce a HVD stores and retrieves an entire page of
three-dimensional object. The recorded data, approximately 60,000 bits of
patterns of light are called a hologram. The information, in one pulse of light, while a
process of creating a hologram begins with a DVD stores and retrieves one bit of data in
focused beam of light -- a laser beam. This one pulse of light. The full paper will
laser beam is split into two separate beams: discuss the various aspects of HVD in detail.
a reference beam, which remains unchanged
throughout much of the process, and an Keywords:- Holographic Versatile
information beam, which passes through an Disc, Holography, light
image. When light encounters an image, its interference, servo mechanism
composition changes. In a sense, once the
information beam encounters an image, it INTRODUCTION:
carries that image in its waveforms. When Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is a next
these two beams intersect, it creates a generation optical storage solution that promises
pattern of light interference. If we record the theoretical storage capacity of 3.9 Terabytes
this pattern of light interference we are of data -- that's 850 times more than a current
essentially recording the light pattern of the single-sided DVD and 80 times more than a
image. To retrieve the information stored in current double-sided Blu-ray Disc, with a
whopping 1Gbps read/write speed. HVD stores
a hologram, we shine the reference beam
the data in overlapping holographic patterns
directly onto the hologram. When it reflects instead of storing bits side-by-side as in
off the hologram, it holds the light pattern of

conventional CD/DVD(s).Current optical storage demonstrated of 5 TB for 3 micrometers on a

saves one bit per pulse, and the HVD alliance 10 cm disc.
hopes to improve this efficiency with capabilities
of around 60,000 bits per pulse in an inverted, Basics of Holography
truncated cone shape that has a 200 micrometer Holography is a method of recording patterns of
diameter at the bottom and a 500 micrometer light to produce a three-dimensional object. The
diameter at the top. High densities are possible recorded patterns of light are called as a
by moving these closer on the tracks: 100 GB at hologram. The process of creating a hologram
18 micrometers separation, 200 GB at 13 begins with a focused beam of light -- a laser
micrometers, 500 GB at 8 micrometers, and most beam. This laser beam is split into two separate
beams: a reference beam, which remains
unchanged throughout much of the process, and digital information in holographic memory by
an information beam, which passes through an encoding the information into binary data to be
image. When light encounters an image, its stored in the SLM (Spatial Light Modulator).
composition changes. In a sense, once the This data is now turned into ones and zeroes
information beam encounters an image, it carries represented as opaque or translucent areas on a
that image in its waveforms. When these two "page”; this page acts as the image that the
beams intersect, it creates a pattern of light information beam is going to pass through.
interference. If you record this pattern of light
interference in a photosensitive polymer layer of
a disc, you are essentially recording the light
pattern of the image.
Holographic Versatile Disc structure
1. Green writing/reading laser (532 nm) 2. Red
positioning/addressing laser (650 nm)
3. Hologram (data)(shown here as brown)
4. Polycarbonate layer 5. Photopolymeric layer
(data-containing layer) 6. Distance layers
7. Dichroic layer (reflecting green light)
8. Aluminum reflective layer (reflecting red
9. Transparent base P. Pit pattern (Ones & Zeros represented by translucent or
opaque areas)

Technology Comparison
Volumetric Recording: Conventional
CD/DVD(s) store the data bits on a planar
surface i.e. on a thin surface of recording layer.
As a result, bits are stored side by side & it limits
the capacity of the disc to the available surface
area. However, HVD uses a thicker recording
layer & stores the information in entire volume
It can be shown that if the hologram is of the disc, instead of just in a single layer. This
illuminated by the original reference beam, a allows it to store upto 3.9 terabytes of data.
light field is diffracted by the reference beam
which is identical to the light field which was
scattered by the object or objects. Thus, if you
look into the hologram you 'see' the objects even
though it may no longer be present.

(Viewing object in the hologram) High data transfer rate: The high storage
capacity of the HVD demands the higher data
Just as in a hologram, we store analog transfer rate so that whole disc could be
information in terms of images; we can store the read/write quickly & it has the ability to meet the
future needs. The conventional optical devices prototype of HVD system. HVD system
read 1 bit at each light pulse, thus it limits the developed by OPTWARE Corp. is fully
transfer rate to the frequency and width of light compatible with CD/DVD technology. The size
pulse. However, in HVD data is read/written in & thickness of HVD is also compatible with
terms of one page of 60,000 bits instead of CD/DVD/HD-DVD disc.
single bit. Thus, at each light pulse we get the
60,000 bits. This allows HVD to support 1Gbps Block Diagram
data transfer rate.

Servo data: Servo information is used to monitor

The block diagram shows the various
the position of the read head over the disc,
similar to the head, track, and sector information components and the processing of the HVD.
on a conventional hard disk drive. On a CD or
DVD this servo information is interspersed
amongst the data.

The servo beam in the HVD system is at a

wavelength that does not photosensitize the
polymer recording medium. In the HVD test
system, the servo data is carried in a separate red
laser at 650nm wavelength. The structure of the
disc places a thick recording layer between two
substrates and incorporates a dichroic mirror that
reflects the blue-green light carrying the
holography data but allows the red light to pass
through in order to gather servo information.

Major Components:
The major components of HVD system are:
• Blue or green laser: The laser beam is
highly focused coherent source at
532nm wavelength in test system. This
beam is splitted to obtain two identical
coherent beams.
• Beam splitter/merger: It separates the
laser beam into two identical beams
called as reference beam & information
beam. Both of them carry same energy
& are in phase with each other.
• Mirrors: It is used to deflect & guide
the beams along the desired path.
This prevents interference from refraction of the • Spatial light modulator (SLM) : An
SLM is a liquid crystal display (LCD)
green laser off the servo data pits and is an
that shows pages of raw binary data as
advance over past holographic storage media, clear and dark boxes. When the
which either experienced too much interference, information beam is passed through
or lacked the servo data entirely, making them SLM, it gets modulated in accordance
incompatible with current CD and DVD drive with the digital bit pattern.
technology.OPTWARE Corporation is the first
to overcome technical difficulties to produce first
• CMOS sensor : It is used to detect the
diffracted/reflected light from the
• Photopolymer recording medium

The HVD System: Writing Data

The process of writing information onto an HVD
begins with encoding the information into binary
data to be stored in the SLM. These data are
encoded into ones and zeroes represented as
opaque or translucent areas on a "page" of SLM. (Read System 2)
This page is the image that the information beam In the HVD read system, the laser projects a light
is going to pass through. Once the page of data is beam onto the hologram, a light beam that is
created, the next step is to fire a laser beam into identical to the reference beam (Read System
a beam splitter to produce two identical beams. 1). The hologram diffracts this beam according
One of the beams is directed away from the SLM to the specific pattern of light interference it's
-- this beam becomes the reference beam. The storing. The resulting light recreates the image of
other beam is directed toward the SLM and the page data that established the light-
becomes the information beam. When the interference pattern in the first place. When this
information beam passes through the SLM, beam of light called as the
portions of the light are blocked by the opaque reconstruction beam, bounces back off the disc
areas of the page, and portions pass through the (Read System 2), it travels to the CMOS sensor.
translucent areas. In this way, the information The CMOS sensor then reproduces the image of
beam carries the image once it passes through the data. Each page of data is stored in a
the SLM. different area of the crystal, based on the angle at
When the reference beam and the information which the reference beam strikes it. During
beam rejoin on the same axis, they create a reconstruction, the beam will be diffracted by
pattern of light interference called as the crystal to allow the recreation of the original
holography data. This joint beam carries the page that was stored. The key component of any
interference pattern to the photopolymer disc holographic data storage system is the angle at
and stores it there as a hologram. There is a which the second reference beam is fired at the
separate servo laser at 650nm wavelength, which crystal to retrieve a page of data. It must match
keeps track of servo information. the original reference beam angle exactly. A
difference of just a thousandth of a millimeter
will result in failure to retrieve that page of data.
The HVD System: Reading Data Comparison
To read the data from an HVD, we need to While HVD is attempting to revolutionize data
retrieve the light pattern stored in the hologram. storage, other discs are trying to improve upon
current systems. Two such discs are Blu-ray and
HD-DVD, deemed the next-generation of digital
storage. Both build upon current DVD
technology to increase storage capacity. All three
of these technologies are aiming for the high-
definition video market, where speed and
capacity count.


Initial cost for Approx. Approx. Approx.
recordable disc $18 $10 $120

(Read System 1)
Initial cost for Approx. Approx. Approx. HVD is not the only technology in high-
recorder/player $2,000 $2,000 $3,000 capacity, optical storage media. InPhase
Initial storage 54 GB 30 GB 300 GB Technologies were developing a rival
capacity holographic format called Tapestry Media,
which they claim will eventually store 1.6
Read/write 36.5 36.5 1 Gbps TB with a data transfer rate of 120 MB/s,
speed Mbps Mbps
and several companies are developing TB-
level discs based on 3D optical data storage
technology. Such large optical storage
capacities compete favorably with the Blu-
ray Disc format. However, holographic
drives are projected to initially cost around
US$15,000, and a single disc around
US$120–180, although prices are expected
to fall steadily.


This paper concludes that biggest challenge

HVD is still in the late stages of development & for HVD will be in establishing itself in the
may not hit the consumer market before 2010. commercial market, which as of now seems
An initial price tag of $120 per disc will be an to be a distant dream due to its higher cost
obstacle, but the prices would come down with margins. It is anticipated that a single HVD,
mass production.
when commercially available, may cost
anywhere between $100-120 (by 2012 year's
end), and the reader will be priced anywhere
• Large amount of data storage for big in the range of $10,000 to $15,000.
corporations. However, like anything else associated with
technology, the price will soon fall as R&D
• High-Definition Video recording costs are recouped and competitions lowers
profit margins.
• Ultra High-Definition Video for Super
High Vision TV of future.

• Large data backups & restore References

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