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Ain Shams University

Faculty of Engineering
Electric Power & machine dep.

Electric power transmission

Presented to :
Dr Metwaly Elsharkawy

Presented by :
Peter Helmy Ghattas sec 2
George Farouk Eskandar sec 3
Introduction

Electric power transmission

Electric power transmission, a process in the delivery of electricity to consumers,


is the bulk transfer of electrical power. Typically, power transmission is between the power
plant and a substation near a populated area. Electricity distribution is the delivery from the
substation to the consumers. Electric power transmission allows distant energy sources (such
as hydroelectric power plants) to be connected to consumers in population centers, and may
allow exploitation of low-grade fuel resources that would otherwise be too costly to transport
to generating facilities.
AC power transmission is the transmission of electric power by alternating current. Usually
transmission lines use three phase AC current. Single phase AC current is sometimes used in
a railway electrification system. In urban areas, trains may be powered by DC at 600 volts or
so.

Overhead conductors are not covered by insulation. The conductor material is nearly always
an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and possibly reinforced with steel strands.
Conductors are a commodity supplied by several companies worldwide. Improved conductor
material and shapes are regularly used to allow increased capacity and modernize
transmission circuits. Conductor sizes in overhead transmission work range in size from #6
American wire gauge (about 12 square millimeters) to 1,590,000 circular mils area (about
750 square millimeters), with varying resistance and current-carrying capacity. Thicker wires
would lead to a relatively small increase in capacity due to the skin effect that causes most of
the current to flow close to the surface of the wire.
Today, transmission-level voltages are usually considered to be 110 kV and above. Lower
voltages such as 66 kV and 33 kV are usually considered sub-transmission voltages but are
occasionally used on long lines with light loads. Voltages less than 33 kV are usually used
for distribution. Voltages above 230 kV are considered extra high voltage and require
different designs compared to equipment used at lower voltages.
Overhead transmission lines are uninsulated wire, so design of these lines requires minimum
clearances to be observed to maintain safety.
An overhead power line is an electric power transmission line suspended by towers
or poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are generally
the lowest-cost method of transmission for large quantities of electric power. Towers for
support of the lines are made of wood (as-grown or laminated), steel (either lattice structures
or tubular poles), concrete, aluminum, and occasionally reinforced plastics. The bare wire
conductors on the line are generally made of aluminum (either plain or reinforced with steel
or sometimes composite materials), though some copper wires are used in medium-voltage
distribution and low-voltage connections to customer premises.
Contents of the report:

+ Conductors

+ Insulations

+ Towers

+Erection
Conductors ________
Some copper cable is still used, especially at lower voltages. Aluminum conductors
reinforced with steel (known as ACSR) are primarily used for medium and high voltage lines and
may also be used for overhead services to individual customers.

While larger conductors may lose


less energy due to lower electrical
resistance, they are more costly
than smaller conductors. An
optimization rule called Kelvin's
Law states that the optimum size of
conductor for a line is found when
the cost of the energy wasted in the
conductor is equal to the annual
interest paid on that portion of the
line construction cost due to the
size of the conductors. The optimization problem is made more complex due to additional factors
such as varying annual load, varying cost of installation, and by the fact that only definite discrete
sizes of cable are commonly made.
Since a conductor is a flexible object with uniform weight per unit length, the geometric shape of a
conductor strung on towers approximates that of a catenary. The sag of the conductor (vertical
distance between the highest and lowest point of the curve) varies depending on the temperature. A
minimum overhead clearance must be maintained for safety. Since the temperature of the conductor
increases with increasing heat produced by the current through it, it is sometimes possible to
increase the power handling capacity (up rate) by changing the conductors for a type with a lower
coefficient of thermal expansion or a higher allowable operating temperature.
Bundle conductors are used for voltages over 200 kV to avoid corona losses and audible noise.
Bundle conductors consist of several conductor cables connected by non-conducting spacers. For
220 kV lines, two-conductor bundles are usually used, for 380 kV lines usually three
or even four. American Electric Power is
building 765 kV lines using six
conductors per phase in a bundle.
Spacers must resist the forces due to
wind, and magnetic forces during a
short-circuit .
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Overhead power lines are often equipped with a ground conductor (shield wire or overhead
earth wire). A ground conductor is a conductor that is usually grounded (earthed) at the top
of the supporting structure to minimize the likelihood of direct lightning strikes to the phase
conductors. The ground wire is also a parallel path with the earth for fault currents in earthed
neutral circuits. Very high-voltage transmission lines may have two ground conductors.
These are either at the outermost ends of the highest cross beam, at two V-shaped mast
points, or at a separate cross arm. Older lines may use surge arrestors every few spans in
place of a shield wire, this configuration is typically found in the rural areas of the United
States. By protecting the line from lightning, the design of apparatus in substations is
simplified due to lower stress on insulation. Shield wires on transmission lines may include
optical fibers (OPGW), used for communication and control of the power system.

Medium-voltage distribution lines may have the grounded conductor strung below the phase
conductors to provide some measure of protection against tall vehicles or equipment
touching the energized line.

While overhead lines are usually bare conductors, rarely overhead insulated cables are used,
usually for short distances (less than a kilometer). Insulated cables can be directly fastened to
structures without insulating supports. An overhead line with bare conductors insulated by
air is typically less costly than a cable with insulated conductors.
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Insulator _________
Line suspension insulator:
Rod insulators with external or internal fittings with classic or spirelec sheds
for overhead transmission lines up to 110 kV and frequency 50 Hz.
Material: quartz and alumina porcelain C110, C120 and C130 by IEC 672.3
standard.

Line post insulator


Solid core insulators with external or internal fittings with classic or spirelec
sheds for overhead transmission lines for voltage 10 - 35 kV and frequency
50 Hz.
Material: quartz and alumina porcelain C110, C120 and C130 by IEC 672.3
standard.

110kV Composite Tension Suspension


Insulators
Features:
· Manufactured by means of injection whole-molding technology2)
The juncture between end fitting and core is totally embedded in
HTV silicone rubber, eliminating conventional and traditional seal
defects

Materials:
· Silicon Rubber for sheds/ housing
· Glass-fiber reinforced epoxy resin rod (ECR type) for core
· Hop dip galvanized cast steel for metal fittings

Electromechanical specifications:
· Rated voltage: 110kV
· Specified mechanical load (tensile): 100kN
· Arcing distance 1020mm
· Creepage distance: 3300mm
· Section length: 1240mm
· Lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak value): 550kV
· Wet 1 min power-frequency withstand voltage (effective value):
230kV
· Routine test load: 50kN
· Shed diameters (major/minor/minor): 162 / 86 / 86mm
· Approximate net weight (grading ring included): 7.4kg

220kV Composite Tension Suspension Insulator:


Features:
· Manufactured by means of injection whole-
molding technology
· The juncture between end fitting and core is
totally embedded in HTV silicone rubber,
eliminating conventional and traditional seal
defects

Materials:
· Silicon Rubber for sheds/ housing
· Glass-fiber reinforced epoxy resin rod (ECR type)
for core
· Hop dip galvanized cast steel for metal fittings

Electromechanical specification
· Rated voltage: 220kV
· Specified mechanical load (tensile): 100kN
· Creepage distance: 6400mm
· Section length: 2240mm
· Lightning full-wave impulse withstand voltage (peak value): 1000kV
· 7.1 min wet power-frequency withstand voltage (effective value):
395kV
· Routine test load: 50kN
· Approximate net weight (grading rings included): 14.1kg

Towers ________
Overhead AC transmission lines share one characteristic; they carry 3-
phase current. The voltages vary according to the particular grid system they belong
to. Transmission voltages vary from 69 kv up to 765 kv. The following are examples
of different overhead transmission line structures in use today. The DC voltage
transmission tower has lines in pairs rather than in threes (for 3-phase current) as in
AC voltage lines. One line is the positive current line and the other is the negative
current line.

Figure 1. Some typical transmission line structures


Figure 3. 345 kv transmission
Figure 2. Transmission lines crossing the lines
San Fernando Valley

Towers Shapes:
Towers erection _______
Three-phase electric power systems are used for high and extra-high voltage AC
transmission lines (50 kV and above). The towers must be designed to carry three (or
multiples of three) conductors. The towers are usually steel lattices or trusses (wooden
structures are used in Germany in exceptional cases) and the insulators are either glass or
porcelain discs assembled in strings, whose length is dependent on the line voltage and
environmental conditions. One or two earth conductors (alternative term: Ground
conductors) for lightning protection are often mounted at the top of each tower.

In some countries, towers for high and extra-high voltage are usually designed to carry two
or more electric circuits. For double circuit lines in Germany, the "Danube" towers or more
rarely, the "fir tree" towers, are usually used. If a line is constructed using towers designed to
carry several circuits, it is not necessary to install all the circuits at the time of construction.
Some high voltage circuits are often erected on the same tower as 110 kV lines. Paralleling
circuits of 380 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV-lines on the same towers is common. Sometimes,
especially with 110 kV circuits, a parallel circuit carries traction lines for railway
electrification.

High voltage DC transmission pylons1


HVDC Distance Pylon near the terminus of the Nelson River Dipole
djacent to Dorsey Converter Station near Rosser, Manitoba — August 2005

High voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines are either


monopolar or bipolar systems. With bipolar systems a conductor
arrangement with one conductor on each side of the tower is
used. For single-pole HVDC transmission with ground return,
towers with only one conductor can be used. In many cases,
however, the towers are designed for later conversion to a two-
pole system. In these cases, conductors are installed on both sides
of the tower for mechanical reasons. Until the second pole is
needed, it is either grounded, or joined in parallel with the pole in
use. In the latter case the line from the converter station to the
earthing (grounding) electrode is built as underground cable.

Constructions design:
High Voltage Marking of Poles
Poles which support line conductors of more than 750 volts shall be marked
with high voltage signs. This marking shall consist of a single sign showing the words
"HIGH VOLTAGE", or pair of signs showing the words "HIGH" and "VOLTAGE", in
letters not less than 3 inches in height. Such signs shall be of weather and corrosion-resisting
material, solid or with letters cut out there from and clearly legible.
The top of such sign(s) shall be located between the level of the lowest line conductor of
each circuit to no more than 40 inches below that conductor level
Conductors of 0 - 750 volts may be attached to
poles by means of vertical racks of insulators or
individual supports in vertical rack
configuration. Such construction is hereinafter
termed "rack construction." Where rack
construction is employed, the following rules
shall apply.
Pole Arrangement and Clearance
(1) Clearance from Poles: Conductors of 0 -
750 volts in rack construction may have
clearances less than 15 inches from centerline
and 3 inches from surface of pole, as specified in
Table 1, Column D, Cases 8 and 9, respectively,
but shall have a clearance of not less than 2.5
inches from the surface of pole

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(2) Conductor Arrangement: Not more than 7 conductors of not more than 2 circuits shall
be attached to any pole in a continuous rack group. In a rack group the conductors shall be of
one ownership and the vertical separations between line conductor attachments shall be
uniform.
Vertical Clearance between Conductor Levels
A vertical clearance of not less than 6 feet shall be maintained between the top conductor
supported in rack construction at one level and conductors supported on the same pole at the
next level above except as provided in Rule 54.4-C6 for lead wires and as modified below:
(1)With Guard Arm below Conductors of 750 - 22,500 Volts:
The vertical clearance between the top conductor in a rack group and conductors of 750 -
22,500 volts at the next conductor level above, may be less than 6 feet but shall not be less
than 4 feet. If a clearance of less than 6 feet is used, all of the following requirements shall
be met:
(a) In tangent construction, a guard arm shall be installed directly above and approximately
parallel to the top line conductor of such a rack group. Service drop conductors supported on
a rack with the guard arm installed directly above and approximately parallel to the top line
conductor of a rack group shall not pass between the surface of pole and the vertical plane of
the line conductors
(b) In deadend construction, the guard arm shall be placed above the rack at a right angle to
the line conductor, provided that no service drop conductor attached to a rack so guarded
makes a horizontal angle greater than 90 degrees with the vertical plane of the line
conductors.
(c) Conductors in such a rack group, which are so guarded shall not be attached to more than
one side of any pole.
(d) Any service drop conductors attached to and supported by the line conductors shall have
a clearance of not less than 15
inches from surface of pole.

(2)Conductors Deadened Under Equipment:


No guard arm will be required over conductors in rack configuration deadened on the surface
of a pole directly below equipment (e.g., transformer, capacitor and other similar apparatus).
Such conductors shall have a vertical clearance of not less than:
(a). 4 Feet below unprotected line conductors; and
(b). As specified in Rule 54.4-C6 below the lowest point of the drip loop of the primary leads
to the transformer(s); and
(c). 10 Inches below the lowest part of the equipment case(s) or hanger(s)
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constructions: Practical
1-Making of the base of the tower
2-Erection of the tower

3-Extension of conductors over the tower