You are on page 1of 14


Time-division multiplexing 1
Frequency-division multiplexing 4
Multi-user MIMO 6

Article Sources and Contributors 11
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 12

Article Licenses
License 13
Time-division multiplexing 1

Time-division multiplexing
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital or (rarely) analog multiplexing in which two or more signals
or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are
physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is divided into several recurrent timeslots of fixed length,
one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during timeslot 1, sub-channel
2 during timeslot 2, etc. One TDM frame consists of one timeslot per sub-channel plus a synchronization channel
and sometimes error correction channel before the synchronization. After the last sub-channel, error correction, and
synchronization, the cycle starts all over again with a new frame, starting with the second sample, byte or data block
from sub-channel 1, etc.

Application examples
• The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital transmission of
several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier) or fiber cable in the circuit
switched digital telephone network
• The SDH and synchronous optical networking (SONET) network transmission standards, that have surpassed
• The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
• The left-right channel splitting in use for stereoscopic liquid crystal shutter glasses
TDM can be further extended into the time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme, where several stations
connected to the same physical medium, for example sharing the same frequency channel, can communicate.
Application examples include:
• The GSM telephone system
• The Tactical Data Links Link 16 and Link 22

TDM versus packet mode communication

In its primary form, TDM is used for circuit mode communication with a fixed number of channels and constant
bandwidth per channel.
Bandwidth Reservation distinguishes time-division multiplexing from statistical multiplexing such as packet mode
communication (also known as statistical time-domain multiplexing, see below) i.e. the time-slots are recurrent in
a fixed order and pre-allocated to the channels, rather than scheduled on a packet-by-packet basis. Statistical
time-domain multiplexing resembles, but should not be considered the same as time-division multiplexing.
In dynamic TDMA, a scheduling algorithm dynamically reserves a variable number of timeslots in each frame to
variable bit-rate data streams, based on the traffic demand of each data stream. Dynamic TDMA is used in
• Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode;
• IEEE 802.16a.
Time-division multiplexing 2

Time-division multiplexing was first developed in telegraphy; see multiplexing in telegraphy: Émile Baudot
developed a time-multiplexing system of multiple Hughes machines in the 1870s.
For the SIGSALY encryptor of 1943, see PCM.
In 1962, engineers from Bell Labs developed the first D1 Channel Banks, which combined 24 digitised voice calls
over a 4-wire copper trunk between Bell central office analogue switches. A channel bank sliced a 1.544 Mbit/s
digital signal into 8,000 separate frames, each composed of 24 contiguous bytes. Each byte represented a single
telephone call encoded into a constant bit rate signal of 64 Kbit/s. Channel banks used a byte's fixed position
(temporal alignment) in the frame to determine which call it belonged to.[1]

Transmission using Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

In circuit switched networks such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN) there exists the need to transmit
multiple subscribers’ calls along the same transmission medium.[2] To accomplish this, network designers make use
of TDM. TDM allows switches to create channels, also known as tributaries, within a transmission stream.[2] A
standard DS0 voice signal has a data bit rate of 64 kbit/s, determined using Nyquist’s sampling criterion.[2] [3] TDM
takes frames of the voice signals and multiplexes them into a TDM frame which runs at a higher bandwidth. So if the
TDM frame consists of n voice frames, the bandwidth will be n*64 kbit/s.[2]
Each voice sample timeslot in the TDM frame is called a channel .[2] In European systems, TDM frames contain 30
digital voice channels, and in American systems, they contain 24 channels.[2] Both standards also contain extra bits
(or bit timeslots) for signalling (see Signaling System 7) and synchronisation bits.[2]
Multiplexing more than 24 or 30 digital voice channels is called higher order multiplexing.[2] Higher order
multiplexing is accomplished by multiplexing the standard TDM frames.[2] For example, a European 120 channel
TDM frame is formed by multiplexing four standard 30 channel TDM frames.[2] At each higher order multiplex, four
TDM frames from the immediate lower order are combined, creating multiplexes with a bandwidth of n x 64 kbit/s,
where n = 120, 480, 1920, etc.[2]

Synchronous time division multiplexing (Sync TDM)

There are three types of (Sync TDM): T1, SONET/SDH (see below), and ISDN[4] .

Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)

Plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) was developed as a standard for multiplexing higher order frames.[2] [3] PDH
created larger numbers of channels by multiplexing the standard Europeans 30 channel TDM frames.[2] This solution
worked for a while; however PDH suffered from several inherent drawbacks which ultimately resulted in the
development of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). The requirements which drove the development of SDH
were these:[2] [3]
• Be synchronous – All clocks in the system must align with a reference clock.
• Be service-oriented – SDH must route traffic from End Exchange to End Exchange without worrying about
exchanges in between, where the bandwidth can be reserved at a fixed level for a fixed period of time.
• Allow frames of any size to be removed or inserted into an SDH frame of any size.
• Easily manageable with the capability of transferring management data across links.
• Provide high levels of recovery from faults.
• Provide high data rates by multiplexing any size frame, limited only by technology.
• Give reduced bit rate errors.
Time-division multiplexing 3

SDH has become the primary transmission protocol in most PSTN networks.[2] [3] It was developed to allow streams
1.544 Mbit/s and above to be multiplexed, in order to create larger SDH frames known as Synchronous Transport
Modules (STM).[2] The STM-1 frame consists of smaller streams that are multiplexed to create a 155.52 Mbit/s
frame.[2] [3] SDH can also multiplex packet based frames e.g. Ethernet, PPP and ATM.[2]
While SDH is considered to be a transmission protocol (Layer 1 in the OSI Reference Model), it also performs some
switching functions, as stated in the third bullet point requirement listed above.[2] The most common SDH
Networking functions are these:
• SDH Crossconnect – The SDH Crossconnect is the SDH version of a Time-Space-Time crosspoint switch. It
connects any channel on any of its inputs to any channel on any of its outputs. The SDH Crossconnect is used in
Transit Exchanges, where all inputs and outputs are connected to other exchanges.[2]
• SDH Add-Drop Multiplexer – The SDH Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM) can add or remove any multiplexed frame
down to 1.544Mb. Below this level, standard TDM can be performed. SDH ADMs can also perform the task of
an SDH Crossconnect and are used in End Exchanges where the channels from subscribers are connected to the
core PSTN network.[2]
SDH network functions are connected using high-speed optic fibre. Optic fibre uses light pulses to transmit data and
is therefore extremely fast.[2] Modern optic fibre transmission makes use of Wavelength Division Multiplexing
(WDM) where signals transmitted across the fibre are transmitted at different wavelengths, creating additional
channels for transmission.[2] [3] This increases the speed and capacity of the link, which in turn reduces both unit and
total costs.[2]

Statistical time-division multiplexing (Stat TDM)

STDM is an advanced version of TDM in which both the address of the terminal and the data itself are transmitted
together for better routing. Using STDM allows bandwidth to be split over 1 line. Many college and corporate
campuses use this type of TDM to logically distribute bandwidth.
If there is one 10MBit line coming into the building, STDM can be used to provide 178 terminals with a dedicated
56k connection (178 * 56k = 9.96Mb). A more common use however is to only grant the bandwidth when that much
is needed. STDM does not reserve a time slot for each terminal, rather it assigns a slot when the terminal is requiring
data to be sent or received.
This is also called asynchronous time-division multiplexing[4] (ATDM), in an alternative nomenclature in which
"STDM" or "synchronous time division multiplexing" designates the older method that uses fixed time slots.

[1] "ATM: Origins and State of the Art" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060623211435/ http:/ / www. dit. upm. es/ infowin/ atmeurope/ CH2/
atmbackg. html). Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 31 August 1998. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. dit. upm. es/ infowin/
atmeurope/ CH2/ atmbackg. html) on 23 June 2006. . Retrieved 2009-09-23.
[2] Hanrahan, H.E. (2005). Integrated Digital Communications. Johannesburg, South Africa: School of Electrical and Information Engineering,
University of the Witwatersrand.
[3] Ericsson Ltd, Understanding Telecommunications, http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20040413074912/ www. ericsson. com/ support/ telecom/
index. shtml, last accessed April 11, 2006.
[4] White, Curt (2007). Data Communications and Computer Networks. Boston, MA: Thomson Course Technology. pp. 143–152.
ISBN 1-4188-3610-9.
Time-division multiplexing 4

•  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services
Administration (in support of MIL-STD-188).

Frequency-division multiplexing
Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a form of signal multiplexing which involves assigning
non-overlapping frequency ranges to different signals or to each "user" of a medium.

Non telephone
FDM can also be used to combine signals before final modulation onto a carrier wave. In this case the carrier signals
are referred to as subcarriers: an example is stereo FM transmission, where a 38 kHz subcarrier is used to separate
the left-right difference signal from the central left-right sum channel, prior to the frequency modulation of the
composite signal. A television channel is divided into subcarrier frequencies for video, color, and audio. DSL uses
different frequencies for voice and for upstream and downstream data transmission on the same conductors, which is
also an example of frequency duplex.
Where frequency-division multiplexing is used as to allow multiple users to share a physical communications
channel, it is called frequency-division multiple access (FDMA).[1]
FDMA is the traditional way of separating radio signals from different transmitters.
In the 1860s and 70s, several inventors attempted FDM under the names of Acoustic telegraphy and Harmonic
telegraphy. Practical FDM was only achieved in the electronic age. Meanwhile their efforts led to an elementary
understanding of electroacoustic technology, resulting in the invention of the telephone.

For long distance telephone connections, 20th century telephone companies used L-carrier and similar co-axial cable
systems carrying thousands of voice circuits multiplexed in multiple stages by channel banks.
For shorter distances,cheaper balanced pair cables were used for various systems including Bell System K- and
N-Carrier. Those cables didn't allow such large bandwidths, so only 12 voice channels (Double Sideband) and later
24 (Single Sideband) were multiplexed into four wires, one pair for each direction with repeaters every several miles,
approximately 10 km. See 12-channel carrier system. By the end of the 20th Century, FDM voice circuits had
become rare. Modern telephone systems employ digital transmission, in which time-division multiplexing (TDM) is
used instead of FDM.
Since the late 20th century Digital Subscriber Lines have used a Discrete multitone (DMT) system to divide their
spectrum into frequency channels.
The concept corresponding to frequency-division multiplexing in the optical domain is known as wavelength
division multiplexing.
Frequency-division multiplexing 5

Group and supergroup

A once commonplace FDM system, used for example in L-carrier, uses crystal filters which operate at the 8 MHz
range to form a Channel Group of 12 channels, 48 kHz bandwidth in the range 8140 to 8188 kHz by selecting
carriers in the range 8140 to 8184 kHz selecting upper sideband this group can then be translated to the standard
range 60 to 108 kHz by a carrier of 8248 kHz. Such systems are used in DTL (Direct To Line) and DFSG (Directly
formed super group).
132 voice channels (2SG + 1G) can be formed using DTL plane the modulation and frequency plan are given in
FIG1 and FIG2 use of DTL technique allows the formation of a maximum of 132 voice channels that can be placed
directl. DTL eliminates group and super group equipment. figure 1 [2]
DFSG can take similar steps where a direct formation of a number of super groups can be obtained in the 8 kHz the
DFSG also eliminates group equipment and can offer:
• Reduction in cost 7% to 13%
• Less equipment to install and maintain
• Increased reliability due to less equipment
Both DTL and DFSG can fit the requirement of low density system (using DTL) and higher density system (using
DFSG). The DFSG terminal is similar to DTL terminal except instead of two super groups many super groups are
combined. A Mastergroup of 600 channels (10 super-groups) is an example based on DFSG. figure 2 [3]

[1] White, Curt (2007). Data Communications and Computer Networks. Boston, MA: Thomson Course Technology. pp. 140–143.
ISBN 1-4188-3610-9.
[2] http:/ / www. alhnuf. com/ up/ pics-gif/ upload/ view_h. php?file=725ad6f532
[3] http:/ / www. alhnuf. com/ up/ pics-gif/ upload/ view_h. php?file=6023c06b18
Multi-user MIMO 6

Multi-user MIMO
In radio, multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) is a set of advanced MIMO, multiple-input and multiple-output
(pronounced mee-moh or my-moh), technologies that exploit the availability of multiple independent radio terminals
in order to enhance the communication capabilities of each individual terminal. To contrast, single-user MIMO only
considers access to the multiple antennas that are physically connected to each individual terminal. MU-MIMO can
be seen as the extended concept of space-division multiple access (SDMA) which allows a terminal to transmit (or
receive) signal to (or from) multiple users in the same band simultaneously. PU2RC is a fundamental and practical
MU-MIMO technology for broadcast and multiple access wireless communications.
Like the relationship between OFDM and OFDMA, MU-MIMO (and, similarly, SDMA) can be thought of as an
extension of MIMO applied in various ways as a multiple access strategy. A significant difference is that the
performance of MU-MIMO relies on precoding capability than OFDMA so that if the transmitter does not use
precoding, the performance advantage of MU-MIMO is not achievable.
Multiple access MIMO, MIMO-SDMA, many transmit antenna MIMO-SDMA, Cooperative MIMO, Network
MIMO and Ad-hoc MIMO are all family terminologies within MU-MIMO, as each of those technologies leverages
multiple users as a degree of freedom in achieving successful radio transmission.


To achieve MIMO from a conventional SISO system, several technologies have
been proposed.[1]
• Beamforming is known as antenna array signal processing, where every
antenna element is separated from its nearest element by half of the transmit
signal wavelength.
• Space-time coding/processing performs antenna diversity with multiple
antennas at either transmitter or receiver side or both sides, where every
MIMO communications
antenna element is separated from its nearest element by around 4 to 10 times
the wavelength to keep the signal through each multi-path independent. The distance between two adjacent
antenna elements is relying on the angular spread of the beam signal.
• SDMA is a common and typical multiple input multiple output scheme in cellular wireless systems. SDMA is
often referred to as simply a MIMO system since the half port of a SDMA system also consists of multiple users.
Although SDMA is indeed a MIMO technique, MIMO is not necessarily SDMA.
• Spatial multiplexing is performed by multiple antennas equipped at both a transmitter and a receiver front end.
• Cooperation are known as network MIMO systems, distributed MIMO systems or virtual antenna array systems.
Mobile devices use the partnered mobile devices' antennas, antenna arrays, or antenna elements as virtual
• Combinations of above techniques, etc.
Multi-user MIMO 7

MIMO enhancement
Enhancement techniques can be categorized into evolutionary and revolutionary approaches:
• Evolutionary approaches:
1. Use an existing technique with enhanced PHY capabilities, perhaps a 16×16 array configuration, or
2. Use new MIMO algorithms such as precoding or multi-user scheduling at the transmitter.
• Revolutionary approaches: developing fundamentally new MIMO concepts. Examples of revolution approaches
are cooperative and virtual antenna MIMO and intelligent spatial processing such as RADAR beamforming.
Here, based on the literature, we summarize a number of advanced MIMO techniques that leverage multiple users:
• Cross-layer MIMO: Scheduling, etc.
• Advanced decoding MIMO: Multi-user detection such as MLD.
• Beamforming and SDMA: widely known multi-user MIMO scheme.
• Infrared/Non-infrared network optimization.
• Network MIMO (Net-MIMO).
• Cognitive MIMO based on intelligent techniques.
• Cooperative/competitive MIMO.
• Cooperation: DPC, Wyner-Ziv, etc.
• Competitive: Game theory, autonomous packets, implicit MAC fairness, etc.

Multi-user MIMO can leverage multiple users as spatially distributed transmission resources, at the cost of
somewhat more expensive signal processing. In comparison, conventional, or single-user MIMO considers only
local device multiple antenna dimensions. Multi-user MIMO algorithms are developed to enhance MIMO systems
when the number of users, or connections, numbers greater than one (admittedly, a useful concept). Multi-user
MIMO can be generalized into two categories: MIMO broadcast channels (MIMO BC) and MIMO multiple access
channels (MIMO MAC) for downlink and uplink situations, respectively. Single-user MIMO can be represented as
point-to-point, pairwise MIMO.
To remove ambiguity of the words receiver and transmitter, we can adopt the terms access point (AP; or, base
station), and user. An AP is the transmitter and a user is the receiver for downlink environments, whereas an AP is
the receiver and a user is the transmitter for uplink environments. Homogeneous networks are somewhat freed from
this distinction.

Space-division multiple access (SDMA)

Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) enables creating parallel spatial pipes [2] next to higher capacity pipes
through spatial multiplexing and/or diversity, by which it is able to offer superior performance in radio multiple
access communication systems. In traditional mobile cellular network systems, the base station has no information
on the position of the mobile units within the cell and radiates the signal in all directions within the cell in order to
provide radio coverage. This results in wasting power on transmissions when there are no mobile units to reach, in
addition to causing interference for adjacent cells using the same frequency, so called co-channel cells. Likewise, in
reception, the antenna receives signals coming from all directions including noise and interference signals. By using
smart antenna technology and by leveraging the spatial location of mobile units within the cell, space-division
multiple access techniques offer attractive performance enhancements. The radiation pattern of the base station, both
in transmission and reception, is adapted to each user to obtain highest gain in the direction of that user. This is often
done using phased array techniques.
In GSM cellular networks, the base station is aware of the mobile phone's position by use of a technique called
Timing Advance (TA). The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) can determine how distant the Mobile Station (MS) is
Multi-user MIMO 8

by interpreting the reported TA. This information, along with other parameters, can then be used to power down the
BTS or MS, if a power control feature is implemented in the network. The power control in either BTS or MS is
implemented in most modern networks, especially on the MS, as this ensures a better battery life for the MS and thus
a better user experience (in that the need to charge the battery becomes less frequent). This is why it may actually be
safer to have a BTS close to you as your MS will be powered down as much as possible. For example, there is more
power being transmitted from the MS than what you would receive from the BTS even if you are 6 m away from a
mast. However, this estimation might not consider all the MS's that a particular BTS is supporting with EM radiation
at any given time.

Many antennas
Many Antennas is a smart antenna technique, which overcomes the performance limitation of single user MIMO
techniques. In cellular communications, the number of the maximum considered antennas for downlink is 2 and 4 to
support LTE and IMT-A requirements, respectively. Since the available spectrum band will probably limited while
the requirement of data rate will continuously increase in beyond IMT-A to support the mobile multimedia services,
it is highly probable that the number of transmit antennas at the base station must be increased up to 8 ~ 64 or more.
The installation of many antennas at single base stations can have many challenges so it requires to develop several
high technologies: new SDMA, new beamforming algorithm and new antenna array. New SDMA: MU-MIMO,
Network MIMO (COMP), Remote radio equipments New beamforming: linear beamforming such as MF, ZF and
MMSE and nonlinear beamforming such as THP, VP, and DPC New antenna array: direct, remote and wireless
antenna array Direct antenna array: linear and 3d phased array, new structure array, and dynamic antenna array
Remote and wireless antenna array: distributed antenna array and cooperative beamforming

The first and last Hop: to and from one multi-antenna user and multiple
partnered users

MIMO broadcast (MIMO BC)

MIMO broadcast represents a MIMO
downlink case in a single sender to
multiple receiver wireless network.
Examples of advanced transmit
processing for MIMO BC are
interference aware precoding and
SDMA-based downlink user
scheduling. For advanced transmit
processing, the transmitter has to know
the channel state information at the
transmitter (CSIT). That is, knowledge
of CSIT allows throughput
improvement, and methods to obtain Multiuser MIMO System: MIMO BC case
CSIT become of significant
importance. MIMO BC systems have an outstanding advantage over point-to-point MIMO systems, especially when
the number of transmit antennas at the transmitter, or AP, is larger than the number of receiver antennas at each
receiver (user).

• Capacity approaching schemes: DPC precoding

• Near capacity: zero-forcing beamforming
Multi-user MIMO 9

Conversely, MIMO MAC represents a MIMO uplink case in the multiple sender to single receiver wireless network.
Examples of advanced receive processing for MIMO MAC are joint interference cancellation and SDMA-based
uplink user scheduling. For advanced receive processing, the receiver has to know the channel state information at
the receiver (CSIR). Knowing CSIR is generally easier than knowing CSIT. However, to know CSIT costs a lot of
uplink resources to transmit dedicated pilots from each user to the AP. MIMO MAC systems outperforms
point-to-point MIMO systems especially when the number of receiver antennas at an AP is larger than the number of
transmit antennas at each user.

Cross-layer MIMO
Cross-layer MIMO enhances the performance of MIMO links by solving certain cross-layer problems that may
occur when MIMO configurations are employed in a system. Cross-layer techniques can be used to enhance the
performance of SISO links as well. Examples of cross-layer techniques are Joint Source-Channel Coding, Adaptive
Modulation and Coding (AMC, or "Link Adaptation"), Hybrid ARQ (HARQ), and user scheduling.

Multi-user to multi-user
The highly interconnected wireless ad-hoc network increases the flexibility of wireless networking at the cost of
increased multi-user interference. To improve the interference immunity, PHY/MAC-layer protocols have evolved
from competition based to cooperative based transmission and reception. Cooperative wireless communications
can actually exploit interference, which includes self-interference and other user interference. In cooperative wireless
communications, each node might use self-interference and other user interference to improve the performance of
data encoding and decoding, whereas conventional nodes are generally directed to avoid the interference. For
example, once strong interference is decodable, a node decodes and cancels the strong interference before decoding
the self-signal. The mitigation of low Carrier over Interference (CoI) ratios can be implemented across
PHY/MAC/Application network layers in cooperative systems.
• Cooperative multiple antenna research — Apply multiple antenna technologies in situations with antennas
distributed among neighboring wireless terminals.
• Cooperative diversity — Achieve antenna diversity gain by the cooperation of distributed antennas belonging
to each independent node.
• Cooperative MIMO — Achieve MIMO advantages, including the spatial multiplexing gain, using the transmit
or receiver cooperation of distributed antennas belonging to many different nodes.
• Cooperative relay — Apply cooperative concepts onto relay techniques, which is similar to cooperative diversity
in terms of cooperative signalling. However, the main criterion of cooperative relay is to improve the tradeoff
region between delay and performance, while that of cooperative diversity and MIMO is to improve the link and
system performance at the expense of minimal cooperation loss.
• Relaying techniques for cooperation
• Store-and-forward (S&F), Amplify-and-forward (A&F), Decode-and-forward (D&F), Coded cooperation,
Spatial coded cooperation, Compress-and-forward (C&F),Non-orthogonal methods

Cooperative MIMO (CO-MIMO)

CO-MIMO, also known as Network MIMO (Net-MIMO), or Ad-hoc MIMO, utilizes distributed antennas which
belong to other users, while conventional MIMO, i.e., single-user MIMO, only employs antennas belonging to the
local terminal. CO-MIMO improves the performance of a wireless network by introducing multiple antenna
advantages, such as diversity, multiplexing and beamforming. If the main interest hinges on the diversity gain, it is
known as cooperative diversity. It can be described as a form of macro-diversity, used for example in soft handover.
Multi-user MIMO 10

Cooperative MISO corresponds to transmitter macro-diversity or simulcasting. A simple form that does not require
any advanced signal processing is single frequency networks (SFN), used especially in wireless broadcasing. SFNs
combined with channel adaptive or traffic adaptive scheduling is called dynamic single frequency networks (DSFN).
CO-MIMO is a technique useful for future cellular networks which consider wireless mesh networking or wireless
ad-hoc networking. In wireless ad-hoc networks, multiple transmit nodes communicate with multiple receive nodes.
To optimize the capacity of Ad-hoc channels, MIMO concepts and techniques can be applied to multiple links
between the transmit and receive node clusters. Contrasted to multiple antennas in a single-user MIMO transceiver,
participating nodes and their antennas are located in a distributed manner. So, to achieve the capacity of this
network, techniques to manage distributed radio resources are essential. Strategies such as autonomous interference
cognition, node cooperation, and network coding with dirty paper coding (DPC) have been suggested as solutions to
optimize wireless network capacity.
Of analogical interest here may be the comparison between the evolution of computing cores and mobile antennas.
To wit, a single high performance core is the first generation of CPU core evolution, progressing to a few cores, and
then to many cores in a centralized fashion as the second step -- the recent environment. It is anticipated that it will
be common for cooperative work to proceed from multiple cores owned by different users, made available to the
individual user in return for help with others' information processing. Such catchphrases include ambient
intelligence, wireless ubiquitous computing, and the semantic web.

[1] Classification of MIMO System (http:/ / jiayizhangee. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 06/ classification-of-mimo-system. html)
[2] http:/ / www. imec. be/ wireless/ mimo/

External links
• D. Gesbert, M. Kountouris, R. W. Heath, Jr., C.-B. Chae, and T. Salzer, Shifting the MIMO Paradigm: From
Single User to Multiuser Communications (
pdf), IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 36-46, Oct., 2007.
• N. Jindal, MIMO Broadcast Channels with Finite Rate Feedback (
mimo_bc_finite_fb.pdf), IEEE Trans. Information Theory, Vol. 52, No. 11, pp. 5045-5059, Nov. 2006.
• C. B. Chae, D. Mazzarese, N. Jindal, and R. W. Heath, Jr., Coordinated Beamforming with Limited Feedback in
the MIMO Broadcast Channel (, IEEE
Jour. on Selected Topics in Comm., 2008.
• P. Herhold, E. Zimmermann and G. Fettweis, On the Performance of Cooperative Amplify-and-Forward Relay
Networks. (, 5th International
ITG Conference on Source and Channel Coding (SCC), Erlangen, Germany, January 2004
• E. Zimmermann, P. Herhold and G. Fettweis, On the Performance of Cooperative Relaying Protocols in Wireless
Networks. (, (Preprint
version of the Journal article) European Transactions on Telecommunications (ETT), Volume 16, Issue 1
(January-February 2005), pages 17-35.
• S. Shattil, Cooperative Beamforming in Wireless Networks (
l=50&s1="20080075033".PGNR.&OS=DN/20080075033&RS=DN/20080075033), U.S. Patent Appl.
11/187107, filed July 22, 2005.
• MIMO/SDMA and Beyond (
• Game Theory Research Group (
• Using Game Theory to Analyze Wireless Ad Hoc networks (
Article Sources and Contributors 11

Article Sources and Contributors

Time-division multiplexing  Source:  Contributors: 0majortom0, Acm, AdrianMastronardi, Afiler, Alvestrand, Andres, Aragorn2007,
B4hand, Baloo rch, Belovedfreak, BertK, Biscuittin, Bob Jonkman, Bobblewik, Brupat, Bryan Derksen, Catslash, Ceyockey, Christopher P, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Da monster under your bed,
Darhuuk, Davidoff, Dgtsyb, DocWatson42, Dreadstar, Eastlaw, Edward, Elkman, Enter The Crypt, Esowteric, Espoo, Gaius Cornelius, Gloop, Gruzd, Ian Geoffrey Kennedy, Jim.henderson,
Karada, Krille, LeaveSleaves, LostTemplar, Mange01, Marj Tiefert, Meredyth, Michael Birk, Mirror Vax, Mozzerati, NPalmius, Nbarth, OlEnglish, Oliverlockwood, Our Phellap, Paddu, Puckly,
Qoqnous, RHaworth, Rchandra, Rich Farmbrough, Riick, Rjwilmsi, RuM, Segfault87, ShakingSpirit, Shimgray, SpaceFlight89, Tarunsharma2006, Tcalves, Tennisgirly12, Thaiber123z, The
enemies of god, Thowat, Thue, Tomwaterman, Uieoa, Vinothkanan, Wheller007, 133 anonymous edits

Frequency-division multiplexing  Source:  Contributors: 0majortom0, A5b, Arnero, Backslash Forwardslash, Bearcat, Bryan Derksen,
Canyouhearmenow, Cmdrjameson, Derekbd, Dr.buznakovich, Gwernol, Hobartimus, Jan.Smolik, Jim.henderson, John Millikin, Khalid, Learns visits aw, Mange01, Markaci, MassimilianoC,
Nageh, Nsaa, Oli Filth, Openstrings, Pedro, Phoenixrod, RainyShadow, Rjwilmsi, Robofish, Sillyfolkboy, Sparky132, Spliced, Steveo1544, Tagishsimon, Tastalian, Unyoyega, VikOlliver,
Wdwd, Zhukun, Тиверополник, 76 anonymous edits

Multi-user MIMO  Source:  Contributors: Artw, Bagoas, Beland, Chevymontecarlo, Chunminghan, Cris.arrow, Errandir, Ettrig, Fffrv,, JoeHadzima, KelleyCook, Kihoiu, Mange01, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mojodaddy, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Subversive.sound, Tirkfl, Usien6, Vegaswikian, 38 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 12

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image:PD-icon.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Duesentrieb, User:Rfl
Image:MIMO communications.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:, Kozuch
Image:Multiuser mimo.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors:
License 13

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/