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DOI: 10.1002/bapi.


Stefan Hauer, Julian Murschetz, Aurelien Bres, Andreas Sporr, Michael Schöny, Michael Monsberger AUFSATZ

metaTGA: a chance for BIM in the field of MEP

The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is becoming Das Forschungsprojekt metaTGA: eine Chance für BIM
more and more state-of-the-art in the construction and real es- im Bereich der Technischen Gebäudeausrüstung
tate industries. Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) has Der Einsatz von Building Information Modeling (BIM) wird in der
a major part in this field. The quality of MEP in the planning and Bau- und Immobilienbranche immer mehr zum State-of-the-Art.
the construction phase of a building is crucial for energy con- Heizung, Klimatechnik, Lüftung und Sanitär (HKLS), vor allem die
sumption and human comfort within the building. To benefit Qualität der Planung, spielen dabei eine immer größere Rolle, so-
from the advantages of the BIM methodology, a high-quality wohl für den Energieverbrauch als auch für den Komfort eines
data model is needed to ensure the availability of necessary in- Gebäudes. Um dabei die Vorteile von BIM nutzen zu können, ist
formation of a complete life cycle of a building. The Austrian ein qualitativ hochwertiges Datenmodell erforderlich um sicher-
research project metaTGA provides solutions for high-quality zustellen, dass alle notwendigen Informationen eines Gebäudes
data models. The paper will provide information about: how do über den gesamten Lebenszyklus für die weitere Verwendung
MEP openBIM data models need to look like? What are the zur Verfügung stehen. Dahingehend bietet das österreichische
major development steps of these models? How are they Forschungsprojekt metaTGA Lösungen für hochqualitative Da-
­applied in a BIM project including first practical feedback? tenmodelle an und untersucht im vorliegenden Aufsatz folgende
How does the process support quality measures for BIM pro- Themen bzw. Fragestellungen: Wie müssen leistungsstarke
jects? openBIM-Modelle aussehen? Wie schauen die wichtigsten Ent-
wicklungsschritte der Modellierung aus? Wie wird erstes Feed-
back aus BIM Demo-Projekten berücksichtigt? Wie unterstützt
­metaTGA hinsichtlich Qualitätssteigerung in BIM Projekten?

Keywords  MEP BIM model development; MEP standardization; collaborative Stichworte  TGA BIM Modellentwicklung; TGA Standardisierung;
work within BIM kollaboratives Arbeiten in BIM

1 Introduction Property Server buildingSMART Data Dictionary2

(bsDD), its Framework of Dictionaries (IFD) and the
The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) rep­ specifications of IFC4.3 are currently under development,
resents a fundamental technological leap in the construc­ which can be found at the international level in the cur­
tion and real estate industries and has medium- to long- rent ISO 16739 standard (IFC) and the existing ISO
term implications for all stakeholders in the value chain 12006 standard (IFD). This activity is supported by the
of the construction sector. Mechanical, electrical, and upcoming ISO 23386 standard (methodology for the de­
plumbing (MEP) has a major part in this field. The quality scription, creation and maintenance of properties in in­
of MEP planning and coordination is one of the central terconnected data catalogs), which also includes the
and most resource-intensive tasks in the construction pro­ necessary link to the international property server
cess and it is crucial for energy consumption and human (bsDD/IFD). ISO 19650  – Part 1/2/3 and the planned
comfort within the building [1, 2]. Studies show that open extensions Part 4/5/6 (information exchange, securi­
data interfaces such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) ty-minded approach to information management) are the
and interoperability between software environments are basis for project-related (PIM) and company-related
of great importance, especially in the area of MEP [3, 4]. (AIM) data management. The requirements of ISO 23386
Uniform data models and modeling standards are import­ and ISO 19650 are essential and will therefore be adopt­
ant pre-requisites for open data exchange via openBIM. ed in the upcoming CEN TC442 EU BIM standard. The
openBIM is a universal approach to the collaborative de­ results from the CEN TC442 subsequently lead to nation­
sign, realization and operation of buildings based on al standards such as ÖNORM A6241-2:20XX and will
open standards and workflows [5]. have a significant impact on the practical project organi­
zation. buildingSMART International works continuous­
Current activities at national and international level are ly on the IFC standard, which in the long term will also
trying to further advance and establish openBIM. At the include the complete data structure for transport infra­
level of buildingSMART International1, the International

1 2

© 2020 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin. Bauphysik 42 (2020), Heft 6345
S. Hauer, J. Murschetz, A. Bres, A. Sporr, M. Schöny, M. Monsberger: metaTGA: a chance for BIM in the field of MEP

structure within IFC 5 and will subsequently result in the including first practical feedback? How does the process
next update of the ISO 16739 standard [6]. support quality measures for BIM projects?

Nevertheless, the current development stage especially of

MEP BIM models shows that a comprehensive and con­ 2 Methodology
sistent usage in different BIM applications is currently
limited. Mainly because of information losses within 2.1 Developed processes
MEP models using the openBIM approach, re-modeling
must performed quite often [7]. The first step in the development process was to generate
high-quality metadata (Section 2.1.2 data harvesting) as a
On the one hand, one of the main reasons is, that current basis for all upcoming developments. The second step (Sec­
available standards for openBIM MEP models are not tion 2.1.4 data processing) was to process the data in terms
sufficient in terms of available information about which of u
­ sability, practical use and structuring the parameters, to
parameters need to be specified and provided [8]. Initia­ be able to finally specify MEP models. Finally, a practical
tives like bimobject3, MEPcontent4, BIM&CO5, NBS example of how these models can be applied in BIM based
National BIM Library6 etc. provide online platforms and MEP planning is introduced in chapter data usage.
several plug-ins to facilitate pre-defined BIM objects from
various manufacturers for BIM projects. Manufacturers
can use these platforms for publishing their products as 2.1.1 MEP BIM model requirements
BIM models for further use. Mostly the models can be
downloaded in various formats e.g. .rvt, .dwg, .ifc, .dfx etc. To ensure a strong practical relevance of the method,
In the authors opinion the main problem lies in the differ­ which was developed within the research project
ent quality of the properties, which depend on the respec­ ­metaTGA, an intense stakeholder involvement from the
tive manufacturer. Critical spoken, in terms of geometry- building industry was established (see Fig. 1 – step1).
and basic information, the models are good to be used in Hence, feedback (based on interviews, workshops and
the design phase of a building, but in terms of technical classical desk research) from real BIM projects and con­
properties necessary for MEP design, the content of the sequently of the BIM real-world problems were collected
models shows that they cannot be used for this purpose. and investigated. Among others, the following challenges
Buildup Schweiz7 tries to close these gaps although they have been identified [11]:
also depend on manufacturer information. In the authors
opinion, the platform offers more technical properties – The reusability of IFC models, respectively an error-
compared to the others. Buildup offers a neutral structure free transfer between different software environments,
of technical information provided by manufacturers, is often not possible. Mostly due to missing attributes
which allows BIM modelers to search, filter and compare in the IFC structure or based on insufficient export
based on properties. For better connection customers can capability.
use an open API for further use. Moreover, additional – Manufactureres often provide BIM models with a too
technical information e.g. manuals, data sheets and in high level of geometric detail. On the other hand,
many cases generic ifc-files, which contain all informa­ mandatory metadata is often missing. The provided
tion in IFC language, are available for customers [9]. models should be designed more manageable and
have an adequate storage size by e.g., simplifying the
On the other hand, the import/export functionalities of geometry.
state-of-the-art BIM applications need to be improved as – New parameters should be specified uniquely and cor­
well, because often they cause errors in openBIM MEP rectly, so that there is no room for interpretation. Cur­
models. Based on stakeholder feedback from the building rently this is not guaranteed due to e.g. translation er­
domain, [10] confirms, that missing parameters in IFC es­ rors between different languages.
pecially in MEP represent one of the biggest obstacles for
a continuous use of the openBIM approach. The Austrian Further requests from the metaTGA stakeholder feed­
research project metaTGA8 deals exactly with those chal­ back for MEP models were, e.g.:
lenges and provides solutions avoiding such situations.
Based on the results of the project, the paper investigates – The developed models, in particular the specified at­
following questions: how do MEP openBIM data models tributes and metadata, should have a strong practical
need to look like? What are the major development steps relevance and should consider the entire life cycle of a
of these models? How are they applied in a BIM project building, especially planning and operation.
– The developed models should be validated by experts
to guarantee a strong practical use.
To meet above requirements a universal concept was
developed introduced by [8]. This concept was further
7 developed within the scope of the project metaTGA and
8 will be described in the following sections.

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Fig. 1 Process overview of the metaTGA approach of developing MEP BIM models
Übersicht des metaTGA Prozesses zur Modellentwicklung von TGA BIM Komponentenmodellen

2.1.2 Data harvesting different users to apply them according to their role in a
BIM project with different BIM applications. The collab­
For each MEP component to be developed e.g. heat oration software BIMQ10 was chosen for this purpose.
pump, different sources of information (e.g. individual
sheets from VDI-3805, manufacturing data sheets, IFC4 The features of BIMQ perfectly match the requirements
Add2TC1, Austrian standardized specification for build­ of the metaTGA project and support the idea of the open­
ing services (German: Standardisierte Leistungsbe­ BIM approach (Fig. 1: step 5). Additionally to other fea­
schreibung Haustechnik9), experience values from HVAC tures, BIMQ offers the possibility to define individual
experts etc.) were analyzed in detail, resulting in parame­ roles, meaning responsible persons, project phases and
ter lists of available metadata. use cases [12 (S. 180), 13, 14]. This means using BIMQ
one of the main requirements – specify which parameters
These parameters were investigated for their practical are needed (and when) to fully describe a MEP compo­
relevance, reduced to the essential ones and extended nent over the entire building life cycle phases – can be
with corresponding SI-Units (Fig. 1: step 1-2). Next step fulfilled using BIMQ. From a project point of view,
(Fig. 1: step 3) was to investigate which data out of this among others BIMQ interacts as kind of an individual or
set of metadata, is needed from whom and when, for BIM company specific “property server” for MEP BIM model
to be able to deliver its benefits over the entire building definitions. From a management point of view in the role
life cycle. Therefore, all necessary metadata were associat­ of a MEP planner, BIMQ allows both to define Level of
ed to different involved stakeholders (e.g. client, archi­ Information (LOI) requirements as parts of employer in­
tect, technical sub-domain planner, facility manager etc.) formation requests (EIRs) (German: Auftraggeber-Infor­
and building life cycle phases according to the Austrian mations-Anforderung (AIA)) or apply them for BIM pro­
Standard ÖNORM A 6241 Part 2- Appendix B and the jects. To ensure that EIRs and BIM models meet the
Austrian scale of fee structures for architects and engi­ quality standards, BIMQ offers export files for model
neers (German: Leistungsmodell Technische Ausrüstung checking software such as Solibri Model checker (SMC)11
LM.TA- 2014). Additionally, the results can be further or simplebim12, which can be used to automatically
used for process models e.g. sizing of HVAC components, check whether the requirements have been met. Thus, it
using standardized languages like business process model can be guaranteed that every involved technician within a
and notation (BPMN). To ensure practical relevance of BIM project has the same MEP model standards espe­
the developed results, a cross-check by experts was per­ cially in terms of model quality and clear responsibilities
formed on a regular basis (Fig. 1: step 4). (same number of parameters, unique responsibility of pa­
rameters to be defined in different project phases etc.).
One challenge of the definition process was, that every
2.1.3 Data processing and structuring parameter of all MEP models to be specified, must not
exist more than once in the system. This means a param­
After the definition of mandatory metadata and their re­ eter for e.g. pressure drop, can be defined only once in
sponsible technician (e.g. technical sub-domain planner, BIMQ but can be assigned to other MEP components if
architect, facility manager etc.) for different MEP compo­ necessary. For a few MEP components, this can be done
nents, these definitions must be transferred into a BIM manually, but during the metaTGA project 56 MEP com­
collaboration and management platform which enables
9 11

LB-Haustechnik.aspx 12

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S. Hauer, J. Murschetz, A. Bres, A. Sporr, M. Schöny, M. Monsberger: metaTGA: a chance for BIM in the field of MEP

Fig. 2 Example of data transfer (from left to right and from top to bottom) from BIMQ (upper left) into the authoring Software Autodesk Revit (upper right) and
the export as IFC file (lower right) for the parameter connection type (in German: Anschlussart) of a duct segment
Übersicht des Datenflusses (gelesen von oben nach unten bzw. von links nach rechts) von BIMQ (links oben) in die BIM Software Autodesk Revit
(oben rechts) und abschließend der Export als IFC File (unten rechts) für den Parameter „Anschlussart“

ponents for heating and mechanical ventilation (from category “general_ventilation _properties_metatga”. One
categories generation, distribution and delivery like: heat of the most important steps in this definition phase was
pumps, air handling units, valves, pipes, fittings, actuators the assignment of each MEP component and their param­
etc.) have been defined resulting in about 840 individual eters to the corresponding IFC4 entity and properties, if
parameters. Therefore, analysis scripts in MATLAB were they are available. This is essential because this guaran­
developed supporting the following necessary tasks to tees a functional openBIM approach using IFC as collab­
have a sufficient data structure for each MEP model oration format. Unfortunately, due to a lack of IFC prop­
(Fig. 1: step 6): In the first step, all data from different erties – especially in the field of MEP – this mapping was
MEP components were combined and sorted. The data not easy to fulfil. Only about 20 % of all unique parame­
were automatically investigated in terms of typical typing ters could be mapped to IFC properties directly. There­
errors and similar meanings but different names. Errors fore, user-defined property sets, so called “M-sets”, were
were corrected automatically using statisitcal methods to specified in order to transfer all necessary parameters
increase the number of similar parameters. These cor­ within an IFC file. Finally, after all definition steps in
rected parameters were checked for similarities between BIMQ were done, the platform is ready to export the re­
them in order to allow unifying. After the unifying pro­ sults in the corresponding BIM application (Fig. 1: step 7).
cess, the parameters were checked for grouping them in Depending on the chosen software for MEP modeling
similar categories for an easier implementation into (currently available for Revit, Allplan, ArchiCAD, ProVi)
BIMQ. According to the 56 MEP models, following main or model checking, the export type of files varies between
categories were specified: general parameters, domain simple text (specifically formatted), mvdXML13 or xlsx/.
heating and ventilation, and each of them were addition­ csv. For the actual project setting, this means a .txt Revit
ally subdivided into generation, distribution and delivery. mapping file for IFC, a .txt and .xml Revit import file and
As practical example parameters like AKS number (Ger­ a .xlsx model checking file.
man: Anlagenkennzeichnungs-system), warranty period
and warranty terms were grouped into the category “gen­
eral_properties _metatga”, parameters like type of air,
pressure drop and air flowrate range were assigned to the 13

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2.1.4 Data usage – Coming from a pool of parameters of different MEP
components, the grouping of the parameters to similar
After the sets of metadata for MEP components were datasets is quite a challenge in BIMQ. Moreover, the
structured using the data management platform BIMQ, requirement that each parameter in BIMQ must not
all participants within a collaborative BIM project are exist more than once in the system, is a challenge, if
“compelled” to use them according to their responsibili­ BIMQ is not used from the beginning in the model
ties and roles along the whole project life cycle. This guar­ development process. Avoiding such situations BIMQ
antees clear responsibilities and a high quality in the MEP would have to be involved early in the design phase of
planning process. the metaTGA process or in general for BIM projects.
Nevertheless, methods of analysing parameters for
To finally enable the use of these MEP components in the uniqueness, grouping and assignment to MEP compo­
planning process of a building, each component can be nents, need to be developed further: not only for creat­
transferred depending on their project phase into the cho­ ing a set of metadata from scratch, but also for merg­
sen BIM software and model checking software (Fig. 1: ing earlier developed or foreign metadata together.
step 7/8). Fig. 2 shows the export steps in more detail, fo­ – In order to obtain conclusive datasets for MEP com­
cusing on the parameter connection type (German: An­ ponents, it is necessary to compare and assimilate
schlussart) of a duct segment. BIMQ exports two Revit- datasets of similar MEP components e.g. pipe and
readable .txt-files including the mapping information for pipe bend. Both components are very similar in func­
IFC and Revit (how they appear in Revit after import for tion, therefore the datasets should be similar by means
further use) and one .xml-file for the following add-on. of parameters, life cycle information and responsibility
With the support of the RVT.AIAEditor14 the parameters for parameters too.
can be easily imported and mapped correctly to the Revit – In order to facilitate a collaborative work with differ­
structure. After the successful import in Revit, the proper­ ent project participants, an IFC export from BIMQ is
ties can be parametrized as always. Based on the open­ essential for an openBIM approach. To get a reliable
BIM approach, Revit can now export an .ifc-file for fur­ IFC-export of the model, it is necessary to assign all
ther use (e.g. model checking or combining IFC sub- parameters to IFC-properties. The information which
models to an overall model). From a practical point of parameter complies with which IFC-property is also a
view, planning processes are iterative, thus model check­ part of the definition in BIMQ. An export enables now
ing against metadata-requirements should be executed in a correct usage in the chosen BIM software (model­
each planning phase of the building Fig. 1 – step 8 and 9). ling or checking). Again, the effort of this work should
That’s why this transfer process will be repeated in every not be underestimated, since an assignment to an ex­
stage of the planning process as new parameters must be isting IFC parameter is not always clear. The BIMQ
defined due to the increasing level of detail (LOD) of the designer must know in advance which IFC parameter
model. With a model-checking software like Solibri is in which IFC property set in order to map attributes
Model Checker (SMC) each transfer process, respectively correctly. This requires a basic knowledge about IFC
the question “was each parameter specified correctly and and its data structure. Language barriers between e.g.
completely in the corresponding planning phase”, can be English and German and in some cases, the not com­
verified with these tools semi-automatically. For that, prehensible data structure of IFC (where to find pa­
SMC imports both the .ifc-file (Revit) and the automati­ rameters from property sets) will increase the effort
cally created .xlsx-file (BIMQ) to perform the quality further.
check of the model (Fig. 1: step 9). – The transfer of metadata from BIMQ to MEP models
is also very time consuming (it depends on the used
BIM modelling software). Revit without any add-ons
3 Findings and future work for example enables to pick only one attribute at a
time. To reduce the effort in terms of time of this mi­
The developed processes from Fig. 1 were applied in real­ gration process, which has to be done for each compo­
ity, defining the main components which allows model­ nent in each stage of the planning process, applica­
ling heating- and ventilation systems with focus on renew­ tions like RVT.AIA-Editor should be used.
able energy sources. First impressions and practical feed­ – The result of the metaTGA process, especially the pro­
back will be described below: cess model and the unique responsibility of MEP pa­
rameters depending on the building life cycle (project
– The effort to get to all relevant parameters and the phase) increases the planning quality and reducing the
definition when and from whom these parameters for effort (time) of coordination between different BIM
a MEP component need to be specified, is immense project participants.
(in terms of time and relevant information sources)
and should not be underestimated for new MEP com­ When viewed critically, some processes were described as
ponents. time-consuming. However, it should be mentioned that
these processes usually only have to be done once, name­
14 ly when defining the model itself. Due to the selected
loesungen/rvtaiaeditor/ software settings, all models can be used straight away for

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S. Hauer, J. Murschetz, A. Bres, A. Sporr, M. Schöny, M. Monsberger: metaTGA: a chance for BIM in the field of MEP

various BIM projects. The effort of the first implementa­ project will be performed. Feedback from different plan­
tion should therefore be correctly assessed or not under­ ning teams will be collected, analyzed and if necessary,
estimated. However, once these tasks have been complet­ the metaTGA processes and models will be adapted be­
ed, the user will gain a lot of benefits during his work, fore they will be finally published.
which means the described approach is expedient. The
metaTGA project finally managed to create manufactur­
er-neutral MEP models (for heating and mechanical ven­ 4 Acknowledgement
tilation) that can be used generically in BIM projects.
The work of this paper was created in the course of the
In summary, the introduced processes and methods have project metaTGA (FFG 861729) and promoted in the
the potential to increase quality of a BIM project. Using program line “Stadt der Zukunft” (4th call). “Stadt der
tools like BIMQ, SMC, Revit, etc. in combination with Zukunft” is a research and technology program of the
the metaTGA processes, quality measures can be applied Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technolo­
almost automatically for every planning phase of a build­ gy. It is handled on behalf of the BMVIT by the Österrei­
ing. Furthermore, the developed MEP models and their chische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft together with
mapping to IFC increase the interoperability within BIM Austria Wirtschaftsservice Gesellschaft mbH and the Ös­
projects. terreichischen Gesellschaft für Umwelt und Technik
As future work, within the research project metaTGA a
final test supporting planning processes of a “real world”


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350 Bauphysik 42 (2020), Heft 6

S. Hauer, J. Murschetz, A. Bres, A. Sporr, M. Schöny, M. Monsberger: Das Forschungsprojekt metaTGA: eine Chance für BIM im Bereich der Technischen Gebäudeausrüstung

Stefan Hauer, MSc (corresponding author) DI Michael Schöny, BSc
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH
Center for Energy, Sustainable Thermal Energy Systems Center for Energy, Sustainable Thermal Energy Systems
Giefinggasse 2 Giefinggasse 2
1210 Vienna, Austria 1210 Vienna, Austria

Dipl.-Ing. Julian Murschetz B.Sc. Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Michael Monsberger
Institut für Hochbau Institut für Hochbau
Technische Universität Graz Technische Universität Graz
Lessingstraße 25/III Lessingstraße 25/III
8010 Graz 8010 Graz, Austria

DI Dr.techn. Aurelien Bres
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH
Center for Energy, Sustainable Thermal Energy Systems
Giefinggasse 2
1210 Vienna, Austria

Andreas Sporr, MSc
How to Cite this Paper
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH
Center for Energy, Sustainable Thermal Energy Systems Hauer, S.; Murschetz, J.; Bres, A.; Sporr, A.; Schöny, M.; Monsberger,
Giefinggasse 2 M. (2020) metaTGA: a chance for BIM in the field of MEP. Bau­
1210 Vienna, Austria physik 42, no. 6, pp. 345–351.

Bauphysik 42 (2020), Heft 6351

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