Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

Pre-colonial period (before 1565)

Battle of Mactan

The Battle of Mactan on April 27, 1521, is celebrated as the earliest reported resistance of
the natives in the Philippines against foreign invaders. Lapu-Lapu, a Chieftain of Mactan
Island, defeated Christian European explorers led by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand

On March 16, 1521, the island of Samar was sighted. The following morning, March 17,
Magellan landed on the island of Homonhon.[3][4] He parleyed with Rajah Calambu of
Limasawa, who guided him to Cebu Island on April 7. With the aid of Magellan's Malay
interpreter, Enrique, Rajah Humabon of Cebu and his subjects converted to Christianity
and became allies. Suitably impressed by Spanish firearms and artillery, Rajah Humabon
suggested that Magellan project power to cow Lapu-Lapu, who was being belligerent
against his authority.

Magellan deployed 49 armored men, less than half his crew, with crossbows and guns,
but could not anchor near land because the island is surrounded by shallow coral bottoms
and thus unsuitable for the Spanish galleons to get close to shore. His crew had to wade
through the surf to make a landing and the ship was too far to support them with artillery.
Antonio Pigafetta, a supernumerary on the voyage who later returned to Seville, Spain,
records that Lapu-Lapu had at least 1500 warriors in the battle. During the battle,
Magellan was wounded in the leg, while still in the surf. As the crew were fleeing to the
boats, Pigafetta recorded that Magellan covered their retreat, turning at them on several
occasions to make sure they were getting away, and was finally surrounded by a
multitude of warriors and killed. The total toll was of eight crewmen killed on Magellan's
side against an unknown number of casualties from the Mactan natives.

Spanish colonial period (1565-1898)

Major Revolts (1567-1872)

Main article: Philippine revolts against Spain

• Dagami Revolt (1567)

• Manila Revolt (1574)
• Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587-1588)
• Dingras Revolt (1589)
• Cagayan Revolt (1589)
• Magalat Revolt (1596)
• Igorot Revolt (1601)
• Irraya or Gaddang Revolt (1621)
• Sumuroy Revolt (1649-1650)
• Palaris Revolt (1762-1765)
• Cavite Mutiny (1872)

Moro campaign (1569-1898)

• Battle of Cebu (1569)

• Spanish-Moro Incident (1570)
• Jolo Holy War (1578-1580)
• Cotabato Revolt (1597)
• Spanish-Moro Incident (1602)
• Basilan Revolt (1614)
• Kudarat Revolt (1625)
• Battle of Jolo (1628)
• Sulu Revolt (1628)
• Lanao Lamitan Revolt (1637)
• Battle of Punta Flechas (1638)
• Sultan Bungsu Revolt (1638)
• Mindanao Revolt (1638)
• Lanao Revolt (1639)
• Sultan Salibansa Revolt (1639)
• Corralat Revolt (1649)
• Spanish-Moro Incident (1876)

[edit] Limahong campaign (1574-1576)

Main article: Limahong

[edit] Cambodia campaign (1596)

• Cambodia Expedition (1596)

[edit] Eighty Years' War (1568-1648)

Main article: Eighty Years' War

• Battle of Cavite (1600)

• Moluccas Expedition (1606)
• Siege of Manila (1609-1610)
• Formosa Expedition (1626-1627)
• Battle of La Naval (1646)
• Battle of Puerto de Cavite (1647)
• Battle of Abucay (1647)

[edit] Chinese insurrections (1603-1640)

• First Chinese Insurrection (1603)

• Second Chinese Insurrection (1639-1640)
[edit] Seven Years' War (1756-1763)

Main article: Seven Years' War

• Battle of Manila (1762)

• Silang Revolt (1762-1763)
o Diego Silang
o Gabriela Silang

[edit] Cochinchina Campaign (1858-1862)

Main article: Cochinchina Campaign

• Siege of Đà Nẵng (1858)[5]

• Siege of Saigon (1859-1861)[5]
• Siege of Tourane
• Capture of Bien Hoa

[edit] Philippine Revolution and Declaration of

Independence (1896-1898)
[edit] Philippine Revolution (1896-1898)

Main article: Philippine Revolution

The Philippine Revolution, the first against western colonial rule in Asia, was directed
against Spain which had colonized the Philippines since 1565. The Revolution against
Spain had two phases: the first from the declaration of defiance against Spanish rule on
August 23, 1896 till the conclusion of a truce in December 1897; the second from the
return till the outbreak of the Philippine–American War in February 1899.

After over three centuries of Spanish colonial rule characterized by unenlightened

government, outright exploitation of the Indios (the term used to apply to the indigenous
population of Filipinos), suppression of the mestizos and the insulares (Spaniards born in
the Philippines), belated and half-hearted attempts at reform, and on the part of the
governed, countless sporadic and isolated revolts and other forms of resistance, the
Philippine Revolution exploded on August 23, 1896, in the event that is commemorated
as the "Cry of Pugadlawin". Located in the outskirts of Manila, there assembled on that
day members of a secret revolutionary society known as the Kataastaasang
Kagalanggalang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Katipunan) -- Highest and Most
Respectable Society of the Sons of the People, founded in July 1892), led by its founder,
Andres Bonifacio, and there tore up their cedulas (identification receipts issued for
payment of taxes) as a symbol of their determination to take up arms against Spain.
The seeds of revolution were, in fact, sown earlier in the nineteenth century when Spain's
enforced isolation of the Philippines was shattered with the opening of the country to
foreign commerce and the resulting development of an export economy by non-Spanish
foreign enterprises (British, American, Chinese). Revolutionary and liberal movements in
Europe and elsewhere, in addition to the persistence of friar autocratic rule, brought
winds of change in the political climate in the Philippines. The most important event
which possibly made the Revolution inevitable was that of February 17, 1872, when three
Filipino secular priests, leaders in the movement for the secularization (in effect,
nationalization) of Philippine parishes, were executed publicly by garrote for their
supposed complicity in a military mutiny at a Cavite arsenal on January 20, 1872. By
linking them with the mutiny, the Spanish administration, with the instigation of Spanish
friars, found a convenient way of doing away with the troublesome priests, considered by
them as filibusteros (anyone who showed any radical tendencies) for demanding clerical
equality with the Spanish friars.

The first manifestation of Philippine nationalism followed in the decades of the 1880s
and the 1890s, with a reform or propaganda movement, conducted both in Spain and in
the Philippines, for the purpose of "propagandising" Philippine conditions in the hopes
that desired changes in the social, political and economic life of the Filipinos would come
about through peaceful means. The propaganda movement failed to secure the desired
reforms, especially the expulsion of the friars and their replacement by Filipino secular
priests and equality before the law between Spaniards and Filipinos, largely because the
Spanish friars used their power and resources to thwart the activities of the Filipino
ilustrados (educated Filipinos who led the movement).

The revolutionary society, Katipunan, was established, on July 7, 1892, by Filipinos who
had given up hope that the Spanish government would administer the affairs of Filipinos
in the interests of its subjects—with justice and dignity. A secret association patterned
after Freemasonry and the La Liga Filipina (a mutual-aid society founded by the ilustrado
Jose Rizal on July 3, 1892), it recruited members in the suburbs of Manila and in the
provinces of Central Luzon. By the time of the outbreak of the Revolution in August
1896, membership in the Katipunan has soared to about 30,000, which included some
women. The Revolution broke out prematurely on August 23, 1896 because of the
untimely discovery by a Spanish friar, on August 19, of the existence of the revolutionary
society. The immediate result of the outbreak of the Revolution was the institution of a
reign of terror by the Spanish authorities in an attempt to frighten the population into
submission. Hundreds suspected of joining the Katipunan and the Revolution were
arrested and jailed; prominent Filipinos were shipped to exile to the Carolines or the
Spanish penal colony in Africa (Fernando Po); and still others were executed, including
Jose Rizal, who was executed by musketry on December 30, 1896. The Revolution
spread from Manila and Cavite to Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, and
Nueva Ecija represented as the eight rays in the Philippine flag.

Andres Bonifacio led the Revolution in its early stages, although he did not excel in the
field of battle. Internal rivalry led to the division of the ranks within the Katipunan
organization and with the execution of Bonifacio in May 1897 (charged with sedition and
treason), leadership of the Revolution fell into the hands of another Katipunan member
from Cavite, Emilio Aguinaldo, who distinguished himself in the battlefields in Cavite, at
that time the heartland of the Revolution.

The first phase of the Revolution ended inconclusively, with both Filipino and Spanish
forces unable to pursue hostilities to a successful conclusion. Consequently, between
November 18 and December 15, a truce which resulted in a temporary cessation of
hostilities was concluded Biak-na-Bato between the two sides. Aguinaldo agreed to go on
temporary exile to Hong Kong after the Spanish government compensated him and his
revolutionary junta with a sum described in the agreement as "$800,000 (Mexican)" in
three installments.[6]. The truce failed as both sides entered the agreement in bad faith—
neither was really willing to abandon hostilities but were biding time and resources to
resume the armed conflict.[7]

• Battle of Alapan
• Battle of Binakayan
• Battle of Dalahican
• Battle of Julian Bridge
• Battle of San Juan del Norte
• Cry of Pugad Lawin
• Negros Revolution

[edit] Spanish–American War (1898)

Main article: Spanish–American War

The first battle in the Philippine theater was in Manila Bay, where, on May 1, 1898,
Commodore George Dewey, commanding the United States Asiatic Squadron aboard the
USS Olympia, in a matter of hours, defeated the Spanish squadron, under Admiral
Patricio Montojo y Pasarón. Dewey's force sustaining only a single casualty — a heart
attack aboard one of his vessels.

After the battle, Dewey blockaded Manila and provided transport for Emilio Aguinaldo
to return to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong. Aguinaldo arrived on May 19 and,
after assuming command of Filipino forces on May 24, initiated land campaigns against
the Spanish. After the Battle of Manila on the morning of August 13, 1898 (a mock battle
between U.S and Spanish forces), the Spanish governor, Fermin Jaudenes, surrendered
Manila to U.S. forces under Dewey.

On June 12, 1898, with the country still under Spanish sovereignty, Aguinaldo
proclaimed Philippine independence from Spain, under a dictatorial government then
being established. The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared and written
in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, who read it at the proclamation ceremony.
The Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, among them an American army
officer who witnessed the proclamation. The insurgent dictatorial government was
replaced on June 23 by an insurgent revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo as
president. The Spanish-American war was formally concluded on December 10, 1898 by
the Treaty of Paris between the United States and Spain. In that treaty, Spain ceded the
Philippine Archipelago to the United States, and the United States agreed to pay
US$20,000,000 to the Spanish government.[8] The United States then exercised
sovereignty over the Philippines. The insurgent First Philippine Republic was formally
established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899.

[edit] American colonial period (1899-1941) and

Japanese occupation (1942-1945)
[edit] Philippine–American War (1899-1913)

Main article: Philippine–American War

The Philippine–American War[9] was a conflict between the United States of America and
the First Philippine Republic from 1899 through at least 1902, when the Filipino
leadership generally accepted American rule. A Philippine Constabulary was organized
in 1901 to deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement and gradually assume the
responsibilities of the United States Army. Skirmishes between government troops and
armed groups lasted until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions
part of the war.[10]

• Siege of Catubig
• Battle of Tirad Pass
• Battle of Pulang Lupa
• Battle of Paye
• Battle of Makahambus Hill
• Battle of Mabitac
• Battle of Lonoy
• Battle of Siranaya
• Battle of the Malalag River
• Battle of Quingua
• Battle of Balangiga

[edit] World War I (1914-1918)

Main article: World War I

In 1917 the Philippine Assembly created the Philippine National Guard with the intent to
join the American Expeditionary Force. By the time it was absorbed into the National
Army it had grown to 25,000 soldiers. However, these units did not see action. The first
Filipino to die in World War I was Private Tomas Mateo Claudio who served with the
U.S. Marine Corps as part of the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. He died in
the Battle of Chateau Thierry in France on June 29, 1918.[11][12] The Tomas Claudio
Memorial College in Morong Rizal, Philippines, which was founded in 1950, was named
in his honor.[13]

[edit] World War II (1939-1945)

Main article: World War II

The first Filipino military casualty during the Second World War was serving as an
aviator with British forces. First Officer Isidro Juan Paredes of the Air Transport
Auxiliary was killed on November 7, 1941, when his aircraft overshot a runway and
crashed at RAF Burtonwood. He was buried at Great Sankey (St Mary) Churchyard
Extension, but later repatriated to the Philippines.[14] Paredes Air Station in Ilocos Norte,
was named in his honor.

Main article: Military History of the Philippines During World War II

• Battle of Agusan
• Battle of Balantang
• Battle of Balete Pass
• Battle of Bataan
• Battle of Bataan (1945)
• Battle of Batangas (1942)
• Battle of Batangas (1945)
• Battle of Bessang Pass
• Battle of Bohol (1942)
• Battle of Bohol (1945)
• Battle of Bukidnon
• Battle of Cebu (1942)
• Battle of Cebu (1945)
• Battle of Corregidor
• Battle of Corregidor (1945)
• Battle of Cotabato
• Battle of Dalton Pass
• Battle of Davao
• Battle of Guila-Guila
• Battle of Ising
• Battle of Jaro
• Battle of Kirang Pass
• Battle of Lanao
• Battle of Leyte
• Battle of Leyte Gulf
• Battle of Samar (1942)
• Battle of Samar (1945)
• Battle off Samar
• Battle of Luzon
• Battle of Manila (1945)
• Battle of Maguindanao
• Battle of Marinduque
• Battle of Mayoyao Ridge
• Battle of Mindanao (1942)
• Battle of Mindanao (1945)
• Battle of Mindoro
• Battle of Misamis Occidental
• Battle of Misamis Oriental
• Battle of Negros
• Battle of Panay
• Battle of Romblon
• Battle of Ormoc Bay
• Battle of Simara
• Battle of Surigao
• Battle of Tayug
• Battle of the Visayas
• Battle of Zamboanga
• Bicol Campaign
• Central Luzon Campaign
• Invasion of Lingayen Gulf
• Invasion of Palawan
• Northern Luzon Campaign
• Philippines Campaign (1941-42)
• Philippines Campaign (1944–45)
• Raid at Los Baños
• Raid at Cabanatuan
• Raid at Capas
• San Ildefonso Massacre
• Southern Luzon Campaign

WWII Veterans are members of the following:

• U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE)

• United States Armed Forces in the Philippines - Northern Luzon (USAFIP-NL)
• Philippine Scouts (PS)
• Philippine Constabulary (PC)
• Commonwealth Army of the Philippines
• Recognized Guerrilla Units

Related Articles:

• Second Philippine Republic

• Japanese war crimes
• Bataan Death March
• Comfort women
• Hukbalahap
[edit] Korean War (1950-1953)
Main article: Korean War

The Philippines joined the Korean War in August 1950. The Philippines sent an
expeditionary force of around 7,500 combat troops. This was known as the Philippine
Expeditionary Forces To Korea, or PEFTOK. It was the 4th largest force under the
United Nations Command then under the command of US General Douglas MacArthur
that were sent to defend South Korea from a communist invasion by North Korea which
was then supported by Mao Zedong's China and the Soviet Union. The PEFTOK took
part in decisive battles such as the Battle of Yultong Bridge and the Battle of Hill Eerie.
This expeditionary force operated with the United States 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd
Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, and 45th Infantry Division.[15]

• Battle of Yultong Bridge

• Battle of Hill Eerie

[edit] Vietnam War (1964-1973)

Main article: Vietnam War

The Philippines was involved in the Vietnam War, supporting civil and medical
operations. Initial deployment in 1964 amounted to 28 military personnel, including
nurses, and 6 civilians. The number of Filipino troops who served in Vietnam swelled to
182 officers and 1,882 enlisted personnel during the period 1966-1968. This force was
known as the Philippine Civic Action Group-Vietnam or PHILCAG-V.[16][17]

[edit] Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

Main article: Gulf War

The Philippines sent 200 medical personnel to assist coalition forces in the liberation of
Kuwait from the stranglehold of Iraq then led by Saddam Hussein.

[edit] Iraq War (2003-2004)

Main article: Iraq War

The Philippines sent 60 medics, engineers and other troops to assist in the invasion of
Iraq. The troops were withdrawn on the 14th of July, 2004, in response to the kidnapping
of Angelo dela Cruz, a Filipino truck driver. When insurgent demands were met (Filipino
troops out of Iraq), the hostage was released. While in Iraq, the troops were under Polish
command (Central South Iraq). During that time, several Filipino soldiers were wounded
in an insurgent attack, although none died.
[edit] Revolutionary groups in the Philippines
Early 1950s to present

• Hukbalahap
• New People's Army
• Reform the Armed Forces Movement

[edit] Islamic insurgency in the Philippines

Late 1960s to present

• Moro Islamic Liberation Front

• Abu Sayyaf Conflict
o The Burnham Hostage Crisis
o The Maundy Thursday Rescue
o Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines

[edit] International Peace Support and Humanitarian

Relief Operations
• UN Command in Korea (UNC), 1950-55
o Philippine Expeditionary Force to Korea (PEFTOK)
 10th Battalion Combat Team (BCT)
 20th BCT
 19th BCT
 14th BCT
 2nd BCT
• UN Operation in the Congo (ONUC, or l'Operation des Nations Unies au Congo),
o Philippine Air Force Contingent (PAFCON) featuring the Limbas
• Philippine Medical Mercy Mission to Indonesia, 1963
• "More Flags"/Free World Assistance Program in Vietnam, 1964-71
o Philippine Contingent, Vietnam (PHILCONV)
o Philippine Civic Action Group, Republic of Vietnam I (First PHILCAGV)
o Philippine Civic Action Group, Republic of Vietnam (Second
o Philippine Contingent, Vietnam (PHILCAGV rear party)
• UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (UNGCI), 1991-92
o First Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-1)
o Second PUNGCI (PUNGCI-2)
o Fourth PUNGCI (PUNGCI-4)
o Fifth PUNGCI (PUNGCI-5, -5A, -5B, -5C)
o Sixth PUNGCI (PUNGCI-6A, -6B, -6C, -6D)
o Seventh PUNGCI (PUNGCI-7A, -7B)
o Eighth PUNGCI (PUNGCI-8A, -8B)
o Ninth PUNGCI (PUNGCI-9A, -9B, -9C)
• UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), 1992-93
o First Republic of the Philippines Contingent to UNTAC (1RP-UNTAC)
o UNTAC Military Observers
• International Force East Timor (INTERFET), 1999
o Philippine Humanitarian Support for East Timor (PhilHSMET)
• UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), 1999
o Philippine Battalion (PhilBatt)
o UNTAET Force Headquarters Support Unit (FHSU)/Philippine
Contingent to East Timor (PhilCET)
o UNTAET Peacekeeping Force Staff
o UNTAET Military Observers
• Henri Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue Aceh Monitoring Movement
(HAMM), 2002-03
o AFP Contingent to the HAMM International Monitoring Team
• UN Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET), 2004-05
o UNMISET Force Headquarters Support Unit (FHSU)/Philippine
Contingent to East Timor (PhilCET)
o UNMISET Peacekeeping Force Staff
o UNMISET Military Observers
• Philippine Humanitarian Contingent to Iraq, 2003-04
• UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), 2003-present
o First Philippine Contingent to Liberia (1PCL)
o Second PCL (2PCL)
o Third PCL (3PCL)
o Fourth PCL (4PCL)
o Fifth PCL (5PCL)
o Sixth PCL (6PCL)
o Seventh PCL (7PCL)
o Eighth PCL (8PCL)
o Ninth PCL (9PCL)
o Tenth PCL (10PCL)
o Eleventh PCL (11PCL)
o Twelfth PCL (12PCL)
o Thirteenth PCL (13PCL)
o UNMIL Peacekeeping Force Staff
o UNMIL Military Observers
• UN Mission in Cote d'Ivoire (MINUCI, or la Mission des Nations Unies en Cote
d'Ivoire), 2004
o MINUCI Military Observers
• UN Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (ONUCI, or l'Operation des Nations Unies en Cote
d'Ivoire), 2004-present
o ONUCI Military Observers
• UN Mission in Burundi (ONUB, or l'Operation des Nations Unies au Burundi),
o ONUB Military Observers
• UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH, or l'Operation des Nations Unies
pour la Stabilisation en Haiti), 2004-present
o First Philippine Contingent to Haiti (1PCH)
o Second PCH (2PCH)
o Third PCH (3PCH)
o Fourth PCH (4PCH)
o Fifth PCH (5PCH)
o Sixth PCH (6PCH)
o Seventh PCH (7PCH)
o Eighth PCH (8PCH)
o Ninth PCH (9PCH)
o Tenth PCH (10PCH)
o Eleventh PCH (11PCH)
o MINUSTAH Peacekeeping Force Staff
o MINUSTAH Military Observers
• UN Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL), 2005-06
o UNOTIL Military Observers
• European Union Aceh Monitoring Mission, 2005-06
o AMM Peace Monitors
• UN Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS), 2005-present
o UNMIS Military Observers
• UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), 2006-present
o UNMIT Military Observers
• Philippine Humanitarian Mission and Aid for Myanmar, 2008
• UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), 2009-present
o UNMOGIP Military Observers
• UN Disengagement Force (UNDOF) in the Golan Heights, 2009-present
o Philippine Battalion - First Philippine Contingent to the Golan Heights
o Philippine Battalion - Second PCGH (2PCGH)

[AFP Peacekeeping Operations Center][18][19]

[edit] List of coups d'etat

• People Power Revolution
• 1986–1987 Philippine coup attempts
• 1989 Philippine coup attempt
• EDSA Revolution of 2001

• Coups against Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

o Oakwood Mutiny -The Oakwood Mutiny refers to a short-lived event
which occurred in 27 July 2003 when members of the Philippine Marine
Corps and Army took hold of the Glorietta Mall and the Oakwood Premier
Condominium in Makati City. See Oakwood Mutiny
o 2006 state of emergency in the Philippines
o Manila Peninsula Mutiny

[edit] List of treaties

• Treaty of Paris (1763) (minor role)
• Treaty of Paris (1898)
• The National Defense Act of 1935 - In 1935 The National Defense Act of 1935
was enacted. President-elect Manuel L. Quezon convinced Chief of Staff of the
United States Army General Douglas MacArthur to act as the military adviser to
the Commonwealth of the Philippines. MacArthur was given the title "Military
Advisor to the Commonwealth Government" and tasked with establishing a
system of national defense, for the Philippines, by 1946. For a time, MacArthur
would also act as the Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
• Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) (dissolved)
• Mutual Defense Treaty between the Republic of the Philippines and the United
States of America (1951)
• RP-US Visiting Forces Agreement
o BALIKATAN - "Shoulder to Shoulder" Joint US-Philippines Military

[edit] List of awards

• Philippine Legion of Honor
• Philippine Medal of Valor
• Philippine Distinguished Service Cross
• Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal
• WWII Victory Medal
• Philippine Liberation Medal
• Philippine Defense Medal
• Philippine Independence Medal
• Philippine Presidential Unit Citation

[edit] List of wars involving the Philippines

• Eighty Years' War
• Seven Years' War
• Cochinchina Campaign
• Philippine Revolution
• Spanish–American War
• Philippine–American War
• World War I
• World War II
o Japanese occupation of the Philippines
o Philippines campaign (1941-42)
o Philippines campaign (1942-44)
o Philippines campaign (1944-45)
• Cold War
o Korean War
o Vietnam War
o Communist Insurgencies
• Gulf War
• War on Terror
o Operation Enduring Freedom
o Islamic Insurgencies
• Iraq War

[edit] See also

• Armed Forces of the Philippines
• Philippine Air Force
• Philippine Navy
• Philippine Marine Corps
• Philippine Army
• Philippine Constabulary
• Military History of the Philippines During World War II
• History of the Philippines
• Presidential Security Group / Presidential Security Command
• Filipino Special Forces
• General Alfredo M. Santos - the first four-star general of the Philippine Army and
the Armed Forces of the Philippines (1963)
• Philippine National Police
• Reform the Armed Forces Movement

[edit] References
1. ^ Halili, M.c. (2004). Philippine history. Rex Bookstore, Inc.. pp. 74.
ISBN 9789712339349.
2. ^ Ongsotto (2002). Philippine History Module-based Learning I' 2002
Ed.. Rex Bookstore, Inc.. pp. 63. ISBN 9789712334498.
3. ^ Op. cit. Halili 2004, p. 72.
4. ^ Op . cit. Ongsotto 2002, p. 62.
5. ^ a b Nigel Gooding, Filipino Involvement in the French-Spanish
Campaign in Indochina,, retrieved
6. ^ Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, Chapter II. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató,
"True Version of the Philippine Revolution", Authorama Public Domain Books,,
retrieved 2007-11-16
7. ^ Dr. Bernardita Reyes Churchill. "History of the Philippine Revolution:
The Katipunan Revolution". Archived from the original on 2006-01-05.
s/cularts/heritage/research/research-history.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
8. ^ Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain
9. ^ This conflict is also known as the 'Philippine Insurrection'. This name
was historically the most commonly used in the U.S., but Filipinos and some
American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine–American War,
and, in 1999, the U.S. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this
10. ^ Constantino, Renato (1975). The Philippines: A Past Revisited.
ISBN 971-8958-00-2.
11. ^ Zena Sultana-Babao, America’s Thanksgiving and the Philippines’
National Heroes Day: Two Holidays Rooted in History and Tradition, Asian
pmax=&rebed=&rebath=&subname=&pform=&sc=1028&hn=asianjournalusa&h, retrieved 2008-01-12
12. ^ Source: Philippine Military Academy
13. ^ "Schools, colleges and Universities: Tomas Claudio Memorial College".
Manila Bulletin Online. Archived fro