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CHAPTER-1

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION - LASER


COMMUNICATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION:

Communication technology has experienced a continual development to


higher and higher carrier frequencies, starting from a few hundred kilohertz at
Marconi's time to several hundred terahertzes since we employ lasers in fiber
systems. The main driving force was that the usable bandwidth - and hence
transmission capacity - increases proportional to the carrier frequency. Another
asset comes into play in free-space point-to-point links. The minimum
divergence obtainable with a freely propagating beam of electromagnetic
waves scales proportional to the wavelength. The jump from microwaves to
light waves therefore means a reduction in beam width by orders of magnitude,
even if we use transmit antennas of much smaller diameter. The reduced beam
width does not only imply increased intensity at the receiver site but also
reduced cross talk between closely operating links and less chance for
eavesdropping.

For the past quarter century, wireless communication has been hailed as
the superior method for transmitting video, audio, data and various analog
signals. Laser offers many well-known advantages over twisted pair and coaxial
cable, including immunity to electrical interference and superior bandwidth. For
these and many other reasons, wireless transmission systems have been
increasingly integrated into a wide range of applications across many industries.
Now, a new generation of products that employs pure digital signaling to
transmit analog information offers the opportunity to raise the standard once
again, bringing wireless transmission to a whole new level.

Digital systems offer superior performance, flexibility and reliability, and


yet don’t cost any more than the older analog designs they replace. This

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Education Guide examines how digital signaling over laser is accomplished and
the resulting benefits, both from a performance and economic perspective.

1.2 LASER APPLICATIONS:


Why Laser Instead of RF?

• Power Consumption :
RF network needs to constantly listen, depending on the duty cycle. This
takes power. A laser node however does not need to listen, and can sleep while
waiting for a laser pulse.

• Range:
A RF enabled node has a limited range. A laser has a range in the kilometers.
This means a node can be far away from the central network nodes.

• Low cost and reliable:

Laser communication system is basically cheaper in comparison to lying of


optical fiber and maintaining it. Wireless communication system has initial
value but it is quite reliable and of many usage at a time as digital as well as
voice transmission through a single transmitter. Hence quite more effective

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CHAPTER -2

LASER COMMUNICATION WITH CONTROL


SYSTEM

2.1 PROJECT GOALS

The goal of our project is to develop a low powered, inexpensive, and


versatile optical wireless communication system. Such a system should be able
to send transmission messages using lasers, and should be low powered,
especially compared to radio frequency based wireless communications. Our
goal is to create and design a versatile system so that the system can be used
for different types of wireless networks, including IP based networks and
wireless sensor networks.

Our primary objective is to develop a working system that can achieve


wireless communication over laser. This entails the design and development of
the hardware, data link, and physical layers of the system. This includes the data
network protocols, including the method of using the laser to transmit
information over air. We also need to design the higher level network protocols,
such that data frames can be transferred over the data link layers. A secondary
goal will be to compare and contrast the power consumption of the optical
wireless communication system against a typical RF wireless communication
system. We seek to demonstrate that for some wireless applications, an optical
wireless system holds
Certain advantages in terms of power and other characteristics. It is our goal as
well to develop a framework for further research and analysis into such a
system, and making one actually viable.

Overall we seek to develop a working communication system where two


nodes can transfer data (in the form of bytes) to each other using laser pulses,
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and demonstrate that such a system can indeed work. In this paper, we will
explain the motivation for such a system, where a laser based network has
advantages over traditional RF ones, and how we implemented our prototype
network.

2.2 PROJECT BACKGROUND

Wireless communications has become increasingly important in


technology, communication, and computer science. From cell phones to
wireless internet to home devices, everything is being converted from wired
into wireless. A major research and focus area in fact has been the wireless
sensor network. This network relies on low powered self-contained nodes that
sense the environment, such as temperature or humidity. These nodes must be
able to transfer and receive information wirelessly. Indeed, a lot of research and
funding has been put into developing wireless systems. Most of the focus has
gone to radio frequency wireless communication.

All spacecrafts flying at present communicates with ground by means of a radio


communication link. This link consists of an onboard radio transmitter/receiver
coupled to a single or two antennas. The ground station has a similar system.
The radio-beam that leaves the antenna will attenuate over distance following
the r-2, just like light from a flashlight. For satellites in low earth orbit, i.e.
altitudes between 200 and 2000km, the onboard antenna system is typically a
simple dipole or quadropole antenna,
Enabling omnidirectional communication, i.e. without pointing the
Antenna towards the receiver. This approach is viable because the distance is
small, and, because the data rate typically is moderate.
For higher orbit, e.g. geostationary satellites, the downlink antennas are
typically highly directional, e.g. dish- or cluster-antennas. Such antenna systems
have the benefit of “focusing” the radio energy into a narrow beam before the
wave’s leaves the antenna. As soon as the waves leaves the antenna dominated
space (far field approximation) the beam is still attenuated according to the r- 2
law, but as the intrinsic energy is higher in certain directions, more energy/m-2
will be observed in these directions. Obviously, such antennas must be pointed
at the ground station in order to work, and this pointing action requires either
the satellite to track the station or to have a moving gimbal mounted antenna
system. The spacecraft uplink antenna does not need high directionality (gain),
because the ground
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Segment usually utilizes large antennas and powerful transmitters such that an
ample radio energy density (W/m-2) arrives at the spacecraft receiver antenna.
Conversely, the spacecraft are bound to use low power transmitters, partly
because electrical power is a scarce resource in space, partly because high
power transmitters are heavy, large, and have a short life. Deep space probes,
that are spacecrafts that are bound for the Moon and beyond, are forced to use
highly directional antennas both for up- and downlink because of the large
distance between the spacecraft and the ground station. E.g. spacecrafts bound
for Mars will have 2- 4m diameter dish antennas on the spacecraft, and the
ground segment uses 70m antennas! The size of the antenna determines,
together with the frequency of the radio waves, the
Directionality (i.e. gain) of the antenna (3dB beam width = 708/antenna
diameter degrees).
The larger the antenna, and the higher the frequency, the higher gain.
Therefore, there has been a constant drive for use of higher frequencies to
enable smaller antenna systems onboard the spacecraft. At present, 20-30 GHz
is practical. Finally, the required data rate that the communication link has to
support depends on the total attenuation of the link because certain energy must
be received per bit. Hence, if the powers received are low, it will take longer
time to achieve the necessary energy, and vise

2.3 SYSTEM OVERVIEW & DESCRIPTION

2.3.1 Overview

• Background
• Project goals
• Motivation and Challenges
• Project implementation
• Data flow
• Encoding scheme
• Framing scheme

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2.3.2 Background

There has been a shift from wired to wireless


A lot of research has been put into Radiofrequency (RF) wireless. But
not much on optical wireless

2.3.3 Project goals

Develop a wireless optical communication


System using laser
A) Low-powered
b) Inexpensive
c) Versatile

2.3.4 Motivations and Challenges

Laser offers the following benefits

1. Long range
2. Low-powered, low interference
3. Narrow beam very hard to detect & intercept
4. High speed

Laser has the following disadvantage

1. Non-mobile
2. Line of sight issue
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3. Challenges
4. Design a reliable coding scheme
5. Optimize for bandwidth and latency
.
2.3.5 Project Implementation

Composed of two Parts


1. Laser boards – the data link and physical layer
2. Transmitter & receiver scale - the network and application layer

2.3.6 Data Flow

1. Framed bytes
2. Encoded bits
3. Framed bytes

2.3.6 Result – what did we accomplish

1. Implemented a basic laser communication


System
2. Can send data from one Scale to another
3. Input data can be from a file or from command
Line
4. Can use the system to trigger command line
Execution remotely

2.3.8 Future works

1. Improve latency and bandwidth


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2. Support full-duplex communication


3. Support multiple senders/receivers
4. Improve encoding and framing schemes
5. Error detection/correction
6. Extensive power-usage analysis of the system
7. More fully develop laser network stack

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CHAPTER-3

COMPONENTS

3.1 COMPONENTS USED:

• PCB
• STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 5V/500mA
• VOLTAGE REGULATOR LM7805
• RECTIFIER DIODES 1N4001
• ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS
• LED DISPLAY
• LEDs
• IC 7447, 8870, 91214.
• Tr. BC-548
• Laser diode
• OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
• PVC WIRES
• RESSISTANCE 10K
• CAPACITOR 104PF
• DPDT S/W
• IC 7805
• MICRO SWITCH
• CRYSTAL 12 MHZ
• RESET 100K
• MIKE
• SPEAKER 5 OHM

3.2 DESCRIPTION ABOUT THE COMPONENTS

3.2.1 PCB:
PCBs are boards whereupon electronic circuits have been etched. PCBs are
rugged, inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout
effort and higher initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point
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constructed circuits, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume
production. Much of the electronics industry's PCB design, assembly, and
quality control needs are set by standards that are published by the IPC
organization.

After the printed circuit board (PCB) is completed, electronic components must
be attached to form a functional printed circuit assembly, or PCA (sometimes
called a "printed circuit board assembly" PCBA). In through-hole construction,
component leads are inserted in holes. In surface-mount construction, the
components are placed on pads or lands on the outer surfaces of the PCB. In
both kinds of construction, component leads are electrically and mechanically
fixed to the board with a molten metal solder.

There are a variety of soldering techniques used to attach components to a PCB.


High volume production is usually done with machine placement and bulk
wave soldering or reflow ovens, but skilled technicians are able to solder very
tiny parts (for instance 0201 packages which are 0.02" by 0.01") by hand under
a microscope, using tweezers and a fine tip soldering iron for small volume
prototypes. Some parts are impossible to solder by hand, such as ball grid array
(BGA) packages.

Often, through-hole and surface-mount construction must be combined in a


single PCA because some required components are available only in surface-
mount packages, while others are available only in through-hole packages.
Another reason to use both methods is that through-hole mounting can provide
needed strength for components likely to endure physical stress, while
components that are expected to go untouched will take up less space using
surface-mount techniques.

After the board has been populated it may be tested in a variety of ways:

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• While the power is off, visual inspection, automated optical inspection.


JEDEC guidelines for PCB component placement, soldering, and
inspection are commonly used to maintain quality control in this stage of
PCB manufacturing.
• While the power is off, analog signature analysis, power-off testing.
• While the power is on, in-circuit tests, where physical measurements (i.e.
voltage, frequency) can be done.
• While the power is on, functional test, just checking if the PCB does what
it had been designed for.

To facilitate these tests, PCBs may be designed with extra pads to make
temporary connections. Sometimes these pads must be isolated with resistors.
The in-circuit test may also exercise boundary scan test features of some
components. In-circuit test systems may also be used to program nonvolatile
memory components on the board.

In boundary scan testing, test circuits integrated into various ICs on the board
form temporary connections between the PCB traces to test that the ICs are
mounted correctly. Boundary scan testing requires that all the ICs to be tested
use a standard test configuration procedure, the most common one being the
Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) standard. When boards fail the test,
technicians may disorder and replace failed components, a task known as
"rework".

Manufacturing
a) Materials: Conducting layers are typically made of thin copper foil.
Insulating layers dielectric are typically laminated together with epoxy
resin prepare. The board is typically coated with a solder mask that is
green in color. Other colors that are normally available are blue, and red.
There are quite a few different dielectrics that can be chosen to provide
different insulating values depending on the requirements of the circuit.
Some of these dielectrics are polytetrafluoroethylene, FR-4, FR-1, CEM-
1 or CEM-3. Well known prepreg materials used in the PCB industry are
FR-2 (Phenolic cotton paper), FR-3 (Cotton paper and epoxy), FR-4

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(Woven glass and epoxy), FR-5 (Woven glass and epoxy), FR-6 (Matte
glass and polyester), G-10 (Woven glass and epoxy), CEM-1 (Cotton
paper and epoxy), CEM-2

(Cotton paper and epoxy), CEM-3 (Woven glass and epoxy), CEM-4
(Woven glass and epoxy), CEM-5 (Woven glass and polyester).

Typical density of a raw PCB (an average amount of traces, holes, and via's,
with no components) is 2.15g / cm3

Patterning (etching) : The vast majority of printed circuit boards are made by
bonding a layer of copper over the entire substrate, sometimes on both sides,
(creating a "blank PCB") then removing unwanted copper after applying a
temporary mask (eg. by etching), leaving only the desired copper traces. A few
PCBs are made by adding traces to the bare substrate (or a substrate with a very
thin layer of copper) usually by a complex process of multiple electroplating
steps.

There are three common "subtractive" methods (methods that remove copper)
used for the production of printed circuit boards:

1. Silk screen printing uses etch-resistant inks to protect the copper foil.
Subsequent etching removes the unwanted copper. Alternatively, the ink
may be conductive, printed on a blank (non-conductive) board. The latter
technique is also used in the manufacture of hybrid circuits.

2. Photoengraving uses a photomask and chemical etching to remove the


copper foil from the substrate. The photomask is usually prepared with a
photoplotter from data produced by a technician using CAM, or
computer-aided manufacturing software. Laser-printed transparencies are
typically employed for phototools; however, direct laser imaging
techniques are being employed to replace phototools for high-resolution
requirements.

3. PCB milling uses a two or three-axis mechanical milling system to mill


away the copper foil from the substrate. A PCB milling machine (referred
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to as a 'PCB Prototyper') operates in a similar way to a plotter, receiving


commands from the host software that control the position of the milling
head in the x, y, and (if relevant) z axis. Data to drive the Prototyper is
extracted from files generated in PCB design software and stored in
HPGL or Gerber file format.

"Additive" processes also exist. The most common is the "semi-additive"


process. In this version, the unpatterned board has a thin layer of copper already
on it. A reverse mask is then applied. (Unlike a subtractive process mask, this
mask exposes those parts of the substrate that will eventually become the
traces.) Additional copper is then plated onto the board in the unmasked areas;
copper may be plated to any desired weight. Tin-lead or other surface platings
are then applied. The mask is stripped away and a brief etching step removes
the now-exposed original copper laminate from the board, isolating the
individual traces.

The additive process is commonly used for multi-layer boards as it facilitates


the plating-through of the holes (to produce conductive vias) in the circuit
board.

Lamination
Some PCBs have trace layers inside the PCB and are called multi-layer PCBs.
These are formed by bonding together separately etched thin boards.

Drilling
Holes through a PCB are typically drilled with tiny drill bits made of solid
tungsten carbide. The drilling is performed by automated drilling machines with
placement controlled by a drill tape or drill file. These computer-generated files
are also called numerically controlled drill (NCD) files or "Excellon files". The
drill file describes the location and size of each drilled hole. These holes are
often filled with annular rings to create vias. Vias allow the electrical and
thermal connection of conductors on opposite sides of the PCB.

When very small vias are required, drilling with mechanical bits is costly
because of high rates of wear and breakage. In this case, the vias may be
evaporated by lasers. Laser-drilled vias typically have an inferior surface finish
inside the hole. These holes are called micro vias.
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It is also possible with controlled-depth drilling, laser drilling, or by pre-drilling


the individual sheets of the PCB before lamination, to produce holes that
connect only some of the copper layers, rather than passing through the entire
board. These holes are called blind vias when they connect an internal copper
layer to an outer layer, or buried vias when they connect two or more internal
copper layers and no outer layers.

The walls of the holes, for boards with 2 or more layers, are plated with copper
to form plated-through holes that electrically connect the conducting layers of
the PCB. For multilayer boards, those with 4 layers or more, drilling typically
produces a smear comprised of the bonding agent in the laminate system.
Before the holes can be plated through, this smear must be removed by a
chemical de-smear process, or by plasma-etch.

Test
Unpopulated boards may be subjected to a bare-board test where each circuit
connection (as defined in a netlist) is verified as correct on the finished board.
For high-volume production, a Bed of nails tester, a fixture or a Rigid needle
adapter is used to make contact with copper lands or holes on one or both sides
of the board to facilitate testing. A computer will instruct the electrical test unit
to apply a small voltage to each contact point on the bed-of-nails as required,
and verify that such voltage appears at other appropriate contact points. A
"short" on a board would be a connection where there should not be one; an
"open" is between two points that should be connected but are not. For small- or
medium-volume boards, flying-probe and flying-grid testers use moving test
heads to make contact with the copper/silver/gold/solder lands or holes to verify
the electrical connectivity of the board under test.

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FIG; 3.2.1: PCB BOARD

3.2.2 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER:

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to


another through inductively coupled conductors — the transformer's coils or
"windings". Except for air-core transformers, the conductors are commonly
wound around a single iron-rich core, or around separate but magnetically-
coupled cores. A varying current in the first or "primary" winding creates a
varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer. This varying
magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the
"secondary" winding. This effect is called mutual induction.

If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the


secondary winding and electrical energy will flow from the primary circuit
through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage
in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP), and
is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary to the number of
turns in the primary as follows:

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Vs/Vp=Ns/Np eqn (3.1)

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an


alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than
NP, or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. Transformers come in a range
of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage
microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect
portions of national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles,
although the range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated
the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still
found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage.
Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes
long distance transmission economically practical.

FIG; 3.2.2 : STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

The transformer is based on two principles: firstly, that an electric current


can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing
magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil
(electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes
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the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The changing magnetic flux
extends to the secondary coil where a voltage is induced across its ends.

A simplified transformer design is shown to the left. A current passing through


the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are
wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron; this
ensures that most of the magnetic field lines produced by the primary current
are within the iron and pass through the secondary coil as well as the primary
coil.

INDUCTION LAW --The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be
calculated from Faraday's law of induction, which states that:

eqn (3.2)

where VS is the instantaneous voltage, NS is the number of turns in the secondary


coil and Φ equals the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of
the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, the flux is the
product of the magnetic field strength B and the area A through which it cuts.
The area is constant, being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer
core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of
the primary. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and
secondary coils in an ideal transformer, the instantaneous voltage across the
primary winding equals

eqn (3.2.a)

Taking the ratio of the two equations for VS and VP gives the basic equation for
stepping up or stepping down the voltage

eqn (3.2.b)

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3.2.3 Linear regulator

In electronics, a linear regulator is a voltage regulator based on an active


device (such as a bipolar junction transistor, field effect transistor or
vacuum tube) operating in its "linear region" (in contrast, a switching
regulator is based on a transistor forced to act as an on/off switch) or
passive devices like zener diodes operated in their breakdown region. The
regulating device is made to act like a variable resistor, continuously
adjusting a voltage divider network to maintain a constant output voltage.

Overview
The transistor (or other device) is used as one half of a potential divider to
control the output voltage, and a feedback circuit compares the output voltage
to a reference voltage in order to adjust the input to the transistor, thus keeping
the output voltage reasonably constant. This is inefficient: since the transistor is
acting like a resistor, it will waste electrical energy by converting it to heat. In
fact, the power loss due to heating in the transistor is the current times the
voltage dropped across the transistor. The same function can be performed more
efficiently by a switched-mode power supply (SMPS), but it is more complex
and the switching currents in it tend to produce electromagnetic interference. A
SMPS can easily provide more than 30A of current at voltages as low as 3V,
while for the same voltage and current, a linear regulator would be very bulky
and heavy.

Linear regulators exist in two basic forms: series regulators and shunt
regulators.

• Series regulators are the more common form. The series regulator works
by providing a path from the supply voltage to the load through a variable
resistance (the main transistor is in the "top half" of the voltage divider).
The power dissipated by the regulating device is equal to the power
supply output current times the voltage drop in the regulating device.

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• The shunt regulator works by providing a path from the supply voltage to
ground through a variable resistance (the main transistor is in the "bottom
half" of the voltage divider). The current through the shunt regulator is
diverted away from the load and flows uselessly to ground, making this
form even less efficient than the series regulator. It is, however, simpler,
sometimes consisting of just a voltage-reference diode, and is used in
very low-powered circuits where the wasted current is too small to be of
concern. This form is very common for voltage reference circuits.

All linear regulators require an input voltage at least some minimum amount
higher than the desired output voltage. That minimum amount is called the
drop-out voltage. For example, a common regulator such as the 7805 has an
output voltage of 5V, but can only maintain this if the input voltage remains
above about 7V. Its drop-out voltage is therefore 7V - 5V = 2V. When the
supply voltage is less than about 2V above the desired output voltage, as is the
case in low-voltage microprocessor power supplies, so-called low dropout
regulators (LDOs) must be used.

Common solid-state series voltage regulators are the LM78xx (for positive
voltages) and LM79xx (for negative voltages), and common fixed voltages are
5 V (for transistor-transistor logic circuits) and 12 V (for communications
circuits and peripheral devices such as disk drives). In fixed voltage regulators
the reference pin is tied to ground, whereas in variable regulators the reference
pin is connected to the centre point of a fixed or variable voltage divider fed by
the regulator's output. A variable voltage divider (such as a potentiometer)
allows the user to adjust the regulated voltage.

3.2.3.1 SIMPLE ZENER REGULATOR

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The image shows a simple zener voltage regulator. It is a shunt regulator and
operates by way of the zener diode's action of maintaining a constant voltage
across itself when the current through it is sufficient to take it into the zener
breakdown region. The resistor R1 supplies the zener current IZ as well as the
load current IR2 (R2 is the load). R1 can be calculated as -

FIG;3.2.3 : ZENER REGULATOR

eqn (3.3)

where, VZ is the zener voltage, and IR2 is the required load current.

This regulator is used for very simple low power applications where the
currents involved are very small and the load is permanently connected across
the zener diode (such as voltage reference or voltage source circuits). Once R1
has been calculated, removing R2 will cause the full load current (plus the zener
current) to flow through the diode and may exceed the diode's maximum
current rating thereby damaging it. The regulation of this circuit is also not very
good because the zener current (and hence the zener voltage) will vary
depending on VS and inversely depending on the load current.

3.2.3.2 SIMPLE SERIES REGULATOR

Adding an emitter follower stage to the simple zener regulator forms a


simple series voltage regulator and substantially improves the regulation of the
circuit. Here, the load current IR2 is supplied by the transistor whose base is now
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connected to the zener diode. Thus the transistor's base current (IB) forms the
load current for the zener diode and is much smaller than the current through
R2. This regulator is classified as "series" because the regulating element, viz.,
the transistor, appears in series with the load. R1 sets the zener current (IZ) and
is determined as –

FIG; 3.2.4; SERIES REGULATOR

eqn (3.4)

where, VZ is the zener voltage, IB is the transistor's base current and K = 1.2 to 2
(to ensure that R1 is low enough for adequate IB).

eqn (3.5)

where, IR2 is the required load current and is also the transistor's emitter current
(assumed to be equal to the collector current) and hFE(min) is the minimum
acceptable DC current gain for the transistor.

3.2.4 RECTIFIER

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to


direct current (DC), a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses
including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals.

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Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc
valves, and other components.

A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is


known as an inverter. When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking
the negative or positive portion of the waveform), the difference between the
term diode and the term rectifier is merely one of usage, i.e., the term rectifier
describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to DC. Almost all rectifiers
comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more efficiently
converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode. Before the
development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers, vacuum tube diodes and
copper(I) oxide or selenium rectifier stacks were used.

Early radio receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire
pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier
or "crystal detector". In gas heating systems flame rectification can be used to
detect a flame. Two metal electrodes in the outer layer of the flame provide a
current path and rectification of an applied alternating voltage, but only while
the flame is present.

3.2.4.1 Half Wave Rectification

In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is
passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input
waveform reaches the output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer.
Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase
supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply.

FIG; 3.2.5

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3.2.4.2 Full-wave rectification

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of


constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification
converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current), and is
more efficient. However, in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer, four
diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. (See
semiconductors, diode). Four rectifiers arranged this way are called a diode
bridge or bridge rectifier:

FIG; 3.2.6

For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes


back-to-back (i.e. anodes-to-anode or cathode-to-cathode) can form a full-wave
rectifier. Twice as many windings are required on the transformer secondary to
obtain the same output voltage compared to the bridge rectifier above.

FIG;3.2.7

eqn (3.6)

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3.2.5 ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR

An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor that uses an ionic conducting


liquid as one of its plates with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other
types. They are valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical
circuits. This is especially the case in power-supply filters, where they store
charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations in rectifier
output. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits whereAC
should be conducted but DC should not.

In aluminum electrolytic capacitors, the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on


the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric, and it is the thinness of
this layer that allows for a relatively high capacitance in a small volume. The
aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109
volts per meter. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in
high energy density.

Most electrolytic capacitors are polarized and may catastrophically fail if


voltage is incorrectly applied. This is because a reverse-bias voltage above 1 to
1.5 V will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical
reduction (see redox reactions). Following the loss of the dielectric material, the
capacitor will short circuit, and with sufficient short circuit current, the
electrolyte will rapidly heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to burst.
To minimize the likelihood of a polarized electrolytic being incorrectly inserted
into a circuit, polarity is indicated on the capacitor's exterior by a stripe with
minus signs and possibly arrowheads adjacent to the negative lead or terminal.
Also, the negative terminal lead of a radial electrolytic is shorter than the
positive lead. On a printed circuit board, it is customary to indicate the correct
orientation by using a square through-hole pad for the positive leadSpecial
capacitors designed for AC operation are available, usually referred to as "non-
polarized" or "NP" types. In these, full-thickness oxide layers are formed on
both the aluminum foil strips prior to assembly. On the alternate halves of the
AC cycles, one or the other of the foil strips acts as a blocking diode, preventing
reverse current from damaging the electrolyte of the other one. Essentially, a 10
microfarad AC capacitor behaves like two 20 microfarad DC capacitors in
inverse series.

And a round pad for the negative. Modern capacitors have a safety valve,
typically either a scored section of the can, or a specially designed end seal to
vent the hot gas/liquid, but ruptures can still be dramatic. An electrolytic can

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25

withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time, but will conduct significant
current and not act as a very good capacitor. Most will survive with no reverse
DC bias or with only AC voltage, but circuits should be designed so that there
is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. A constant
forward bias is preferable, and will increase the life of the capacitor.

3.2.6 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

A light-emitting diode (LED) , is an electronic light source. The LED was first
invented in Russia in the 1920s, and introduced in America as a practical
electronic component in 1962. Oleg Vladimirovich Losev was a radio
technician who noticed that diodes used in radio receivers emitted light when
current was passed through them. In 1927, he published details in a Russian
journal of the first ever LED. All early devices emitted low-intensity red light,
but modern LEDs are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infra red
wavelengths, with very high brightness.

LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. When the diode is forward biased
(switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released
in the form of light. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of
the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. The LED is
usually small in area (less than 1 mm2) with integrated optical components to
shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.

LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower
energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size and
faster switching. However, they are relatively expensive and require more
precise current and heat management than traditional light sources.

Applications of LEDs are diverse. They are used as low-energy and also for
replacements for traditional light sources in well-established applications such
as indicators and automotive lighting. The compact size of LEDs has allowed
new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high
switching rates are useful in communications technology.

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FIG;3.2.8(LED)

LED SYMBOL

3.2.6 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

In electronics, an integrated circuit (also known as IC, microcircuit,


microchip, silicon chip, or chip) is a miniaturized electronic circuit (consisting
mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components) that has been
manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material.
Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic equipment in use today and
have revolutionized the world of electronics.

A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of


individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a
substrate or circuit board.

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FIG;3.2.9(INTEGRATED CIRCUIT)

Integrated circuits were made possible by experimental discoveries which


showed that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum
tubes, and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor
device fabrication. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a
small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits
using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's mass production
capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the
rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.
There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and
performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are
printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed one transistor at a
time. Furthermore, much less material is used to construct a circuit as a
packaged IC die than as a discrete circuit. Performance is high since the
components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their
discrete counterparts), because the components are small and close together. As
of 2006, chip areas range from a few square mm to around 350 mm², with up to
1 million transistors per mm².

Integrated circuits were made possible by experimental discoveries which


showed that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum
tubes, and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor
device fabrication. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a
small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits
using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's mass production
capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the
rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.

There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and
performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are
printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed one transistor at a
time. Furthermore, much less material is used to construct a circuit as a
packaged IC die than as a discrete circuit. Performance is high since the
components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their
discrete counterparts), because the components are small and close together. As
of 2006, chip areas range from a few square mm to around 350 mm², with up to
1 million transistors per mm².

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FIG;3.2.8 (IC)

Invention
The integrated circuit was conceived by a radar scientist, Geoffrey W.A.
Dummer (1909-2002), working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the
British Ministry of Defence, and published at the Symposium on Progress in
Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.C. on May 7, 1952.He gave
many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas. The integrated circuit can be
credited as being invented by both Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert
Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor working independently of each other. Kilby
recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 and
successfully demonstrated the first working integrated circuit on September 12,
1958. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of
the integrated circuit. Robert Noyce also came up with his own idea of
integrated circuit, half a year later than Kilby. Noyce's chip had solved many
practical problems that the microchip developed by Kilby had not. Noyce's
chip, made at Fairchild, was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of
germanium.

Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when the German
engineer Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG) filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-
like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common
substrate arranged in a 2-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi discloses small
and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. A
commercial use of his patent has not been reported.

A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares (wafers), each
one containing a single miniaturized component. Components could then be
integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid. This
idea, which looked very promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by
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Jack Kilby, and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program (similar to 1951's
Project Tinkertoy). However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby
came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC.

Generations

SSI, MSI and LSI


The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors. Called "Small-
Scale Integration" (SSI), they used circuits containing transistors numbering in
the tens.

SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects, and vice-versa. Both the
Minuteman missile and Apollo program needed lightweight digital computers
for their inertial guidance systems; the Apollo guidance computer led and
motivated the integrated-circuit technology, while the Minuteman missile
forced it into mass-production.

These programs purchased almost all of the available integrated circuits from
1960 through 1963, and almost alone provided the demand that funded the
production improvements to get the production costs from $1000/circuit (in
1960 dollars) to merely $25/circuit (in 1963 dollars). They began to appear in
consumer products at the turn of the decade, a typical application being FM
inter-carrier sound processing in television receivers.

The next step in the development of integrated circuits, taken in the late 1960s,
introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors on each chip, called
"Medium-Scale Integration" (MSI).

They were attractive economically because while they cost little more to
produce than SSI devices, they allowed more complex systems to be produced
using smaller circuit boards, less assembly work (because of fewer separate
components), and a number of other advantages.

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Further development, driven by the same economic factors, led to "Large-Scale


Integration" (LSI) in the mid 1970s, with tens of thousands of transistors per
chip.

Integrated circuits such as 1K-bit RAMs, calculator chips, and the first
microprocessors, that began to be manufactured in moderate quantities in the
early 1970s, had under 4000 transistors. True LSI circuits, approaching 10000
transistors, began to be produced around 1974, for computer main memories
and second-generation microprocessors.

VLSI
The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and continuing
through the present, was "Very Large-Scale Integration" (VLSI). This could be
said to start with hundreds of thousands of transistors in the early 1980s, and
continues beyond several billion transistors as of 2007.

There was no single breakthrough that allowed this increase in complexity,


though many factors helped. Manufacturing moved to smaller rules and cleaner
fabs, allowing them to produce chips with more transistors with adequate yield,
as summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
(ITRS). Design tools improved enough to make it practical to finish these
designs in a reasonable time. The more energy efficient CMOS replaced NMOS
and PMOS, avoiding a prohibitive increase in power consumption. Better texts
such as the landmark textbook by Mead and Conway helped schools educate
more designers, among other factors.

In 1986 the first one megabit RAM chips were introduced, which contained
more than one million transistors. Microprocessor chips passed the million
transistor mark in 1989 and the billion transistor mark in 2005. The trend
continues largely unabated, with chips introduced in 2007 containing tens of
billions of memory transistors .

ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC


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To reflect further growth of the complexity, the term ULSI that stands for
"Ultra-Large Scale Integration" was proposed for chips of complexity of
more than 1 million transistors. To reflect further growth of the complexity, the
term ULSI that stands for "Ultra-Large Scale Integration" was proposed for
chips of complexity of more than 1 million transistors.

System-on-a-Chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit in which all the


components needed for a computer or other system are included on a single
chip. The design of such a device can be complex and costly, and building
disparate components on a single piece of silicon may compromise the
efficiency of some elements. However, these drawbacks are offset by lower
manufacturing and assembly costs and by a greatly reduced power budget:
because signals among the components are kept on-die, much less power is
required (see Packaging, above).

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers of active
electronic components that are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a
single circuit. Communication between layers uses on-die signaling, so power
consumption is much lower than in equivalent separate circuits. Judicious use of
short vertical wires can substantially reduce overall wire length for faster
operation.

Advances in integrated circuits


Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the microprocessors or
"cores", which control everything from computers to cellular phones to digital
microwave ovens. Digital memory chips and ASICs are examples of other
families of integrated circuits that are important to the modern information
society. While cost of designing and developing a complex integrated circuit is
quite high, when spread across typically millions of production units the
individual IC cost is minimized. The performance of ICs is high because the
small size allows short traces which in turn allows low power logic (such as
CMOS) to be used at fast switching speeds.

ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years, allowing
more circuitry to be packed on each chip. This increased capacity per unit area
can be used to decrease cost and/or increase functionality—see Moore's law
which, in its modern interpretation, states that the number of transistors in an
integrated circuit doubles every two years. In general, as the feature size
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shrinks, almost everything improves—the cost per unit and the switching power
consumption go down, and the speed goes up. However, ICs with nanometer-
scale devices are not without their problems, principal among which is leakage
current (see subthreshold leakage for a discussion of this), although these
problems are not insurmountable and will likely be solved or at least
ameliorated by the introduction of high-k dielectrics. Since these speed and
power consumption gains are apparent to the end user, there is fierce
competition among the manufacturers to use finer geometries. This process, and
the expected progress over the next few years, is well described by the
International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

Manufacture

Fabrication
The semiconductors of the periodic table of the chemical elements were
identified as the most likely materials for a solid state vacuum tube by
researchers like William Shockley at Bell Laboratories starting in the 1930s.
Starting with copper oxide, proceeding to germanium, then silicon, the
materials were systematically studied in the 1940s and 1950s. Today, silicon
monocrystals are the main substrate used for integrated circuits (ICs) although
some III-V compounds of the periodic table such as gallium arsenide are used
for specialized applications like LEDs, lasers, solar cells and the highest-speed
integrated circuits. It took decades to perfect methods of creating crystals
without defects in the crystalline structure of the semiconducting material.

Semiconductor ICs are fabricated in a layer process which includes these key
process steps:

a) Imaging
b) Deposition
c) Etching

The main process steps are supplemented by doping and cleaning. Mono-crystal
silicon wafers (or for special applications, silicon on sapphire or gallium
arsenide wafers) are used as the substrate. Photolithography is used to mark
different areas of the substrate to be doped or to have polysilicon, insulators or
metal (typically aluminum) tracks deposited on them.

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• Integrated circuits are composed of many overlapping layers, each


defined by photolithography, and normally shown in different colors.
Some layers mark where various dopants are diffused into the substrate
(called diffusion layers), some define where additional ions are implanted
(implant layers), some define the conductors (polysilicon or metal layers),
and some define the connections between the conducting layers (via or
contact layers). All components are constructed from a specific
combination of these layers.
• Capacitive structures, in form very much like the parallel conducting
plates of a traditional electrical capacitor, are formed according to the area
of the "plates", with insulating material between the plates. Capacitors of
a wide range of sizes are common on ICs.
• Meandering stripes of varying lengths are sometimes used to form on-
chip resistors, though most logic circuits do not need any resistors. The
ratio of the length of the resistive structure to its width, combined with its
sheet resistivity, determines the resistance.
• More rarely, inductive structures can be built as tiny on-chip coils, or
simulated by gyrators.

A random access memory is the most regular type of integrated circuit; the
highest density devices are thus memories; but even a microprocessor will have
memory on the chip. (See the regular array structure at the bottom of the first
image.) Although the structures are intricate – with widths which have been
shrinking for decades – the layers remain much thinner than the device widths.
The layers of material are fabricated much like a photographic process,
although light waves in the visible spectrum cannot be used to "expose" a layer
of material, as they would be too large for the features. Thus photons of higher
frequencies (typically ultraviolet) are used to create the patterns for each layer.
Because each feature is so small, electron microscopes are essential tools for a
process engineer who might be debugging a fabrication process.

Each device is tested before packaging using automated test equipment (ATE),
in a process known as wafer testing, or wafer probing. The wafer is then cut
into rectangular blocks, each of which is called a die. Each good die (plural
dice, dies, or die) is then connected into a package using aluminum (or gold)
bond wires which are welded to pads, usually found around the edge of the die.
After packaging, the devices go through final testing on the same or similar
ATE used during wafer probing. Test cost can account for over 25% of the cost
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of fabrication on lower cost products, but can be negligible on low yielding,


larger, and/or higher cost devices.

3.2.7 LASER DIODE

A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor similar to


that found in a light-emitting diode. The most common and practical type of
laser diode is formed from a p-n junction and powered by injected electric
current. These devices are sometimes referred to as injection laser diodes to
distinguish them from (optically) pumped laser diodes, which are more easily
produced in the laboratory.

A laser diode, like many other semiconductor devices, is formed by doping a


very thin layer on the surface of a crystal wafer. The crystal is doped to produce
an n-type region and a p-type region, one above the other, resulting in a p-n
junction, or diode.

The many types of diode lasers known today collectively form a subset of the
larger classification of semiconductor p-n junction diodes. Just as in any
semiconductor p-n junction diode, forward electrical bias causes the two species
of charge carrier - holes and electrons - to be "injected" from opposite sides of
the p-n junction into the depletion region, situated at its heart. Holes are injected
from the p-doped, and electrons from the n-doped, semiconductor. (A depletion
region, devoid of any charge carriers, forms automatically and unavoidably as a
result of the difference in chemical potential between n- and p-type
semiconductors wherever they are in physical contact.)

As charge injection is a distinguishing feature of diode lasers as compared to all


other lasers, diode lasers are traditionally and more formally called "injection
lasers." (This terminology differentiates diode lasers, e.g., from flashlamp-
pumped solid state lasers, such as the ruby laser. Interestingly, whereas the term
"solid-state" was extremely apt in differentiating 1950s-era semiconductor
electronics from earlier generations of vacuum electronics, it would not have
been adequate to convey unambiguously the unique characteristics defining
1960s-era semiconductor lasers.) When an electron and a hole are present in the
same region, they may recombine or "annihilate" with the result being
spontaneous emission — i.e., the electron may re-occupy the energy state of the
hole, emitting a photon with energy equal to the difference between the electron
and hole states involved. (In a conventional semiconductor junction diode, the
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energy released from the recombination of electrons and holes is carried away
as phonons, i.e., lattice vibrations, rather than as photons.) Spontaneous
emission gives the laser diode below lasing threshold similar properties to an
LED. Spontaneous emission is necessary to initiate laser oscillation, but it is
one among several sources of inefficiency once the laser is oscillating. The
difference between the photon-emitting semiconductor laser (or LED) and
conventional phonon-emitting (non-light-emitting) semiconductor junction
diodes lies in the use of a different type of semiconductor, one whose physical
and atomic structure confers the possibility for photon emission. These photon-
emitting semiconductors are the so-called "direct bandgap" semiconductors.
The properties of silicon and germanium, which are single-element
semiconductors, have bandgaps that do not align in the way needed to allow
photon emission and are not considered "direct." Other materials, the so-called
compound semiconductors, have virtually identical crystaline structures as
silicon or germanium but use alternating arrangements of two different atomic
species in a checkerboard-like pattern to break the symmetry. The transition
between the materials in the alternating pattern creates the critical "direct
bandgap" property. Gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, gallium antimonide,
and gallium nitride are all examples of compound semiconductor materials that
can be used to create junction diodes that emit light.

In the absence of stimulated emission (e.g., lasing) conditions, electrons and


holes may coexist in proximity to one another, without recombining, for a
certain time, termed the "upper-state lifetime" or "recombination time" (about a
nanosecond for typical diode laser materials), before they recombine. Then a
nearby photon with energy equal to the recombination energy can cause
recombination by stimulated emission. This generates another photon of the
same frequency, travelling in the same direction, with the same polarization and
phase as the first photon. This means that stimulated emission causes gain in an
optical wave (of the correct wavelength) in the injection region, and the gain
increases as the number of electrons and holes injected across the junction
increases. The spontaneous and stimulated emission processes are vastly more
efficient in direct bandgap semiconductors than in indirect bandgap
semiconductors, thus silicon is not a common material for laser diodes.

CHARACTERISTIC OF LASER DIODE


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Having analyzed the circuit in the section: "Laser diode power supply 4", I then
proceeded to try out a variety of typical visible laser diodes. For all the
undamaged laser diodes that I tested, leaving SBT open resulted in safe
feedback regulated operation at Vcc1 = Vcc2 = 7 V. But, depending on the
particular sample's photodiode sensitivity, optical output power varied widely.

While testing, I used a regulated power supply with adjustable current limit.
The voltage was set at 7 V and the current limit knob was used to ramp up the
input to the driver while monitoring laser diode current and/or feedback voltage
from the photodiode. This approach may have prevented damage to a laser
diode on more than one occasion.

Applications of laser diodes


Laser diodes are numerically the most common type of laser, with 2004 sales of
approximately 733 million diode lasers, as compared to 131,000 of other types
of lasers.

Laser diodes find wide use in telecommunication as easily modulated and easily
coupled light sources for fiber optics communication. They are used in various
measuring instruments, eg. rangefinders. Another common use is in barcode
readers. Visible lasers, typically red but later also green, are common as laser
pointers. Both low and high-power diodes are used extensively in the printing
industry both as light sources for scanning (input) of images and for very high-
speed and high-resolution printing plate (output) manufacturing. Infrared and
red laser diodes are common in CD players, CD-ROMs and DVD technology.
Violet lasers are used in HD DVD and Blu-ray technology. Diode lasers have
also found many applications in laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) for high-
speed, low-cost assessment or monitoring of the concentration of various
species in gas phase. High-power laser diodes are used in industrial applications
such as heat treating, cladding, seam welding and for pumping other lasers,
such as diode pumped solid state lasers.

Applications of laser diodes can be categorized in various ways. Most


applications could be served by larger solid state lasers or optical parametric
oscillators, but the low cost of mass-produced diode lasers makes them essential
for mass-market applications. Diode lasers can be used in a great many fields;
since light has many different properties (power, wavelength & spectral quality,
beam quality, polarization, etc.) it is interesting to classify applications by these
basic properties.
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Applications of laser diodes can be categorized in various ways. Most


applications could be served by larger solid state lasers or optical parametric
oscillators, but the low cost of mass-produced diode lasers makes them essential
for mass-market applications. Diode lasers can be used in a great many fields;
since light has many different properties (power, wavelength & spectral quality,
beam quality, polarization, etc.) it is interesting to classify applications by these
basic properties.

Medicine and especially Dentistry have found many new applications for diode
lasers . The shrinking size of the units and their increasing user friendliness
makes them very attractive to clinicians for minor soft tissue procedures. The
800nm - 980nm units have a high absorption rate for hemoglobin and thus make
them ideal for soft tissue applications, where good hemostasis is necessary.

Applications which may today or in the future make use of the coherence of
diode-laser-generated light include interferometric distance measurement,
holography, coherent communications, and coherent control of chemical
reactions.

Applications which may make use of "narrow spectral" properties of diode


lasers include range-finding, telecommunications, infra-red countermeasures,
spectroscopic sensing, generation of radio-frequency or terahertz waves, atomic
clock state preparation, quantum key cryptography, frequency doubling and
conversion, water purification (in the UV), and photodynamic therapy (where a
particular wavelength of light would cause a substance such as porphyrin to
become chemically active as an anti-cancer agent only where the tissue is
illuminated by light).

Applications where the desired quality of laser diodes is their ability to generate
ultra-short pulses of light by the technique known as "mode-locking" include
clock distribution for high-performance integrated circuits, high-peak-power
sources for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensing, arbitrary waveform
generation for radio-frequency waves, photonic sampling for analog-to-digital
conversion, and optical code-division-multiple-access systems for secure
communication.

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3.2.8 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

An operational amplifier, which is often called an op-amp, is a DC-coupled


high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and, usually,
a single output. Typically the output of the op-amp is controlled either by
negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output
voltage gain, or by positive feedback, which facilitates regenerative gain
and oscillation. High input impedance at the input terminals (ideally
infinite) and low output impedance (ideally zero) are important typical
characteristics.

Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used
in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC
op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume; however some
integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance
specifications may cost over $100 US in small quantities.

The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential


amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp, but with
2 outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from 3 op-amps), the
isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but which works
fine with common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp), and
negative feedback amplifier (usually built from 1 or more op-amps and a
resistive feedback network).

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FIG;3.2.9 (IC’S)

3.2.8.1 IDEAL OP-AMP

Shown on the right is an example of an ideal operational amplifier. The main


part in an amplifier is the dependent voltage source that increases in relation to
the voltage drop across Rin, thus amplifying the voltage difference between V +
and V − . Many uses have been found for operational amplifiers and an ideal op-
amp seeks to characterize the physical phenomena that make op-amps useful.

FIG;3.2.10 (INTERNAL DIAGRAM OF OP AMP)

Supply voltages Vcc + and Vcc − are used internally to implement the dependent
voltage sources. The positive source Vs + acts as an upper bound on the output,
and the negative source Vs − acts as a lower bound on the output. The internal Vs

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+ and Vs − connections are not shown here and will vary by implementation of
the operational amplifier.

Method of application
The amplifier's differential inputs consist of V + input and a V − input, and
generally the op-amp amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two.
This is called the differential input voltage. Operational amplifiers are usually
used with feedback loops where the output of the amplifier would influence one
of its inputs. The output voltage and the input voltage it influences settles down
to a stable voltage after being connected for some time, when they satisfy the
internal circuit of the op amp.

In its most common use, the op-amp's output voltage is controlled by feeding a
fraction of the output signal back to the inverting input. This is known as
negative feedback. If that fraction is zero (i.e., there is no negative feedback)
the amplifier is said to be running open loop and its output is the differential
input voltage multiplied by the total gain of the amplifier, as shown by the
following equation:

where V + is the voltage at the non-inverting terminal, V − is the voltage at the


inverting terminal and G is the total open-loop gain of the amplifier.

Since the magnitude of the open-loop gain is typically very large, open-loop
operation results in op-amp saturation (see below in Nonlinear imperfections)
unless the differential input voltage is extremely small. Finley's law states that
"When the inverting and non-inverting inputs of an op-amp are not equal, its
output is in saturation." Additionally, the precise magnitude of this gain is not
well controlled by the manufacturing process, and so it is impractical to use an
operational amplifier as a stand-alone differential amplifier. Instead, op-amps
are usually used in negative-feedback configurations.

Most single, dual and quad op-amps available have a standardized pin-out
which permits one type to be substituted for another without wiring changes. A
specific op-amp may be chosen for its open loop gain, bandwidth, noise
performance, input impedance, power consumption, or a compromise between
any of these factors.
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3.2.9 ELECTROLUMINESCENT WIRE

Electroluminescent wire (often abbreviated to EL wire) is a thin copper wire


coated in a phosphor which glows when an AC Current is applied to it. It can be
used in a wide variety of applications- vehicle and/or structure decoration,
safety and emergency lighting, toys, clothing etc - much as rope light or
Christmas lights are often used. Unlike these types of strand lights, EL wire is
not a series of points but produces a 360 degree unbroken line of visible light.
Its thin diameter makes it flexible and ideal for use in a variety of applications
such as clothing or costumes.

Structure

EL wire's construction consists of five major components. First is a solid-


copper wire core. This core is coated with phosphor. A very fine wire is spiral-
wound around the phosphor-coated copper core. This fine wire is electrically
isolated from the copper core. Surrounding this 'sandwich' of copper core,
phosphor, and fine copper wire is a clear PVC sleeve.

Finally, surrounding this thin, clear PVC sleeve is a colored translucent PVC
sleeve. An electric potential of approximately 90 - 120 volts at about 1000 Hz is
applied between the copper core wire and the fine wire that surrounds the
phosphor coated copper core. The wire can be modelled as a coaxial capacitor
with about 1 nF of capacitance per foot, and the rapid charging and discharging
of this capacitor excites the phosphor to emit light.

A resonant oscillator is typically used to generate the high voltage drive signal.
Because of the capacitance load of the EL wire, using an inductive (coiled)
transformer makes the driver a tuned LC oscillator, and therefore very efficient.
The efficiency of EL wire is very high, and thus a few hundred feet of EL wire
can be driven by AA batteries for several hours.

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FIG;3.2.11 (PVC CABLE)

3.2.10 ELECTRONICS\ CAPACITORS

A capacitor (historically known as a "condenser") is a device that stores energy


in an electric field, by accumulating an internal imbalance of electric charge. It
is made of two conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). Using the same
analogy of water flowing through a pipe, a capacitor can be thought of as a
tank, in which the charge can be thought of as a volume of water in the tank.
The tank can "charge" and "discharge" in the same manner as a capacitor does
to an electric charge. A mechanical analogy is that of a spring. The spring holds
a charge when it is pulled back.

When voltage exists one end of the capacitor is getting drained and the other
end is getting filled with charge.This is known as charging. Charging creates a
charge imbalance between the two plates and creates a reverse voltage that
stops the capacitor from charging. As a result, when capacitors are first
connected to voltage, charge flows only to stop as the capacitor becomes
charged. When a capacitor is charged, current stops flowing and it becomes an
open circuit. It is as if the capacitor gained infinite resistance.

You can also think of a capacitor as a fictional battery in series with a fictional
resistance. Starting the charging procedure with the capacitor completely
discharged, the applied voltage is not counteracted by the fictional battery,
because the fictional battery still has zero voltage, and therefore the charging
current is at its maximum. As the charging continues, the voltage of the
fictional battery increases, and counteracts the applied voltage, so that the
charging current decreases as the fictional battery's voltage increases. Finally
the fictional battery's voltage equals the applied voltage, so that no current can
flow into, nor out of, the capacitor. Just as the capacitor charges it can be
discharged. Think of the capacitor being a fictional battery that supplies at first
a maximum current to the "load", but as the discharging continues the voltage
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43

of the fictional battery keeps decreasing, and therefore the discharge current
also decreases. Finally the voltage of the fictional battery is zero, and therefore
the discharge current also is then zero.

Capacitance

Just as the capacitor charges it can be discharged. Think of the capacitor being a
fictional battery that supplies at first a maximum current to the "load", but as
the discharging continues the voltage of the fictional battery keeps decreasing,
and therefore the discharge current also decreases. Finally the voltage of the
fictional battery is zero, and therefore the discharge current also is then zero.

C=Q/V eqn (3.7)

Where C is the capacitance in farads, V is the potential in volts, and Q is the


charge measured in coulombs. Solving this equation for the potential gives:

V=Q/C eqn (3.8)

The impedance of a capacitor at any given angular frequency is given by:

eqn (3.9)

where j is , ω is the angular frequency and C is the capacitance.

The charge in the capacitor at any given time is the accumulation of all of the
current which has flowed through the capacitor. Therefore, the potential as a
function of time can be written as:

eqn(3.10)

Where i(t) is the current flowing through the capacitor as a function of time.

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44

eqn(3.11)

This equation is often used in another form. By differentiating with respect to


time:

Capacitor Labeling
Capacitors are labelled in several different ways.

Ceramic Disc
Sometimes labeled implicitly, usually labeled with number scheme (223 = 22
000 pF, where 3 represents the number of "0" for instance) The letters "mfd" are
often used in place of "µF".

Ceramic Dipped
These usually use the number code. In the above example, the smallest one says
"104". This means 10 0000 pF = 100,000 pF. M is a tolerance. The middle one
is labeled 393. This means 39 000 pF. The last is 223, meaning 22 000 pF. K is
the tolerance. It also has a 100 V working voltage labeled.

Resin-potted mylar/polyester
These are usually labeled explicitly, as there is lots of surface area to write on.
This one is 4700 pF, 250 V, 5 kV test. The frequency f0 = 21 MHz is the
frequency at which it stops behaving like a capacitor, and more like an inductor.

Electrolytic
Usually electrolytic caps are labeled explicitly, making identification
easy.Electrolytics are available in axial and radial-leaded packages. In axial-
leaded parts, the negative terminal is indicated by a minus sign printed on the
package, or by a shorter lead.

Radial-lead parts often uses color code like resistors. The polarity is usually
indicated by arrows on a stripe pointing to the negative terminal.

Tantalum

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Tantalum capacitors have high capacitance and low ESR, but low operating
voltages. When tantalum capacitors fail, it tends to be "spectacular," they
essentially blow up.

Construction
The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor constructed of two identical plane
electrodes of area A at constant spacing D is approximately equal to the
following:

eqn(3.12)

where C is the capacitance in farads, ε0 is the Permittivity of Space, εr is the


Dielectric Constant, A is the area of the capacitor plates, and D is the distance
between them.

A dielectric is the material between the two charged objects. Dielectrics are
insulators. They impede the flow of charge in normal operation. Sometimes,
when a too large voltage has been reached, charge starts flowing. This is called
dielectric breakdown and destroys the capacitor. Beginners sometimes
misunderstand this. Timing circuits do measure the rate at which a capacitor
charges, but they measure a threshold voltage instead of allowing the voltage to
build up until dielectric breakdown. (A device which does function this way is a
spark gap.)

No charge should ever flow from one plate to the other. Although a current does
flow through the capacitor, charges are not actually moving from one plate to
the other. As charges are added to one plate, their electric field displaces like
charges off of the other plate. This is called a displacement current.

3.2.11 SWITCH

In electronics, a switch is an electrical component which can break an electrical


circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to

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46

another.The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated


electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. Each set
of contacts can be in one of two states: either 'closed' meaning the contacts are
touching and electricity can flow between them, or 'open', meaning the contacts
are separated and nonconducting.

Since the advent of digital logic in the 1950s, the term has spread to a variety of
digital active devices such as transistors and logic gates whose function is to
change their output state between two logic levels or connect different signal
lines, and even computers, network switches, whose function is to provide
connections between different ports in a computer network.[3] The term
'switched' is also applied to telecommunications networks, and signifies a
network that is circuit switched, providing dedicated circuits for communication
between end nodes, such as the public switched telephone network. The
common feature of all these usages is they refer to devices that control a binary
state: they are either on or off, closed or open, connected or not connected.

3.2.11.1 Biased switches

A biased switch is one containing a spring that returns the actuator to a certain
position. The "on-off" notation can be modified by placing parentheses around
all positions other than the resting position. For example, an (on)-off-(on)
switch can be switched on by moving the actuator in either direction away from
the centre, but returns to the central off position when the actuator is released.

The momentary push-button switch is a type of biased switch. The most


common type is a push-to-make switch, which makes contact when the button
is pressed and breaks when the button is released. A push-to-break switch, on
the other hand, breaks contact when the button is pressed and makes contact
when it is released. An example of a push-to-break switch is a button used to
release a door held open by an electromagnet. Changeover push button switches
do exist but are even less common.

3.2.11.2 Special types

Switches can be designed to respond to any type of mechanical stimulus: for


example, vibration (the trembler switch), tilt, air pressure, fluid level (the float

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switch), the turning of a key (key switch), linear or rotary movement (the limit
switch or microswitch), or presence of a magnetic field (the reed switch).

3.2.11.3 Mercury tilt switch

The mercury switch consists of a drop of mercury inside a glass bulb with 2
contacts. The two contacts pass through the glass, and are connected by the
mercury when the bulb is tilted to make the mercury roll on to them.

This type of switch performs much better than the ball tilt switch, as the liquid
metal connection is unaffected by dirt, debris and oxidation, it wets the contacts
ensuring a very low resistance bounce free connection, and movement and
vibration do not produce a poor contact.These types can be used for precision
works

1. Knife switch
2. Intermediate switch

OFF

ON
FIG ;3.2.12

3. Power switching

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When a switch is designed to switch significant power, the transitional state of


the switch as well as the ability to stand continuous operating currents must be
considered. When a switch is in the on state its resistance is near zero and very
little power is dropped in the contacts; when a switch is in the off state its
resistance is extremely high and even less power is dropped in the contacts.
However when the switch is flicked the resistance must pass through a state
where briefly a quarter (or worse if the load is not purely resistive) of the load's
rated power is dropped in the switch.

Power switches usually come in two types. A momentary on-off switch (such as
on a laser pointer) usually takes the form of a button and only closes the circuit
when the button is depressed. A regular on-off switch (such as on a flashlight)
has a constant on-off feature. Dual-action switches incorporate both of these
features.

3.2.12 THERMISTOR

A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies with temperature. The


word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor. Thermistors are widely used as
inrush current limiters, temperature sensors, self-resetting overcurrent
protectors, and self-regulating heating elements.

Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the


material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use
pure metals. The temperature response is also different; RTDs are useful over
larger temperature ranges, while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision
within a limited temperature range.

Basic operation
Assuming, as a first-order approximation, that the relationship between
resistance and temperature is linear, then:

ΔR = Kδt eqn(3.13)

ΔR = change in resistance
ΔT = change in temperature
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49

k = first-order temperature coefficient of resistance

Thermistors can be classified into two types depending on the sign of k. If k is


positive, the resistance increases with increasing temperature, and the device is
called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor, or posistor. If k is
negative, the resistance decreases with increasing temperature, and the device is
called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. Resistors that are
not thermistors are designed to have a k as close to zero as possible, so that their
resistance remains nearly constant over a wide temperature range.

FIG : 3.2.14 (THYRISTOR SYMBOL)

3.2.13 IC 7805

The 78xx (also sometimes known as LM78xx) series of devices is a family of


self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits. The 78xx family
is a very popular choice for many electronic circuits which require a regulated
power supply, due to their ease of use and relative cheapness. When specifying
individual ICs within this family, the xx is replaced with a two-digit number,
which indicates the output voltage the particular device is designed to provide
(for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts).
The 78xx line are positive voltage regulators, meaning that they are designed to
produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. There is a
related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negative voltage
regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide both
positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit, if necessary.

78xx ICs have three terminals and are most commonly found in the TO220
form factor, although smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 packages are also
available from some manufacturers. These devices typically support an input
voltage which can be anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output
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voltage, up to a maximum of 35 or 40 volts, and can typically provide up to


around 1 or 1.5 amps of current (though smaller or larger packages may have a
lower or higher current rating).

FIG;3.15(IC 7805)

Advantages

The 78xx series has several key advantages over many other voltage regulator
circuits which have resulted in its popularity:

• 78xx series ICs do not require any additional components to provide a


constant, regulated source of power, making them easy to use, as well as
economical, and also efficient uses of circuit board real estate. By
contrast, most other voltage regulators require several additional
components to set the output voltage level, or to assist in the regulation
process. Some other designs (such as a switching power supply) can
require not only a large number of components but also substantial
engineering expertise to implement correctly as well.

• 78xx series ICs have built-in protection against a circuit drawing too
much power. They also have protection against overheating and short-
circuits, rendering them "essentially indestructible" under most
circumstances. In some cases, the current-limiting features of the 78xx
devices can provide protection not only for the 78xx itself, but also for
other parts of the circuit it is used in, preventing other components from
being damaged as well.

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Disadvantages
The 78xx devices have a few drawbacks which can make them unsuitable or
less desirable for some applications:

• The input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage by some
minimum amount (typically 2 volts). This can make these devices
unsuitable for powering some devices from certain types of power
sources (for example, powering a circuit which requires 5 volts using 6-
volt batteries will not work using a 7805).
• As they are based on a linear regulator design, the input current required
is always the same as the output current. As the input voltage must always
be higher than the output voltage, this means that the total power (voltage
multiplied by current) going into the 78xx will be more than the output
power provided. The extra input power is dissipated as heat. This means
both that for some applications an adequate heatsink must be provided,
and also that a (often substantial) portion of the input power is wasted
during the process, rendering them less efficient than some other types of
power supplies. When the input voltage is significantly higher than the
regulated output voltage (for example, powering a 7805 using a 24 volt
power source), this inefficiency can be a significant issue.

• Even in larger packages, 78xx integrated circuits cannot supply as much


power as many designs which use discrete components, and therefore are
generally not appropriate for applications which require more than a few
amps of current.

Individual Devices in the Series


There are several common configurations for 78xx ICs, including 7805 (5 volt),
7806 (6 volt), 7808 (8 volt), 7809 (9 volt), 7810 (10 volt), 7812 (12 volt), 7815
(15 volt), 7818 (18 volt), and 7824 (24 volt) versions. The 7805 is very
commonly used, as its regulated 5 volt supply can provide an easy and useful
power source for most TTL components.

Some manufacturers also produce less common variations on the 78xx design,
including lower-power versions such as the LM78Mxx series (500mA) and
LM78Lxx series (100mA) from National Semiconductor. Some devices also

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52

provide slightly different voltages than usual, such as the LM78L62 (6.2 volts)
and LM78L82 (8.2 volts).

Unrelated Devices
Despite similar names, it should be noted that the LM78S40 device from
National Semiconductor is not part of the usual 78xx family, and does not use
the same design. It is intended to be used as a component in switching regulator
designs, and is not a linear regulator like other 78xx devices. Likewise, the
7803SR from Datel is actually a full switching power supply module (designed
as a drop-in replacement for 78xx chips), and not actually a linear regulator like
the 78xx ICs.

MICRO SWITCH

A micro switch is a generic term used to refer to an electric switch that is able
to be actuated by very little physical force. They are very common due to their
low cost and extreme durability, typically greater than 1 million cycles and up
to 10 million cycles for heavy duty models. This durability is a natural
consequence of the design. Internally a stiff metal strip must be bent to activate
the switch. This produces a very distinctive clicking sound and a very crisp feel.
When pressure is removed the metal strip springs back to its original state.
Common applications of micro switches include computer mouse buttons and
arcade game joysticks and buttons. Micro switches are commonly used in
tamper switches on gate valves on fire sprinkler systems and other water pipe
systems, where it is necessary to know if a valve has been opened or shut. They
have also been used as anti-handling devices in boobytrapped improvised
explosive devices manufactured by paramilitary groups e.g. the Provisional IRA
during The Troubles.

The defining feature of micro switches is that a relatively small movement at


the actuator button produces a relative large movement at the electrical contacts,
which occurs at high speed (regardless of the speed of actuation). Most
successful designs also exhibit hysteresis, meaning that a small reversal of the
actuator is insufficient to reverse the contacts; there must be a significant
movement in the opposite direction. Both of these characteristics help to
achieve a clean and reliable interruption to the switched circuit.

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The first micro switch was invented by Peter McGall in 1932 in Freeport,
Illinois. McGall was an employee of the Burgess Battery Company at the time.
In 1937 he started the company MICRO SWITCH, which still exists as of 2009.
It is now owned by Honeywell Sensing and Control.

The microswitch, which is used to control, regulation, precision engineering,


devices, and cars, is an electrical switch that is designed to be operated by the
physical movement of mechanical devices, it's usually placement in small
spaces. The principal characteristics of the standard microswitches are that it
usually works with currents from 0.1A to 15A, it resists temperatures between
-30 and 80 Celsius degrees. Nowadays exists a wide range of microswitches for
specific applications like level sensors or waterproof switches.

FIG;3.16 (SWITCH)

3.2.15 MICROPHONE

A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike (pronounced /ˈmaɪk/) or—


more recently—mic, is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts
sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such
as telephones, tape recorders, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and
recorded audio engineering, in radio and television broadcasting and in
computers for recording voice, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as
ultrasonic checking.

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The most common design today uses a thin membrane which vibrates in
response to sound pressure. This movement is subsequently translated into an
electrical signal. Most microphones in use today for audio use electromagnetic
induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser microphone,
pictured right), piezoelectric generation, or light modulation to produce the
signal from mechanical vibration.

FIG;3.2.17 (CONDENSER MICROPHONE)

3.2.15.1 CARBON MICROPHONES

A carbon microphone, formerly used in telephone handsets, is


a capsule containing carbon granules pressed between two metal plates. A
voltage is applied across the metal plates, causing a small current to flow
through the carbon. One of the plates, the diaphragm, vibrates in sympathy
with incident sound waves, applying a varying pressure to the carbon. The
changing pressure deforms the granules, causing the contact area between
each pair of adjacent granules to change, and this causes the electrical
resistance of the mass of granules to change. The changes in resistance cause
a corresponding change in the voltage across the two plates, and hence in the
current flowing through the microphone, producing the electrical signal.
Carbon microphones were once commonly used in telephones; they have
extremely low-quality sound reproduction and a very limited frequency
response range, but are very robust devices.

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Unlike other microphone types, the carbon microphone can also be used as a
type of amplifier, using a small amount of sound energy to produce a larger
amount of electrical energy. Carbon microphones found use as early telephone
repeaters, making long distance phone calls possible in the era before vacuum
tubes. These repeaters worked by mechanically coupling a magnetic telephone
receiver to a carbon microphone: the faint signal from the receiver was
transferred to the microphone, with a resulting stronger electrical signal to send
down the line. (One illustration of this amplifier effect was the oscillation
caused by feedback, resulting in an audible squeal from the old "candlestick"
telephone if its earphone was placed near the carbon microphone.

3.2.15.2 PIEZO ELECTRIC MICROPHONES

A crystal microphone uses the phenomenon of piezoelectricity—the


ability of some materials to produce a voltage when subjected to pressure—to
convert vibrations into an electrical signal. An example of this is Rochelle salt
(potassium sodium tartrate), which is a piezoelectric crystal that works as a
transducer, both as a microphone and as a slimline loudspeaker component.
Crystal microphones were once commonly supplied with vacuum tube (valve)
equipment, such as domestic tape recorders. Their high output impedance
matched the high input impedance (typically about 10 megohms) of the vacuum
tube input stage well. They were difficult to match to early transistor
equipment, and were quickly supplanted by dynamic microphones for a time,
and later small electret condenser devices. The high impedance of the crystal
microphone made it very susceptible to handling noise, both from the
microphone itself and from the connecting cable. Piezo transducers are often
used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic musical
instruments, to sense drum hits, for triggering electronic samples, and to record
sound in challenging environments, such as underwater under high pressure.
Saddle-mounted pickups on acoustic guitars are generally piezos that contact
the strings passing over the saddle. This type of microphone is different from
magnetic coil pickups commonly visible on typical electric guitars, which use
magnetic induction rather than mechanical coupling to pick up vibration.

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3.2.15.3 LASER MICROPHONE

Laser microphones are often portrayed in movies as spy


gadgets. A laser beam is aimed at the surface of a window or other plane
surface that is affected by sound. The slight vibrations of this surface displace
the returned beam, causing it to trace the sound wave. The vibrating laser spot is
then converted back to sound. In a more robust and expensive implementation,
the returned light is split and fed to an interferometer, which detects frequency
changes due to the Doppler effect. The former implementation is a tabletop
experiment; the latter requires an extremely stable laser and precise optics.

3.2.16 LOUD SPEAKER

A loudspeaker is an electroacoustical transducer that converts an electrical


signal to sound. The term loudspeaker can refer to individual transducers
(known as drivers), or to complete systems consisting of an enclosure
incorporating one or more drivers and electrical filter components.
Loudspeakers (and other electroacoustic transducers) are the most variable
elements in a modern audio system and are usually responsible for most audible
differences when comparing systems.

FIG3.2.18( LOUDSPEAKER)

To adequately reproduce a wide range of frequencies, most loudspeaker


systems require more than one driver, particularly for high sound pressure level
or high accuracy. Individual drivers are used to reproduce different frequency
ranges. The drivers are named subwoofers (very low frequencies), woofers (low
frequencies), mid-range speakers (middle frequencies), tweeters (high

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frequencies) and sometimes supertweeters optimized for the highest audible


frequencies.

The terms for different speaker drivers differ depending on the application. In
2-way loudspeakers, there is no "mid-range" driver, so the task of reproducing
the midrange sounds falls upon the woofer and tweeter. Home stereos use the
designation "tweeter" for high frequencies whereas professional audio systems
for concerts may designate high frequency drivers as "HF" or "highs" or
"horns".

When multiple drivers are used in a system, a "filter network", called a


crossover, separates the incoming signal into different frequency ranges, and
routes them to the appropriate driver.

A loudspeaker system with n separate frequency bands is described as "n-


way speakers": a 2-way system will have woofer and tweeter speakers; a 3-way
system is either a combination of woofer, mid-range and tweeter or subwoofer,
woofer and tweeter.

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CHAPTER-4

BASIC PROJECT CONSTRUCTION &TESTING

The major blocks of our system are as follows:-

4.1 HARDWARE

A description of the hardware and circuitry used in this project follows.


Resistor, capacitor and diode values are ommitted because they need to tuned
depending on the hardware used. The specific use for each component is
documented.

FIG; 4.1 : Microphone Amplifier

The first step in transmitting sound is to digitize soundwaves. For this we used
an electret microphone purchased from Radtronics. Frequent shoppers at Tito's
place downtown know that finding spec sheets for products there is impossible.
The microphone he sold us had three leads, which after considerable angst we
decided were for power, ground, and signal. The signal coming off the mic was

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59

far too low to be read (with any degree of precision) by the analog to digital
converter. So of course, an amplifier is needed. Before the signal is put through
the amplifier however it is first put through a capicitor to remove DC, and then
through a voltage divider to appropriately bias the signal. A LF353 op-amp is
used to boost the signal, the gain is adjusted by the resistors and for the mystery
microphone the gain is around 50-100 (depending on how much popping and
how much quality you want).

FIG; 4.2: Laser Driver

After the A/D converter translates the mic signal into 8 bits, the MCU generates
the appropriate bits to send (including start and stop bits) and applies them to
the laser driver circuit a 5V and 0V signals. The BJT in this circuit turns on at
5V and provides the proper current according to the diode and resitor values.

FIG; 4.3 : Receiver


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A photo diode detects the laser pulses in a different (distant) location. This
signal is put through a comparator in order to generate solid 5V and 0V values
which are applied to the receive pin on the microcontroller.

FIG; 4.4: Laser Driver

Once the signal is put through the DAC (not shown, it's a simple ladder), it is
boosted and low pass filtered (to improve sound quality).

(1) Power Supply: - We will need a +5V/500mA power supply for our
project. For this purpose we will use a step down transformer to
convert 220VAC/50Hz into 12VAC. The out of transformer is rectified
through bridge rectifier using diode 1N4001. Linear voltage regulator
IC LM7805 is used to provide a stable regulated +5V supply for
microcontroller and other parts in the project.

(2) LED: - In our project we will be using a LED for displaying the
LASER COMMUNICATION.

(3) LASER DIODE : - In our project we will use LASER DIODE for
sensing effect of LASER communication . These LASER DIODE
basically used for LASER LIGHT which is required for LASER
COMMUNICATION.

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(4) AMPLIFIER & FILTER: - The function of electronics amplifier &


filter is to amplify the weak signal received by electrodes without
noise. The amplification and filtering is done in multiple stage.

FIG; 4.5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LASER COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


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(5) Transmitter

A laser diode needs a certain value of current, called the threshold


current, before it emits laser light. A further increase in this current
produces a greater light output. The relationship between output power
and current in a laser diode is very linear, once the current is above the
threshold, giving a low distortion when the beam is amplitude
modulated. For example, the 65Onm 5mW laser diode used in this
project has a typical threshold current of 3OmA and produces its full
output when the current is raised by approximately 1OmA above the
threshold to 4OmA. Further increasing the current will greatly reduce
the life of the laser diode, and exceeding the absolute maximum of
8OmA will destroy it instantly. Laser diodes are very fragile and will
not survive electrostatic discharges and momentary surges!

However, if used within specifications, the typical life of one of these


lasers is around 20,000 hours. In the transmitter circuit the laser diode
is supplied via an adjustable constant-current source. Since the lasing
threshold also varies with temperature, a 68ohm NTC thermistor is
included to compensate for changes in ambient temperature. Note that
the metal housing for the laser diode and the lens also acts as a
heatsink. The laser diode should not be powered without the metal
housing in place. The quiescent laser diode current is controlled by Q2,
in turn driven by the buffer stage of 1C2b. The DC voltage as set by
VR2 appears at the base of Q2, which determines the current through
the transistor and therefore the laser diode. Increasing the voltage at
VR1 reduces the laser current. The setting of VR1 determines the
quiescent brightness of the laser beam, and therefore the overall
sensitivity of the system.

The audio modulation voltage is applied to the cathode of the laser


diode, which varies the laser current around its set point by around +/-
3mA. The modu- lation voltage is from the emitter of Q 1, which is an
emitter follower stage driven by the audio amplifier stage of 1C2a.
Diodes D4 to D7 limit the modulating voltage to +/-2V, while C4 and
C5 block the DC voltages at the emitter of Q 1 and the cathode of the
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63

laser diode. The audio signal is coupled to the laser diode via R10,
which limits the maximum possible variation in the laser diode current
to a few milliamps.

LED1 gives an indication of the modulating voltage. Diodes D2, D3


and resistor R8 limit the current through the LED and enhance the
brightness changes so the modulation is obvious. The LED flickers in
sympathy with the sound received by the microphone, giving an
indication that a modulating volt- age is present.

The inverting amplifier of 1C2a includes a form of compression, in


which the output level is relatively constant and independent of how
soft or loud the audio level is at the microphone. This is achieved by
FET Q3 and its associated circuitry.

The cascaded voltage doubler of C9, D8, D9 and C8 rectifies the audio
signal at the emitter of Ql, and the resulting negative DC voltage is fed
to the gate of Q3. An increase in the audio signal will increase the
negative bias to Q3, increasing its drain-source resistance. Because the
gain of 1C2a is determined by R7 and the series resistance of R5 and
Q3, increasing the effective resistance of Q3 will lower the gain.

Since the compression circuit takes time to respond, the clamping


network of D4-D7 is still needed to protect against sudden voltage
increases. This system is rather similar to the compression used in
portable tape recorders.

The electret microphone is powered through R1 and is coupled to the


non inverting input of 1C2a via C6. This input is held at a fixed DC
voltage to give a DC output to bias Ql.

The supply voltage to the transmitter circuit is regulated by ICI, a 5V


three terminal regulator.

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(6) Transmitter

A laser diode needs a certain value of current, called the threshold


current, before it emits laser light. A further increase in this current
produces a greater light output. The relationship between output power
and current in a laser diode is very linear, once the current is above the
threshold, giving a low distortion when the beam is amplitude
modulated. For example, the 65Onm 5mW laser diode used in this
project has a typical threshold current of 3OmA and produces its full
output when the current is raised by approximately 1OmA above the
threshold to 4OmA. Further increasing the current will greatly reduce
the life of the laser diode, and exceeding the absolute maximum of
8OmA will destroy it instantly. Laser diodes are very fragile and will
not survive electrostatic discharges and momentary surges!

However, if used within specifications, the typical life of one of these


lasers is around 20,000 hours. In the transmitter circuit the laser diode
is supplied via an adjustable constant-current source. Since the lasing
threshold also varies with temperature, a 68ohm NTC thermistor is
included to compensate for changes in ambient temperature. Note that
the metal housing for the laser diode and the lens also acts as a
heatsink. The laser diode should not be powered without the metal
housing in place. The quiescent laser diode current is controlled by Q2,
in turn driven by the buffer stage of 1C2b. The DC voltage as set by
VR2 appears at the base of Q2, which determines the current through
the transistor and therefore the laser diode. Increasing the voltage at
VR1 reduces the laser current. The setting of VR1 determines the
quiescent brightness of the laser beam, and therefore the overall
sensitivity of the system.

The audio modulation voltage is applied to the cathode of the laser


diode, which varies the laser current around its set point by around +/-
3mA. The modu- lation voltage is from the emitter of Q 1, which is an
emitter follower stage driven by the audio amplifier stage of 1C2a.
Diodes D4 to D7 limit the modulating voltage to +/-2V, while C4 and
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C5 block the DC voltages at the emitter of Q 1 and the cathode of the


laser diode. The audio signal is coupled to the laser diode via R10,
which limits the maximum possible variation in the laser diode current
to a few milliamps.

LED1 gives an indication of the modulating voltage. Diodes D2, D3


and resistor R8 limit the current through the LED and enhance the
brightness changes so the modulation is obvious. The LED flickers in
sympathy with the sound received by the microphone, giving an
indication that a modulating volt- age is present.

The inverting amplifier of 1C2a includes a form of compression, in


which the output level is relatively constant and independent of how
soft or loud the audio level is at the microphone. This is achieved by
FET Q3 and its associated circuitry.

The cascaded voltage doubler of C9, D8, D9 and C8 rectifies the audio
signal at the emitter of Ql, and the resulting negative DC voltage is fed
to the gate of Q3. An increase in the audio signal will increase the
negative bias to Q3, increasing its drain-source resistance. Because the
gain of 1C2a is determined by R7 and the series resistance of R5 and
Q3, increasing the effective resistance of Q3 will lower thegain.

Since the compression circuit takes time to respond, the clamping


network of D4-D7 is still needed to protect against sudden voltage
increases. This system is rather similar to the compression used in
portable tape recorders.

The electret microphone is powered through R1 and is coupled to the


non inverting input of 1C2a via C6. This input is held at a fixed DC
voltage to give a DC output to bias Ql.

The supply voltage to the transmitter circuit is regulated by ICI, a 5V


three terminal regulator.
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Receiver

The transmitted signal is picked up by the photo detector diode in the


receiver. The output voltage of this diode is amplified by the common
emitter amplifier around Ql. This amplifier has a gain of 20 or so, and
connects via VRI to ICI, an LM386 basic power amplifier IC with a
gain internally set to 20.

This IC can drive a speaker with a resistance as low as four ohms, and
35OmW when the circuit is powered from a 9V supply. Increasing the
sup- ply voltage will increase the output power marginally.

The voltage to the transistor amplifier stage is regulated by ZD I to


5.6V, and decoupled from the main supply by R2 and C2. Resistor R3
supplies forward current for the photodiode. (Incidentally, the
photodiode used for this project has a special clear package, so it
responds to visible light, and not just infrared.)

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4.2 CONSTRUCTION

As the photos show, both the transmitter and the receiver are built on silk-
screened PCBS. As usual fit the resistors, pots and capacitors first, taking care
with the polarity of the electrolytics. IC sockets are not essential, although
servicing is obviously made easier if they are used. In which case, fit these next,
followed by the transistors, diodes and the LED.

Take care to use the right diodes for D8 and D9. These are larger than the
1N4148 types, and have two black bands (the cathode end) around a glass
package. Note that the regulator IC has the tab facing outwards.

The photodiode is mounted directly on the receiver PCB. When first mounted,
the active side of the diode (black square inside the package) will face towards
the centre of the board. You then bend the diode over by almost 180' so the
active surface now faces outwards.

The polarised microphone element solders directly to the transmitter PCB. The
negative lead is marked with a minus sign and is the lead that connects to the
metal case.

The laser diode is also polarised, and has three leads. Of these, only two are
used, shown on the circuit as pins 2 (cathode) and 3 (anode). Take care when
soldering the laser in place, as too much heat can destroy it. The diode can be
mounted on the board, or connected with leads to it.

Finally, connect the speaker and 9V battery clips, then check over the boards
for any soldering errors or incorrectly installed components.

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TESTING

First of all, it's most important that you don't look directly into the laser
beam. If you do, it could cause perma- nent eye damage. Also, you are
respon- sible for the safety of others near the laser, which means you must
stop others from also looking into the beam, and take all necessary safety
steps. This is covered by legislation.

Both the receiver and the transmitter can be powered by separate 9V


batteries or suitable DC supplies. Before apply- ing power to the transmitter
PCB, set VRI to its halfway position, to make sure the laser current is not
excessive. To be totally sure, you could set VRI fully anticlockwise, as this
setting will reduce the laser current to zero.

Then apply power to the board. If the laser doesn't produce light, slowly
adjust VRI clockwise. The laser diode should emit a beam with an intensity
adjustable with VRI. At this stage, keep the beam intensity low, but high
enough to clearly see. If you are not getting an output, check the circuit
around IC2b.

You should also find that LED 1 flickers if you run your finger over the
microphone. If so, it indicates that the amplifier section is working and that
there's a modulation voltage to the laser diode. You won't see the laser beam
intensity change with the modu- lating signal.

To check that the system is working, place the two PCBs on the workbench,
spaced a metre or go apart. You might need to put a sheet of paper about
2Omm in front of the photodiode to reduce the intensity of light from the
laser beam. Set the volume control of the speaker to about halfway. If the
volume control setting is too high you'll get acoustic feedback.

Move the laser diode assembly so the beam points at the receiver's photodi-
ode. It's useful to adjust the beam so it's out of focus at the photodiode, to
make alignment even easier. You should now be able to hear the speaker
reproducing any audio signal picked up by the microphone. When the
receiver and transmitter are in close range, the strength of the beam can
cause the receiver to respond even if the laser beam is not falling on the
photodiode.

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4.3.1SETTINGUPLINK

Once you've tested the link, you'll probably be keen to put it to use. For a
short link of say 100 metres, all you need do is position the receiver so the
laser beam falls on the photodiode. Once the link is established, adjust VRI
higher the laser current, the shorter will be its life.

If you have an ammeter, connect it to measure the current taken by the trans-
mitter board. Most of the current is taken by the laser, so adjust VRI to give
a total current consumption of no more than 45mA.

Also, focus the laser so all of the beam is striking the photodiode. At close
range, there's probably no need to focus the beam. In fact, because of the
high output power (5mW) of the laser diode, excellent results will be
obtained over reasonably short distances (20 metres or so) with rough
focusing and quiescent current adjust- ments. But the longer the dis- tance
between the transmitter and the receiver, the more critical the adjustments.
For example, for distances over 20 metres, you might have to put a piece of
tube over the front of the photodi- ode to limit the ambient light falling on it.
This diode is responsive to visible light, so a high ambient light could cause
it to saturate. For very long distances, say a kilome- tre, you'll probably need
a parabolic reflector for the laser beam, to focus it direct- ly onto the
photodiode.

For short ranges (a metre or so), or for educational or testing purposes, you
can use a conventional red LED. Adjust the quiescent current with VR1. The
light output of a LED is not focused, and simply spreads everywhere, so a
reflector might help the sensitivity. Warnings The laser diode in this project
is a class 3B laser and you should attach a warning label to the trans- mitter.
Labels will be sup- plied by Oatley Electronics. Remember that, as for any
hazardous device, the owner of a laser is responsible for its proper use.
Receiver

The transmitted signal is picked up by the photo detector diode in the


receiver . The output voltage of this diode is amplified by the common
emitter amplifier around Ql. This amplifier has a gain of 20 or so, and
connects via VRI to ICI, an LM386 basic power amplifier IC with a
gain internally set to 20.
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70

This IC can drive a speaker with a resistance as low as four ohms, and
35OmW when the circuit is powered from a 9V supply. Increasing the
sup- ply voltage will increase the output power marginally.

The voltage to the transistor amplifier stage is regulated by ZD I to


5.6V, and decoupled from the main supply by R2 and C2. Resistor R3
supplies forward current for the photodiode. (Incidentally, the
photodiode used for this project has a special clear package, so it
responds to visible light, and not just infrared.)

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

• PCB
• STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 5V/500mA
• VOLTAGE REGULATOR LM7805
• RECTIFIER DIODES 1N4001
• ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS
• LED DISPLAY
• LEDs
• IC 7447, 8870, 91214.
• Tr. BC-548
• Laser diode
• OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
• PVC WIRES
• RESSISTANCE 10K
• CAPACITOR 104PF
• DPDT S/W
• IC 7805
• MICRO SWITCH
• CRYSTAL 12 MHZ
• RESET 100K
• MIKE
• SPEAKER 5 OHM

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CHAPTER-5

SAFETY & PRECAUTIONS FOR LASER SYSTEMS

5.1 SAFTEY

Laser safety is the avoidance of laser accidents, especially those involving eye
injuries. Since even relatively small amounts of laser light can lead to
permanent eye injuries, the sale and usage of lasers is typically subject to
government regulations.

Moderate and high-power lasers are potentially hazardous because they can
burn the retina of the eye, or even the skin. To control the risk of injury, various
specifications, for example ANSI Z136 in the US and IEC 60825
internationally, define "classes" of laser depending on their power and
wavelength. These regulations also prescribe required safety measures, such as
labeling lasers with specific warnings, and wearing laser safety goggles when
operating lasers.

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5.1.1 LASER RADIATION HAZARDS

Laser radiation predominantly causes injury via thermal effects. Even


moderately powered lasers can cause injury to the eye. High power lasers can
also burn the skin. Some lasers are so powerful that even the diffuse reflection
from a surface can be hazardous to the eye.

The coherence, the low divergence angle of laser light and the focusing
mechanism of the eye means that laser light can be concentrated into an
extremely small spot on the retina. A transient increase of only 10 °C can
destroy retinal photoreceptors. If the laser is sufficiently powerful, permanent
damage can occur within a fraction of a second, faster than the blink of an eye.
Sufficiently powerful visible to near infrared laser radiation (400-1400 nm) will
penetrate the eyeball and may cause heating of the retina, whereas exposure to
laser radiation with wavelengths less than 400 nm and greater than 1400 nm are
largely absorbed by the cornea and lens, leading to the development of cataracts
or burn injuries

Infrared lasers are particularly hazardous, since the body's protective "blink
reflex" response is triggered only by visible light. For example, some people
exposed to high power Nd:YAG laser emitting invisible 1064 nm radiation,
may not feel pain or notice immediate damage to their eyesight. A pop or click
noise emanating from the eyeball may be the only indication that retinal damage
has occurred i.e. the retina was heated to over 100 °C resulting in localized
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explosive boiling accompanied by the immediate creation of a permanent blind


spot.

DAMAGE MECHANISM

Lasers can cause damage in biological tissues, both to the eye and to the skin,
due to several mechanism. Thermal damage, or burn, occurs when tissues are
heated to the point where denaturation of proteins occurs. Another mechanism
is photochemical damage, where light triggers chemical reactions in tissue.
Photochemical damage occurs mostly with short-wavelength (blue) and ultra-
violet light and can be accumulated over the course of hours. Laser pulses
shorter than about 1 μs can cause a rapid raise in temperature, resulting in
explosive boiling of water. The shock wave from the explosion can
subsequently cause damage relatively far away from the point of impact.
Ultrashort pulses can also exhibit self-focusing in the transparent parts of the
eye, leading to an increase of the damage potential compared to longer pulses
with the same energy.

The eye focuses visible and near-infrared light onto the retina. A laser beam can
be focused to an intensity on the retina which may be up to 2×105 times higher
than at the point where the laser beam enters the eye. Most of the light is
absorbed by melamine pigments in the pigment epithelium just behind the
photoreceptor and causes burns in the retina. Ultraviolet light with wavelengths
shorter than 400 nm tends to be absorbed in the cornea and lens, where it can
produce injuries at relatively low powers due to photochemical damage.
Infrared light mainly causes thermal damage to the retina at near-infrared
wavelengths and to more frontal parts of the eye at longer wavelengths. The
table below summarizes the various medical conditions caused by lasers at
different wavelengths, not including injuries due to pulsed lasers.

5.2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE


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74

The maximum permissible exposure (MPE) is the highest power or energy


density (in W/cm2 or J/cm2) of a light source that is considered safe, i.e. that has
a negligible probability for creating a damage. It is usually about 10% of the
dose that has a 50% chance of creating damage under worst-case conditions.
The MPE is measured at the cornea of the human eye or at the skin, for a given
wavelength and exposure time.

A calculation of the MPE for occular exposure takes into account the various
ways light can act upon the eye. For example, deep-ultraviolet light causes
accumulating damage, even at very low powers. Infrared light with a
wavelength longer than about 1400 nm is absorbed by the transparent parts of
the eye before it reaches the retina, which means that the MPE for these
wavelengths is higher than for visible light. In addition to the wavelength and
exposure time, the MPE takes into account the spatial distribution of the light
(from a laser or otherwise). Collimated laser beams of visible and near-infrared
light are especially dangerous at relatively low powers because the lens focuses
the light onto a tiny spot on the retina. Light sources with a smaller degree of
spatial coherence than a well-collimated laser beam lead to a distribution of the
light over a larger area on the retina. For such sources, the MPE is higher than
for collimated laser beams. In the MPE calculation, the worst-case scenario is
assumed, in which the eye lens focuses the light into the smallest possible spot
size on the retina for the particular wavelength and the pupil is fully open.
Although the MPE is specified as power or energy per unit surface, it is based
on the power or energy that can pass through a fully open pupil (0.39 cm 2) for
visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

This is relevant for laser beams that have a cross-section smaller than 0.39 cm2.
The IEC-60825-1 and ANSI Z136.1 standards include methods of calculating
MPEs.

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5.3 LASER SAFTEY IN RESEARCH ENVIORNMENT

It is common in research in both university and industrial laboratories for


operators to violate safety regulations and remove their eye protection during
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certain procedures, or even to avoid wearing it altogether. Some find the use of
safety glasses over a long time to be uncomfortable, and in many types of
optical experiments it is also inconvenient. For example in spectroscopy, the
experimental arrangement is constantly being modified and fine-tuned. This
requires knowledge of beam location, which is often most simply achieved with
the naked eye, although other, often less accurate, detection methods are
available. In this situation, many scientists assign a higher priority to
convenience and comfort than to safety and regulatory compliance, and
routinely breach the laser safety regulations. Sometimes it is perceived as
unavoidable when working with, for example, an RGB laser, which would
require very careful selection of the Optical Density of protective eyewear or
the use of completely black goggles.

Eye protection is often considered uncomfortable because of both reduced


vision and physical discomfort. Especially for goggles that protect against
visible-light wavelengths, color vision is impaired, which means that it becomes
hard to see green or red indicator lights on equipment and to recognize tools.
Moreover, many types of goggles transmit less than 30 percent of visible light
which means that standard work environment lighting levels may be
inadequate, leading to increased risks for other accidents, such as tripping over
cables. Finally, the weight, fit, and ventilation may cause physical discomfort.

When eye protection is neglected, scientists attempt to minimize risks by other


means, such as keeping all beams within a restricted horizontal space, and
removing jewelry. However, the reduced safety measures commonplace in
scientific environments cannot completely prevent accidents. It is not
uncommon for someone who did several years of laser-related research to have
experienced an accident that resulted in a small, but permanent eye injury,
typically a blind spot somewhere in the peripheral vision.

Experimentalists often feel that safety eyewear is not necessary when dealing
with an experiment carried out within the horizontal plane. However, in a non-
trivial optical setup, it is very hard to ensure that all mirrors, filters, and lenses
are strictly kept in a vertical position at all times, particularly when the setup is
constantly modified, and that metallic tools such as screwdrivers also can
redirect a beam. Stray reflections are usually unnoticed until an accident occurs.
Since nobody can guarantee that all these hazards can be safely avoided without
wearing safety eyewear, when infrared laser beams with non-negligible powers
are used, working without safety eyewear is not permitted by any official safety
regulations.
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CONCLUSION

Our project has demonstrated a basic system that utilizes a laser beam as the
method of communication. As a proof of concept, we have accomplished what
we set out to do. The laser communication system can pass data via laser pulses
over air, and transmit that data as a byte up to the receiver. The receiver
platform then can utilize the data and reconstruct the data sequence that was
sent from the transmitter.Because of the versatility in this setup, we could
possibly send over a wide range of data, supporting a wide range of networks.
Currently, we support data communication and data commands, but this could
easily be expanded upon, once a more precise interface is developed. We have
also shown that the power consumption of such a network is minimal compared
to an RF network. For certain types of wireless networks, a laser based
communication structure could possibly make sense.

Much future work still needs to be done however. One optimization would be to
improve both the speed and bandwidth of the transmissions. Currently, the
speed of transmissionis not fast enough for any industrial application. Possible
solutions would be to rework the pulse patterns so that data can be transmitted
in fewer pulses.

The laser based system is an easy to use display or grade control system for
rough and fine grade work on construction sites, enabling machine operators to
get to grade quicker than before. The versatile PA System allows for the system

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to be configured as an indicate or automatic grade control system and can be


easily installed on a wide variety of machines and for different applications.

The system increases job site profitability by getting to grade in fewer passes.
This reduces on the job time, and allows for labor and equipment to be used
more efficiently. And with improved accuracy, material costs are reduced. All
this adds up to improved profitability on each job.

APPENDIX 1 –ACRONYMS

LASER light amplification stimulated emission and radiation

ANSI American national standard institute

ARIB association of radio industries and broadcasting

ACL asynchronous connectionless link

LED light emitting diode

BER bit error rate

PCB printed circuit board

Codec coder decoder

WDM wavelength division multiplexing

EFR enhance full rate

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Op-amp operational amplifier

MF medium frequency

IC integrated circuit

DPDT as switch case

TX transmitter

Rx receiver

APPENDIX -2 GLOSSARY

PCB - PCBs are boards whereupon electronic circuits have been


etched. PCBs are rugged, inexpensive, and can be highly reliable.

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER:


A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit
to another through inductively coupled conductors — the transformer's
coils or "windings". INDUCTION LAW --The voltage induced across the
secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction, which
states that:

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Linear re gulator
In electronics, a linear regulator is a voltage regulator based on an active
device (such as a bipolar junction transistor, field effect transistor or
vacuum tube) operating in its "linear region" (in contrast, a switching
regulator is based on a transistor forced to act as an on/off switch) or
passive devices like zener diodes operated in their breakdown region.

ZENER REGULATOR

SIMPLE SERIES REGULATOR


Adding an emitter follower stage to the simple zener regulator forms
a simple series voltage regulator and substantially improves the regulation
of the circuit

RECTIFIER

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A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC)


to direct current (DC), a process known as rectification

ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR
An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor that uses an ionic
conducting liquid as one of its plates with a larger capacitance per unit
volume than other types

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE


A light-emitting diode (LED) , is an electronic light source

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
In electronics, an integrated circuit (also known as IC,
microcircuit, microchip, silicon chip, or chip) is a miniaturized
electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices

LASER DIODE
A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a
semiconductor similar to that found in a light-emitting diode

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
An operational amplifier, which is often called an op-amp, is a DC-
coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential
inputs and, usually, a single output.

ELECTRONICS\ CAPACITORS
A capacitor (historically known as a "condenser") is a device that stores
energy in an electric field, by accumulating an internal imbalance of
electric charge

C=Q/V

SWITCH
a switch is an electrical component which can break an electrical circuit,
interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another

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THERMISTOR
A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies with
temperature

MICRO SWITCH
A micro switch is a generic term used to refer to an electric
switch that is able to be actuated by very little physical force

MICROPHONE

A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike (pronounced /


ˈmaɪk/) or—more recently—mic, is an acoustic-to-electric
transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical
signal

LOUD SPEAKER
A loudspeaker is an electroacoustical transducer that converts an electrical
signal to sound

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