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ATLAS.MARINER SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLE BUILT BY GENERAL DYNAMICS I ASTRONAUTICS FOR THE U. S.

AIR FORCE AND THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION.


N o v e m b e r 1964

MARINER MARS

ATLAS SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLE

INFORMATION

ASTRONAUT I CS D I V I S I ON

GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION

SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA

For a d d i t i o n a l information:
P u b l i c Information, D e p t . 121-0, Post O f f i c e Box 1128, San
D i e g o , C a l i f o r n i a , 92112

T e l e p h o n e 277-8900, E x t . 2833 - TWX 714-279-0250.

5-2-13-JW-64-1006
CONTENTS
Page
ATLAS-AGENA/MARINER STATISTICS .......... 1
MARINER MARS 1964 . .......... 2

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

ATLAS BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Dependability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Versatility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

ATLAS FACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Three Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Atlas LV-3A Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Atlas Staging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Prope1lants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
MODIFICATIONS FOR THIS MISSION . . . . . . . . . . 11
Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Pitch Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
ATLAS FLIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Flight Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
LAUNCH COMPLEXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
ATLAS MISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
ATLAS-AGENA/MARINER STATISTICS

F i r s t stage designations ........ Atlas launch vehicles


288-D and 289-D

F u l l l e n g t h of Atlas-Agena/Mariner ... 104'

Length of Atlas ( w i t h Agena


adapter section) . . . . . . . . . . . 71' 7"

D i a m e t e r of Atlas a t t a n k s e c t i o n . . . 1 0 ' 0"

D i a m e t e r of Atlas a t b o o s t e r s e c t i o n . . 1 6 ' 0"


.......
Weight of A t l a s a t l i f t o f f About 263,000 lbs.
Thrust a t l i f t o f f . . . . . . . . . . . More t h a n 360,000 l b s
Liftoff thrust acceleration . . . . . . About 1 . 4 g

Weight of Mariner s p a c e c r a f t a t
separation .............. About 570 l b s .

A t l a s l i q u i d oxygen t e m p e r a t u r e .... 297 d e g r e e s below zero


Fahrenheit
Atlas f u e l temperature ......... Ambient

A t l a s l i q u i d oxygen and f u e l
consumption r a t e ........... About 1 , 5 0 0 l b s / s e c o n d

Atlas o p e r a t i o n a l environment . . . . . -297OF. (LOX) to


+l,OOO°F. ( a i r f r i c t i o n )
A t l a s guidance ............. Radio-inertial
Atlas p e r i o d of powered f l i g h t . . . . . About f i v e minutes
Launch s i t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complexes 1 2 and 13 ETR
Number of p a r t s i n A t l a s . . . . . . . . More t h a n 300,000
A t l a s t a n k ( a i r f r a m e ) s k i n gauges . . . .014l* t o .041"

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MARINER MARS 1964

OBJECTIVES
A s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s a n d Space A d m i n i s t r a -

t i o n , t h e mission o b j e c t i v e s are t o provide e n g i n e e r i n g experience


on t h e o p e r a t i o n of a s p a c e c r a f t d u r i n g l o n g - d u r a t i o n f l i g h t s away
from t h e s u n and t o p e r f o r m s c i e n t i f i c measurements i n i n t e r -
p l a n e t a r y s p a c e between t h e o r b i t s of e a r t h a n d Mars a n d i n t h e
v i c i n i t y of Mars.
The m i s s i o n i s t h e most complex one y e t t o be a t t e m p t e d i n t h e
U.S. unmanned s p a c e program; i t is p o t e n t i a l l y one of t h e most
rewarding space e f f o r t s ever attempted.
On a r r i v a l a t Mars, a s e r i e s of t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e s of t h e
p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e a n d r a d i o f r e q u e n c y t r a n s m i s s i o n measurements of
t h e M a r t i a n a t m o s p h e r e w i l l b e r e c o r d e d as t h e s p a c e c r a f t f l i e s by.

C o s m i c d u s t and f i e l d a n d p a r t i c l e e x p e r i m e n t s w i l l be carried t o
i n v e s t i g a t e r a d i a t i o n , magnetism, i o n s a n d plasma on t h e s p a c e -
craft's interplanetary journey.
T h e o v e r a l l m i s s i o n is even more c h a l l e n g i n g because of t h e

p l a n n e d a t t e m p t t o l a u n c h two i d e n t i c a l v e h i c l e s w i t h i n t h e l a u n c h
window. Two Atlas-Agena launch v e h i c l e s w i t h Mariner s p a c e c r a f t
w i l l be p r e p a r e d f o r f l i g h t from two s e p a r a t e Cape Kennedy l a u n c h
complexes. S p a c e c r a f t a n d l a u n c h v e h i c l e s w i l l be p r o c e s s e d i n
p a r a l l e l s o t h a t f o l l o w i n g l a u n c h of t h e f i r s t s p a c e v e h i c l e , t h e
s e c o n d may be l a u n c h e d w i t h o u t d e l a y ; b u t no e a r l i e r t h a n two d a y s
a f t e r t h e first l a u n c h .

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The Mars l a u n c h o p p o r t u n i t y i n 1964 c o i n c i d e s w i t h a " q u i e t
Sun" p e r i o d which occurs once e v e r y e l e v e n y e a r s . T h i s unusual

c o i n c i d e n c e p e r m i t s t h e g a t h e r i n g of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge of o u r
s o l a r s y s t e m w i t h a minimum of i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e Sun. The

p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h a s p a c e c r a f t may be launched t o Mars l a s t s o n l y


a f e w weeks and happens o n l y once e v e r y 2 5 months.
P l a n n i n g f o r t h e t w o Mars f l i g h t s is based on a minimum l a u n c h
o p p o r t u n i t y or window of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 weeks. Because of t h e
demands p l a c e d on t h e l a u n c h v e h i c l e and t h e s p a c e c r a f t c a u s e d by
t h e s h o r t n e s s of t h e l a u n c h window, t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e s p a c e -

c r a f t , and t h e extreme communication d i s t a n c e of 150 m i l l i o n miles


( t h r e e t i m e s any p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s ) , i t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t t w o
s e t s of s p a c e c r a f t and l a u n c h v e h i c l e s be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y checked
o u t and p r e p a r e d f o r l a u n c h .
T r a j e c t o r y a n a l y s e s r e v e a l t h a t t h e l a u n c h window on any day

w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l launch o p p o r t u n i t y w i l l not exceed f o u r hours,


w i t h a minimum f i r i n g window of t w o h o u r s a v a i l a b l e each day.

F l i g h t t i m e f o r t h e Atlas-Agena-launched spacecraft w i l l vary,


r e l a t i v e t o d a y of l a u n c h , between 73 months and 8 3 months depending
on t h e f l i g h t p a t h . An a d d i t i o n a l three weeks of s p a c e c r a f t f l i g h t
beyond Mars is needed t o r e t u r n data t o e a r t h s t a t i o n s .
One Mariner Mars ' 6 4 s p a c e c r a f t is p l a n n e d f o r l a u n c h a t o p a n
Agena D and A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e 289-D from l a u n c h complex 13
a t Cape Kennedy. The o t h e r Mariner Mars ' 6 4 s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be

b o o s t e d by a n i d e n t i c a l v e h i c l e u s i n g A t l a s 288-D and a n Agena D


upper s t a g e from l a u n c h complex 1 2 .

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RESPONSIBILITIES
The Mariner program is under the overall direction of the office
of Space Sciences and Applications of the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration. Mission direction is conducted by the Lunar
and Planetary Programs Division of that office. Launch vehicle
direction is the responsibility of the Launch Vehicle and Propulsion
Programs Division.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of
Technology in Pasadena, Calif., is assigned project and mission
management responsibility, plus systems management and development
responsibility for the Mariner spacecraft system, the space flight
operations systems and the deep space instrumentation facility
system.
NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, is assigned
responsibility for overall management and conduct of the launch
vehicle portion of the Mariner Program. Lewis specifically is
responsible for the direction of the Atlas-Agena vehicle program in
areas of planning and integration and supervision of participating
contractors.
The Astronautics division of General Dynamics Corp., San
Diego, builds the Atlas launch vehicle for the Space Systems Division
of the Air Force Systems Command, which provides the complete Atlas
launch system used in Air Force and National Aeronautics and Space
Administration space programs.

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Atlas s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s u s e d i n t h e program a r e launched
t h e A s t r o n a u t i c s d i v i s i o n under t h e d i r e c t i o n of NASA. Preflight

a c t i v i t y and t h e l a u n c h a r e t h e o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Goddard
Launch O p e r a t i o n s , Cape Kennedy, under t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e NASA
L e w i s Research C e n t e r . Goddard h a s o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l of l a u n c h

complexes 1 2 and 13 a n d t e c h n i c a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e l a u n c h v e h i c l e
and s u p p o r t i n g c o n t r a c t o r s t a k i n g p a r t i n programs a t b o t h complexes.
The A s t r o n a u t i c s d i v i s i o n of G e n e r a l Dynamics is r e s p o n s i b l e

for p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e A t l a s space l a u n c h v e h i c l e s y s t e m for


l a u n c h and t h e conduct of t h e A t l a s p o r t i o n of t h e countdown.

-5-
ATLAS BACKGROUND

DEPENDABILITY

L e s s t h a n one y e a r a g o , A t l a s l a u n c h v e h i c l e s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n

a m u l t i p l e l a u n c h program s i m i l a r i n many ways t o t h e Mariner


Mars "double p l a y " . Three A t l a s v e h i c l e s were l a u n c h e d down t h e

P a c i f i c Missile Range on t h e same day--December 18, 1963,on m i l i t a r y

and s c i e n t i f i c missions. A l l three w e r e s u c c e s s f u l .

Though m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s were n e c e s s a r y i n
b o t h cases, e x i s t i n g ground s u p p o r t equipment was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e

t o meet t h e n e e d s of t h e programs i n v o l v e d . Experienced and


a d a p t i b l e l a u n c h crews add t o t h e m u l t i - m i s s i o n v e r s a t i l i t y of t h e
basic Atlas l a u n c h v e h i c l e .
A c a p a b i l i t y of l a u n c h i n g A t l a s space l a u n c h v e h i c l e s from

either U.S. test range offers mission planners another p l u s i n


c o o r d i n a t i n g demands of s p a c e programs w i t h r e a l i s t i c l a u n c h
possibilities.
Atlas is t h e o n l y large f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e
i n t h e Free World t o d a y . The A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e h a s had a

remarkable degree of f l i g h t s u c c e s s . As of October 15, 1964, there


had been twenty-one (21) c o n s e c u t i v e s u c c e s s f u l A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h
vehicle flights. T h i s e q u a l s a p r e v i o u s record s e t by A t l a s d u r i n g

its research a n d development program when 2 1 l a u n c h e s i n a r o w were


successful.

-6-
D u r i n g t h e f i s c a l y e a r b e g i n n i n g J u l y , 1963, a n d e n d i n g J u n e
30, 1964, A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s r a n up a 100% s t r i n g of 14
straight successful flights. There were no A t l a s space l a u n c h

f a i l u r e s d u r i n g t h a t 12-month p e r i o d .

VERSATILITY
-
Known p r i m a r i l y a s a s t r a t e g i c weapon s y s t e m f o r t h e U. S .
A i r Force, A t l a s is now b a s i c a l l y a s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e . There

have been more t h a n 220 A t l a s l a u n c h e s f o r t h e A i r Force and t h e


National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Though i t p r o v i d e d t h e boost f o r e a r l y U. S . space e f f o r t s i n
1958, a n d s u c c e s s f u l l y s e n t f o u r a s t r o n a u t s i n t o o r b i t f o r Project

Mercury i n o n e of t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a l l e n g e s of recorded
h i s t o r y , A t l a s h a s o n l y r e c e n t l y begun t o f u l f i l l its p r o m i s e of
reliable v e r s a t i l i t y .
I n a d d i t i o n t o its m u l t i - p u r p o s e work i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e
Agena u p p e r stage f o r many space m i s s i o n s , A t l a s a s a space l a u n c h
v e h i c l e is t h e booster f o r t h e C e n t a u r h i g h e n e r g y u p p e r stage--
t h e n a t i o n ' s first liquid-hydrogen vehicle to f l y successfully.
A t l a s space l a u n c h v e h i c l e s w i t h o u t u p p e r stages c a n perform
a v a r i e t y of u s e f u l m i s s i o n s f o r space research a n d e x p l o r a t i o n , a s
exampled by u s e of t h e v e h i c l e i n t h e Project F i r e m i s s i o n , where
A t l a s boosts s o l i d - p r o p e l l e d packages t o high r e - e n t r y v e l o c i t i e s
comparable t o t h o s e of spacecraft r e t u r n i n g f r o m t h e moon.

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ATLAS FACTS

THREE VERSIONS
The A t l a s space l a u n c h v e h i c l e c u r r e n t l y is produced i n three

versions :
1. The LV-3A, a n a d a p t a t i o n of t h e A t l a s Series D weapon
s y s t e m , is modified f o r Agena m i s s i o n s . The LV-3A a l s o is b e i n g u s e d
i n Project F i r e .
2. The LV-3C, a special booster s e r v i n g a s t h e first stage of
t h e C e n t a u r high-energy space v e h i c l e .
3. The SLV-3, a s t a n d a r d space l a u n c h v e h i c l e i n c o r p o r a t i n g
d e s i g n improvements e v o l v e d a s a r e s u l t of t h e e x p e r i e n c e and
knowledge g a i n e d i n more t h a n 200 l a u n c h e s . It w i l l replace a l l

p r e s e n t A t l a s space l a u n c h v e h i c l e s i n 1965.

ATLAS LV-3A STRUCTURE

The A t l a s LV-3A s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t s of three p r i n c i p a l u n i t s - -


a propellant tank section, the propulsion section, and t h e i n t e r -
stage adapter.
The A t l a s i n t e g r a l t a n k r e q u i r e s no i n t e r n a l b r a c i n g and is

p r e s s u r i z e d t o m a i n t a i n r i g i d i t y and s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y .
E l i m i n a t i o n of braces r e d u c e s w e i g h t , a l l o w i n g greater r a n g e a n d
h e a v i e r payloads.

-8-
The main t a n k is made of s p e c i a l c o l d - r o l l e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l
formed i n t o a c y l i n d e r and welded, w i t h a bulkhead a t e i t h e r end

a n d a n i n t e r m e d i a t e bulkhead t o d i v i d e t h e t a n k i n t o t w o compart-
ments. The lower ( a f t ) compartment c o n t a i n s RP-1 f u e l , a n d t h e

t o p ( f o r w a r d ) t a n k c o n t a i n s t h e l i q u i d oxygen o x i d i z e r . Helium
gas is u s e d t o p r e s s u r i z e t h e t a n k .

ATLAS STAGING

A t l a s h a s p i o n e e r e d a n u n u s u a l method of s t a g i n g f o r l a u n c h
vehicles. C a l l e d a 1 4 - s t a g e v e h i c l e , t h e A t l a s is e s p e c i a l l y
desirable f o r s p a c e l a u n c h e s s i n c e m i s s i o n t r a j e c t o r i e s c a n be
" t a i l o r e d " t o a s p e c i f i c task. T h i s is b e c a u s e e n g i n e b u r n t i m e

c a n be v a r i e d , t h u s c h a n g i n g t h e t i m e h i s t o r y of t h e t h r u s t - t o -
w e i g h t r a t i o from m i s s i o n t o m i s s i o n .

PROPULS I ON

The A t l a s LV-3A r e c e i v e s its t h r u s t from t h e Rocketdyne MA-5


p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m c o n s i s t i n g of t w o 150,000-pound-thrust booster
(outboard) e n g i n e s , one 60,000-pound-thrust s u s t a i n e r (center)
e n g i n e , and two v e r n i e r e n g i n e s a d d i n g a t o t a l of a p p r o x i m a t e l y
2 , 0 0 0 pounds of t h r u s t . T o t a l t h r u s t a t sea l e v e l is more t h a n
360,000 pounds. L

Engines a r e s t a r t e d by h y p e r g o l i c i g n i t e r s u s i n g a m i x t u r e of
85% t r i - e t h y l a l u m i n a t e and 15% t r i - e t h y l b o r a t e w h i c h burn on

c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a i r i n e n g i n e t h r u s t chambers, c a u s i n g i g n i t i o n
of p r o p e l l a n t s .

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PROPELLANTS
The propellants used in the Atlas LV-3A are liquid oxygen and
RP-1, a hydrocarbon fuel. RP-1 fuel is maintained at ambient
temperature; the temperature of the liquid oxygen used as an
oxidizer for the fuel is minus 297 degrees Fahrenheit.
RP-1 is usually pumped aboard the vehicle one day prior to
launch at a rate of approximately 1,000 gallons per minute. Liquid
oxygen is pumped into the forward tank of the LV-3A prior to launch
at about 2 , 0 0 0 gallons per minute. Propellant loading is controlled
remotely from the blockhouse.

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MODIFICATIONS FOR THIS M I S S I O N

T h r e e major changes were made i n t h e A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s

t o be u s e d i n t h e Mariner Mars f l i g h t s i n 1964. They were made t o


i n s u r e more e f f i c i e n t performance a n d a h i g h d e g r e e of r e l i a b i l i t y
i n t h e launch v e h i c l e s . The changes made i t p o s s i b l e f o r 39 pounds

of e x t r a w e i g h t t o be added t o t h e Mariner Mars s p a c e c r a f t .


Two of t h e changes a r e t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t of improvements
g e n e r a t e d i n t h e development of t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h
v e h i c l e , t h e SLV-3. T h i s new a n d improved v e r s i o n of A t l a s combines

t h e most e f f i c i e n t and r e l i a b l e s y s t e m s developed d u r i n g more t h a n

220 A t l a s l a u n c h e s - - t a k i n g t h e best s y s t e m s from each p r e v i o u s

v e r s i o n of t h e A t l a s .

PROPULSION

A t l a s 288-D a n d A t l a s 289-D f o r t h e Mariner Mars m i s s i o n a r e


equipped w i t h t h e improved p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m w h i c h is now s t a n d a r d
equipment on t h e SLV-3. Among t h e a d v a n t a g e s of t h i s s y s t e m a r e
lower-thrust vernier engines. Though a t first g l a n c e t h i s seem
a p a r a d o x , a closer e x a m i n a t i o n shows d e f i n i t e a d v a n t a g e s .
By d e - r a t i n g t h e v e r n i e r e n g i n e s from 1,500 pounds t h r u s t t o
1,000 pounds t h r u s t , t h e v e h i c l e u s e s less p r o p e l l a n t d u r i n g

powered f l i g h t . L e s s p r o p e l l a n t used by t h e v e r n i e r e n g i n e s means


more p r o p e l l a n t f o r u s e b y t h e s u s t a i n e r ( c e n t e r ) e n g i n e .

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A l l f i v e A t l a s e n g i n e s a r e i g n i t e d on t h e ground p r i o r t o l i f t -

off. The v e h i c l e is h e l d down f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o s e c o n d s a f t e r

e n g i n e i g n i t i o n before release f o r f l i g h t . A f t e r t h e t w o booster

engines are j e t t i s o n e d , t h e s u s t a i n e r and v e r n i e r s continue t o


b u r n t o p r o v i d e t h e f i n a l s e c o n d s of t h r u s t t o t h e A t l a s , its upper
s t a g e , a n d t h e Mariner s p a c e c r a f t . A f t e r s u s t a i n e r e n g i n e s h u t down
t h e v e r n i e r s c o n t i n u e burning f o r f i n a l v e l o c i t y and a t t i t u d e

adjustments necessary for o r b i t .


The booster, s u s t a i n e r , and v e r n i e r e n g i n e s i n t h e improved

SLV-3 p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m n o r m a l l y g e n e r a t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 390,000

pounds of t h r u s t a s compared w i t h t h e 360,000 pounds of t h r u s t


g e n e r a t e d by A t l a s LV-3 e n g i n e s . However, f o r t h e Mariner Mars
f l i g h t s , t h e h i g h e r t h r u s t of t h e SLV-3 e n g i n e s w a s n o t i n i t s e l f

enough of a n a d v a n t a g e t o be r e t a i n e d . The greater e f f i c i e n c y a n d

r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e improved s y s t e m w a s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s i r a b l e .
Therefore, t h e improved SLV-3 e n g i n e s were down r a t e d t o

360,000 pounds of t h r u s t f o r t h e Mariner mission--another apparent


paradox. Down r a t i n g of t h e h i g h e r - t h r u s t p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m w a s
accomplished by s l o w i n g down turbopumps w h i c h pump t h e p r o p e l l a n t s
i n t o t h e t h r u s t chambers. T h i s means less p r o p e l l a n t is d e l i v e r e d

t o t h e t h r u s t chambers a n d burned t h e r e b y l o w e r i n g t h e t h r u s t l e v e l
of t h e e n g i n e s . T h i s w a s n o t a major hardware change.

If t h e h i g h e r t h r u s t had been m a i n t a i n e d , s t r o n g e r and h e a v i e r

A t l a s t a n k s k i n s w o u l d have been needed on t h e a f t end of t h e A t l a s


f u e l t a n k a n d on t h e t h r u s t cone t o w h i c h t h e s u s t a i n e r e n g i n e is

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attached. The h e a v i e r t a n k s t r u c t u r e would have b e e n n e c e s s a r y

because of t h e i n c r e a s e d f o r c e e x e r t e d by t h e more p o w e r f u l e n g i n e s
on t h e t a n k s t r u c t u r e . The h i g h e r t h r u s t w i t h its r e s u l t i n g

i n c r e a s e i n t a n k w e i g h t of a b o u t 65 pounds would have been a d i s -


advantage f o r t h e Mariner f l i g h t s .
B e c a u s e of t h e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m improvements made f o r t h e

two Mariner A t l a s e s , a p p r 9 x i s a t e l y 10 a d d i t i o n a l pounds of p a y l o a d


were made a v a i l a h l e t o M a r i n e r s p a c e c r a f t e n g i n e e r s .

TELEMETRY
-
A s e c o n d major m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s m i s s i o n i n v o l v e d l i g h t e r

w e i g h t t e l e m e t r y packages for t h e two A t l a s v e h i c l e s . These a r e

s i m i l a r t o b o t h t h e l i g h t w e i g h t t e l e m e t r y p a c k a g e s u s e d on P r o j e c t
Mercury A t l a s v e h i c l e s a n d t o t h o s e i n u s e on t h e SLV-3. U s e of

these u n i t s r e d u c e d A t l a s w e i g h t by 90 pounds w h i c h i n t u r n

allowed a n i n c r e a s e i n s p a c e c r a f t w e i g h t by a n o t h e r 9 pounds.

PITCH PROGRAM
--_I_--

T h e t h i r d major m o d i f i c a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e p i t c h program f o r

t h e two A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s . The p i t c h program is a maneuver

w h i c h b e g i n s 15 s e c o n d s a f t e r l i f t o f f of t h e v e h i c l e .

The A t l a s a u t o p i l o t g e n e r a t e s t h e p i t c h program w h i c h g r a d u a l l y
g u i d e s t h e v e h i c l e toward a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n for s e p a r a t i o n of

t h e upper s t a g e a n d s p a c e c r a f t .

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By k e e p i n g t h e v e h i c l e s l i g h t l y closer t o t h e earth d u r i n g t h e

g r a d u a l t i l t toward t h e h o r i z o n t a l ( r e d u c i n g t h e a n g l e of t h e f l i g h t
p a t h w i t h r e l a t i o n t o t h e e a r t h ) , escape v e l o c i t y f o r t h e space-
c r a f t is a c h i e v e d more r a p i d l y and b e t t e r performance r e s u l t s .
Escape v e l o c i t y f o r t h e s p a c e c r a f t is a c h i e v e d by t h e v e l o c i t y
i m p a r t e d by t h e A t l a s a n d t h e v e l o c i t y p r o v i d e d by t h e Agena upper
stage.
T h u s by t a i l o r i n g t h e p i t c h program u s e d on these Mariner-

A t l a s v e h i c l e s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r payload w e i g h t and t h e three-week


l a u n c h o p p o r t u n i t y , a payload i n c r e a s e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 pounds
w a s allowable.

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ATLAS FLIGHT

OBJECTIVES
-
The primary t e s t o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s

t o be u s e d i n t h e Mars f l y b y a t t e m p t are:
(1) To b o o s t t h e u p p e r stage Agena v e h i c l e i n t o t h e p r o p e r
coast e l l i p s e a s d e f i n e d by t h e t r a j e c t o r y a n d g u i d a n c e e q u a t i o n s .
(2) To e f f e c t s e p a r a t i o n of t h e Agena a n d s t a r t t h e Agena
t i m e r by i n i t i a t i o n of t h e p r o p e r commands t o t h e u p p e r stage, a n d

(3) To d e t e r m i n e A t l a s s y s t e m s p e r f o r m a n c e from t e l e m e t r y
data.

FLIGHT SEQUENCE
T h e r e a r e s i x p r i n c i p a l e v e n t s i n A t l a s LV-3A f l i g h t s for
P r o j e c t Mariner. Each of t h e s e e v e n t s is d e s c r i b e d below. T repre-

s e n t s t w o - i n c h motion d u r i n g l i f t o f f .
1. Vertical rise -- Immediately a f t e r l i f t o f f , a 13-second
r o l l program is a c c o m p l i s h e d t o a l i g n t h e v e h i c l e w i t h t h e tra-
j e c t o r y or l a u n c h a z i m u t h . T h i s is t i m e d by t h e A t l a s a u t o p i l o t
programer w h i c h is s t a r t e d when t h e v e h i c l e has r i s e n t w o i n c h e s o f f
t h e pad.

2. Pitch-over -- F o l l o w i n g t h e r o l l program t h e A t l a s b e g i n s
a g r a d u a l p i t c h - o v e r toward a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l
of t h e a u t o p i l o t f l i g h t programer. P i t c h - o v e r is c o n t r o l l e d by
g i m b a l i n g t h e booster ( o u t b o a r d ) e n g i n e s u n t i l booster e n g i n e c u t -
off (BECO). T h e r e a f t e r , t h e s u s t a i n e r ( c e n t e r ) e n g i n e is f r e e d t o

-15-
gimbal and c o n t i n u e s t o c o n t r o l v e h i c l e p i t c h u n t i l s u s t a i n e r e n g i n e
Cut-Of f (SECO) .
3. Staging -- The s t a g i n g o p e r a t i o n p r e p a r e s f o r t h e j e t t i s o n

of t h e two b o o s t e r e n g i n e s . A t t h e end of t h e p r e d e t e r m i n e d
b o o s t e r f l i g h t p e r i o d , a s t a g i n g command from t h e ground i n i t i a t e s
a s e q u e n c e r e s u l t i n g i n BECO a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y T p l u s two m i n u t e s .
The b o o s t e r s e c t i o n a n d a s s o c i a t e d equipment s e p a r a t e from t h e
v e h i c l e , moving a l o n g g u i d e r a i l s and f a l l i n g i n t o s p a c e . After
b o o s t e r s t a g i n g , t h e v e h i c l e f l i g h t a t t i t u d e i n p i t c h and yaw is
m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h c o n t r o l of t h e s u s t a i n e r e n g i n e , a n d r o l l
a t t z t u d e is c o n t r o l l e d by g i m b a l i n g t h e t w o v e r n i e r e n g i n e s .
4. S u s t a i n e r E n g i n e Cutoff (SECO) -- Shutdown of t h e c e n t e r
or s u s t a i n e r e n g i n e is a c c o m p l i s h e d by a s i g n a l from ground
guidance. The f l i g h t programer s i m u l t a n e o u s l y g e n e r a t e s commands

t o t r a n s f e r f u l l v e h i c l e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l t o t h e vernier engines.
5. V e r n i e r Engine C u t o f f (VECO) -- T h i s s e q u e n c e s h u t s down

t h e two v e r n i e r e n g i n e s a n d p r e p a r e s t h e Agena s t a g e f o r s e p a r a t i o n .

I t is i n i t i a t e d by a ground g u i d a n c e s i g n a l .

6. Separation -- The s e p a r a t i o n of t h e A t l a s l a u n c h v e h i c l e
from t h e Agena is s t a r t e d by a ground g u i d a n c e s i g n a l . Separation
f o l l o w s VECO almost immediately. An e l e c t r o - e x p l o s i v e d e v i c e is
f i r e d , r e l e a s i n g t h e A t l a s from t h e Agena and i t s p a y l o a d . Two
s o l i d - p r o p e l l a n t r e t r o r o c k e t s f i r e t o s l o w down t h e A t l a s , a l l o w i n g
f o r complete e s c a p e of t h e Agena and p a y l o a d . Complete d i s e n g a g e -
ment takes 14 seconds.

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LAUNCH COMPLEXES

T h e Mariner Mars s p a c e c r a f t w i l l s t a r t t h e i r f l i g h t s a t

l a u n c h complex 13 a n d l a u n c h complex 1 2 a t Cape Kennedy, F l a .


Launch complex 1 2 is s c h e d u l e d t o l a u n c h more A t l a s s p a c e l a u n c h
v e h i c l e f l i g h t s t h a n a n y o t h e r complex a t Cape Kennedy.
I n a d d i t i o n t o Mariner f l i g h t s , complex 1 2 is s l a t e d f o r
l a u n c h i n g s of Ranger s p a c e c r a f t , F i r e r e - e n t r y v e l o c i t y p a c k a g e s ,
O r b i t i n g G e o p h y s i c a l O b s e r v a t o r y (OGO) s a t e l l i t e s , and O r b i t i n g
A s t r o n o m i c a l O b s e r v a t o r y (OAO) s p a c e c r a f t . O r i o n Reed is t h e
l a u n c h c o n d u c t o r a t complex 12 f o r t h e A s t r o n a u t i c s d i v i s i o n of
G e n e r a l Dynamics Corp.
Complex 13 w i l l be t h e s i t e of f u t u r e l a u n c h e s of Lunar
O r b i t e r s p a c e c r a f t f o r moon s u r f a c e research f o r P r o j e c t A p o l l o ,
and for Vela Program l a u n c h e s of n u c l e a r d e t e c t i o n s a t e l l i t e s .
C a l Fowler is l a u n c h c o n d u c t o r a t complex 13 f o r t h e A s t r o n a u t i c s

division.

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ATLAS MISSIONS

PAYLOADS -- C u r r e n t NASA m i s s i o n s ( i n a d d i t i o n t o M a r i n e r ) s c h e d u l e d
for A t l a s include:
1. RANGER -- A l u n a r research program, w i t h t e l e v i s i o n
cameras t r a n s m i t t i n g c l o s e - u p p i c t u r e s of t h e s u r f a c e of t h e moon
d u r i n g t h e l a s t f e w m i n u t e s of f l i g h t as t h e Ranger spacecraft
d e s c e n d s toward a h a r d l a n d i n g .
2. OGO ( O r b i t i n g G e o p h y s i c a l O b s e r v a t o r y ) -- A standardized

s p a c e c r a f t d e s i g n e d t o accommodate a v a r i e t y of g e o p h y s i c a l e x p e r i -
ments t o be l a u n c h e d i n t o a n e c c e n t r i c o r b i t .
3. OAO ( O r b i t i n g A s t r o n o m i c a l O b s e r v a t o r y ) -- A scientific
s a t e l l i t e t o make t e l e s c o p i c o b s e r v a t i o n s of u l t r a v i o l e t , i n f r a r e d ,
a n d x-ray r a n g e s from a p r e c i s e l y s t a b i l i z e d o r b i t i n g p l a t f o r m
above t h e o b s c u r i n g e f f e c t s of t h e e a r t h ' s atmosphere.
4. CENTAUR -- Launching high-energy l i q u i d hydrogen-powered
C e n t a u r u p p e r stages ( u n d e r development by t h e A s t r o n a u t i c s
d i v i s i o n ) f o r Surveyor and other missions. S u r v e y o r is d e s i g n e d
for s o f t l a n d i n g s on t h e moon t o p r o v i d e : l u n a r d a t a i n s u p p o r t o f '
P r o j e c t A p o l l o ; t e c h n i q u e s of c o n t r o l , g u i d a n c e , communication,
a n d l a n d i n g f o r manned e x p e d i t i o n s , a n d t o o b t a i n b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c
d a t a a b o u t t h e moon.
5. FIRE -- T e s t i n g of v e h i c l e s and s y s t e m s d u r i n g atmospheric
re-entry a t high v e l o c i t i e s .

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6. GEMINI TARGET -- The s e c o n d U . S . manned s p a c e f l i g h t
program t o p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e i n r e n d e z v o u s and d o c k i n g , p e r f o r m
earth-orbital f l i g h t s up t o 1 4 d a y s , a n d d e m o n s t r a t e c o n t r o l l e d

re-entry and land landings. T h e A i r F o r c e w i l l l a u n c h Agena

v e h i c l e s w i t h A t l a s t o s e r v e a s rendezvous t a r g e t s f o r t h e two-
man Gemini s p a c e c r a f t .
7. LUNAR ORBITER -- Launch of s p a c e c r a f t t o o r b i t t h e moon,
take c l o s e up p i c t u r e s of t h e l u n a r surface a n d t r a n s m i t them t o
earth. Lunar o r b i t e r s p a c e c r a f t w i l l s e c u r e t o p o g r a p h i c data f o r
t h e s e l e c t i o n a n d c o n f i r m a t i o n of l a n d i n g s i t e s f o r P r o j e c t A p o l l o

manned l u n a r l a n d i n g m i s s i o n s .

-19-