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AnthroposAnthropos =




Study of…

AnthropologyAnthropology seeks to describe and account for the past, the present, and the future of Homo sapiens

AnthropologyAnthropology’’ss Reputation:Reputation: •• TheThe StudyStudy ofof thethe BizarreBizarre andand thethe
AnthropologyAnthropology’’ss Reputation:Reputation:
•• TheThe StudyStudy ofof thethe BizarreBizarre andand thethe
TheThe StudyStudy ofof OddmentsOddments byby EccentricsEccentrics
TheThe StudyStudy ofof StrangersStrangers byby StrangersStrangers
MakingMaking thethe Strange,Strange, FamiliarFamiliar andand thethe
Familiar,Familiar, StrangeStrange

TheThe UniqueUnique ScopeScope ofof AnthropologyAnthropology

The topical, temporal, and geographic scope of anthropology is broaderbroader than that of any other social or human science

All of the other human sciences take a partial view of humanity

TopicalTopical ScopeScope

Sociology: patterns of social life

Political Science: governance and power

Economics: production, distribution and consumption

Psychology: mental processes and behavior

Religious Studies: supernatural beliefs and practices

Anthropology adopts a holisticholistic perspective on humanity

GeographicalGeographical ScopeScope

Anthropologists study everyevery partpart ofof thethe worldworld that has ever contained human beings or human ancestors

The other social sciences have a strong bias towards studying Western peoples

Anthropology adopts a globalglobal perspective on humanity

TemporalTemporal ScopeScope

Anthropologists seek to understand not only the historical development of our own species, but of those ancestral to it, as well.

The other social sciences tend to limit their study to literate, modern human societies.

Anthropology adopts a diachronicdiachronic

perspective on humanity

FourFour FieldsFields ofof AnthropologyAnthropology

Cultural Archaeology By approximate Applied anthropologists come in all four flavors numbers within each
By approximate
come in all four
numbers within
each subdiscipline

AnthropologicalAnthropological FieldsFields ofof StudyStudy

TwoTwo BroadBroad FociFoci ofof Study:Study: BiologyBiology andand CultureCulture

PhysicalPhysical (Biological)(Biological) AnthropologyAnthropology

HumanHuman OriginsOrigins (Paleontology(Paleontology andand PrimatologyPrimatology)) HumanHuman VariationVariation

CulturalCultural AnthropologyAnthropology

ArchaeologyArchaeology LinguisticsLinguistics EthnologyEthnology (also(also calledcalled CulturalCultural oror SocialSocial AnthropologyAnthropology

PhysicalPhysical AnthropologyAnthropology

KeyKey Concept:Concept: EvolutionEvolution HumanHuman OriginsOrigins

HumanHuman PaleontologyPaleontology:: thethe studystudy ofof thethe humanhuman andand humanhuman ancestralancestral fossilfossil recordsrecords

WhatWhat areare thethe evolutionaryevolutionary phasesphases leadingleading upup toto humanityhumanity andand howhow hashas humanityhumanity itselfitself evolved?evolved?

PrimatologyPrimatology:: thethe studystudy ofof thethe mammalianmammalian groupgroup toto whichwhich humanshumans belong:belong: PrimatesPrimates (including(including thethe prosimiansprosimians,, monkeysmonkeys andand apes)apes)

PrimatologistsPrimatologists studystudy primateprimate biologybiology andand behaviorbehavior toto placeplace humanityhumanity inin itsits naturalnatural evolutionaryevolutionary perspective.perspective.

PhysicalPhysical AnthropologyAnthropology

HumanHuman VariationVariation

TheThe studystudy ofof howhow andand whywhy contemporarycontemporary andand recentrecent humanhuman populationspopulations varyvary biologicallybiologically RaceRace HumanHuman AdaptationAdaptation

ModernModern populationspopulations andand skeletalskeletal remainsremains

BorrowBorrow techniquestechniques andand conceptsconcepts from:from:

HumanHuman GeneticsGenetics:: inheritanceinheritance ofof traitstraits PopulationPopulation BiologyBiology:: impactimpact ofof thethe environmentenvironment EpidemiologyEpidemiology:: impactimpact ofof diseasesdiseases

PhysicalPhysical AnthropologyAnthropology

UniversityUniversity ofof AlabamaAlabama

ANTANT 270:270: IntroductionIntroduction toto PhysicalPhysical AnthropologyAnthropology

OfferedOffered inin thethe FallFall Syllabus:Syllabus:

WebWeb site:site:

LabLab workwork withwith handshands onon experienceexperience

CulturalCultural AnthropologyAnthropology

KeyKey Concept:Concept: CultureCulture

CulturalCultural AnthropologyAnthropology isis divideddivided intointo severalseveral distinctdistinct disciplinesdisciplines basedbased onon thethe naturenature ofof thethe datadata usedused toto understandunderstand patternspatterns ofof humanhuman thoughtthought andand behaviorbehavior

ArchaeologyArchaeology LinguisticsLinguistics CulturalCultural (a.k.a.(a.k.a. SocialSocial AnthropologyAnthropology oror Ethnology)Ethnology)


TheThe studystudy ofof pastpast humanhuman societiessocieties byby thethe analysisanalysis ofof theirtheir materialmaterial remainsremains

PrehistoryPrehistory:: studystudy ofof thethe materialmaterial remainsremains ofof prepre-- literateliterate peoplespeoples

HistoricalHistorical ArchaeologyArchaeology:: studystudy ofof thethe materialmaterial remainsremains ofof peoplespeoples whowho alsoalso leftleft writtenwritten records.records.


UniversityUniversity ofof AlabamaAlabama

ANTANT 103:103: GreatGreat DiscoveriesDiscoveries inin ArchaeologyArchaeology

SBSB corecore creditcredit Syllabus:Syllabus:

ANTANT 107:107: IntroductionIntroduction toto ArchaeologyArchaeology

SBSB corecore creditcredit Syllabus:Syllabus:

LinguisticLinguistic AnthropologyAnthropology

TheThe studystudy ofof humanhuman languages,languages, thethe primaryprimary vehiclesvehicles ofof cultureculture

HistoricalHistorical LinguisticsLinguistics:: howhow languageslanguages changechange andand howhow theythey areare relatedrelated toto oneone anotheranother StructuralStructural LinguisticsLinguistics:: studystudy ofof thethe variationvariation inin languagelanguage constructionconstruction SociolinguisticsSociolinguistics:: studystudy ofof howhow languagelanguage isis actuallyactually usedused inin socialsocial contexts.contexts.

LinguisticLinguistic AnthropologyAnthropology

UniversityUniversity ofof AlabamaAlabama

ANTANT 210:210: LanguageLanguage andand CultureCulture

CulturalCultural AnthropologyAnthropology

(Text(Text callscalls Ethnology):Ethnology): thethe studystudy ofof thethe customarycustomary thoughtthought andand behaviorbehavior ofof contemporarycontemporary oror recentrecent societiessocieties

EthnographyEthnography:: detaileddetailed descriptiondescription ofof thethe customarycustomary behaviorbehavior andand thoughtthought ofof aa particularparticular peoplepeople CrossCross--culturalcultural comparisoncomparison:: investigationinvestigation ofof thethe relationshiprelationship betweenbetween culturalcultural andand socialsocial elementselements acrossacross societiessocieties EthnohistoryEthnohistory:: studystudy ofof writtenwritten documentsdocuments inin orderorder toto analyzeanalyze recentrecent socialsocial andand culturalcultural change.change.

CulturalCultural AnthropologyAnthropology

UniversityUniversity ofof AlabamaAlabama

ANTANT 102:102: IntroductionIntroduction toto CulturalCultural AnthropologyAnthropology

SameSame formatformat asas 100:100: lecturelecture andand lablab


• Humanistic perspective – emphasis on relativity – emphasis on the understandings of participants –
• Humanistic perspective
– emphasis on relativity
– emphasis on the understandings of
– emphasis on meaning
• Scientific perspective
– emphasis on objectivity
– emphasis on observation
– emphasis on explanation
• Scientific approach--there are regularities in behavior and biology that can be discovered – Hypothesis:
• Scientific approach--there are regularities in
behavior and biology that can be discovered
– Hypothesis: Provisional statement of relationship
between facts--usually a “because” statement
– Theory: Broad explanatory statement that has been
subjected to testing and falsification and found to be
accurate given current knowledge
• To say something is “just a theory” is inappropriate since
theory has grounding in empirical knowledge
WhyWhy StudyStudy Anthropology?Anthropology? ““KnowKnow thenthen thyself,thyself, presumepresume notnot GodGod toto
WhyWhy StudyStudy Anthropology?Anthropology?
““KnowKnow thenthen thyself,thyself, presumepresume notnot GodGod toto scan;scan;
thethe properproper studystudy ofof mankindmankind isis””
Alexander Pope, An Essay on Man (1733-34)

WhyWhy StudyStudy Anthropology?Anthropology?

LearningLearning somethingsomething aboutabout thethe biologicalbiological andand culturalcultural historyhistory of,of, andand variationvariation within,within, ourour speciesspecies producesproduces insightinsight intointo thethe humanhuman conditioncondition ItIt remindsreminds usus that:that:

EachEach ofof usus isis likelike allall humanhuman beingsbeings EachEach ofof usus isis moremore likelike somesome subsetsubset ofof humanshumans thanthan thethe restrest EachEach ofof usus isis uniqueunique

WhyWhy StudyStudy Anthropology?Anthropology?

AnthropologyAnthropology helpshelps usus overcomeovercome ethnocentrismethnocentrism andand avoidavoid unnecessaryunnecessary crosscross--culturalcultural misunderstandingsmisunderstandings

RacialRacial andand ethnicethnic differencesdifferences taketake onon muchmuch lessless significancesignificance ifif theythey areare understoodunderstood inin anthropologicalanthropological perspectiveperspective

AnthropologicalAnthropological SkillsSkills

CulturalCultural RelativismRelativism:: view other cultures from their

own internal perspective

– Interact with people of diverse cultures, making allowances for

differences in customs and beliefs

– Provide insight into social problems by supplying information about

how issues such as aging or bereavement are dealt with in other cultures

SocialSocial SensitivitySensitivity: anthropologists learn the

importance of events and conditions that cause people to do things differently

SocialSocial AgilityAgility:: learnlearn howhow toto quicklyquickly sizesize upup ofof thethe culturalcultural rulesrulesofof novelnovel socialsocial settingssettings

SocialSocial PerspectivePerspective:: learnlearn toto evaluateevaluate howhow thethe behaviorbehavior ofof individualsindividuals isis shapedshaped byby theirtheir positionspositions inin specificspecific sociosocio--culturalcultural systemssystems

This enables the anthropologist to “act locally and think globally”