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Health Care Strategies

A. Preventive strategies –focused on avoiding disease or preventing


further complications of any disease present
B. Promotive strategies –focused on attaining a higher level of health

*Health promotion –any activity undertaken for the purpose of achieving a


higher level of health and well-being

*Disease prevention and health promotion go hand-in-hand


=are achieved by the same means
= they include both primary prevention and wellness
activities
=if you are preventing disease, you are promoting your
health

*Levels of Prevention:
1. Primary prevention –generalized promotion and specific protection
against disease
–It precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to
generally healthy individuals, but may also be offered to
clients regardless of their health status and age
Ex. Health education –accident prevention, nutrition, growth and
development, exercise, stress management, etc.
2. Secondary prevention –emphasizes early detection of disease, prompt
intervention and health maintenance for individuals at risk of
experiencing health problems
Ex. Screening for hypertension, high cholesterol, hepatitis, etc.
Regular medical/ dental check-ups
Teaching breast self-exam
3. Tertiary prevention –Begins after an illness, when a defect or disability
is fixed, stabilized or irreversible; focus is to help individuals and
restore them to an optimal level of functioning within the constraints of
the disability
–Similar to rehabilitative strategies but focuses on
preventing further complications or worsening of the
condition

*Types of Health Promotion Programs


1. Information dissemination –raises knowledge/ awareness; uses media
to offer information about risks related to certain behaviours as well as
benefits of changing behaviours
–through billboards, brochures, newsletters, books,
health fairs
–topics may include drug abuse, HIV/AIDS, etc.
2. Health appraisal/ wellness assessment programs –used to inform
individuals of risk factors inherent in their lives to motivate them to
reduce specific risks and develop positive health habits; a variety of
tools are available
3. Life style and behaviour change programs –geared to enhancing
quality of life and extending life span; examples include stress
management, nutrition awareness, weight control, smoking cessation,
exercise
4. Worksite wellness programs –address workplace issues (air quality,
accident prevention); may include health enhancement programs
5. Environmental controls programs –may include community groups
concerned about toxic and nuclear wastes, nuclear power plants, air/
water pollution, and herbicide/pesticide spraying

C. Curative –Health interventions that include pharmacotherapy, and


traditional, complementary and alternative medicine
–Actions taken to eradicate the disease and to relieve signs and
symptoms brought about by the disease, thereby restoring health
to the patient
Ex. Taking antibiotics to cure tonsilitis

D.Rehabilitative –Health care strategies provided to people who have


had a serious injury, illness or surgery, you may recover slowly. The
person may need to regain his/her strength, relearn skills or find new
ways of doing things he has done before.

Rehabilitation often focuses on:

• Physical therapy to help restore strength, mobility and fitness


• Occupational therapy to help with daily activities
• Speech-language therapy to help with speaking, understanding,
reading, writing and swallowing
• Treatment of pain
The type of therapy and goals of therapy may be different for different
people. For example, an older person who has had a stroke may simply
want to dress or bathe without help. The goal of younger person who has
suffered a heart attack may be to return to work and normal activities.