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Chapter One

Biology
Biology
Is the study of living organisms m their interaction with each other, with the
environment and the relation of all of this to man

The scientific method of thinking


1. The problem is accurately
2. All available information is collected
3. Assumptions are may lead to the solution of the problem
4. Experimentation follows more than once to be sure the final results are
accurate
5. Conclusion from results to offer a solution for the problem
Bilharzia
Scientific efforts in the discovery of Bilharzia

A. The problem
 Some people suffering from disease with a blood in the urine

B. Collecting of Data

1. Theodre Bilharz 1851


*he discovered worms in the Egyptian corpse who was suffering from bloody
urine before dies
*he discovered these worms in the hepatic portal vein that carries blood to the
liver
*he discovered the worms were flat and male only, he known to be
hermaphrodite then discovered the female
* He discovered 2 types of eggs (terminal spine in urine)
(Lateral spine in faeces)
• He called the Distoma haematobium for worms in the urinary bladder
[worm with 2 mouths]

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Bach 1856 *he gave the worms the name Bilharzia

C. Assumptions
Harley 1864 * Assumed the eggs of Bilharzia are the infective stage
Cobbold 1864
* Assumed the fresh water snail or aquatic crustacean acts as
intermediate host
Felkin 1895
*Assumed the infection by bloody urine accurse by drinking
water containing larva of Schistsoma haematobium but not prove
Castellani 1902
* Noticed in Uganda presence egg with lateral spine in the
stools of patients, he assumed the egg for another type of worm from those of
the urine
Manson 1903
*Discovered eggs with lateral spine in faeces of patient that
belong to other kind of Bilharzia
Sambon 1907
* He called the worms that lay eggs with lateral spin
Bilharzia mansoni for memory of Manson

D. Experimentation
Miyari and Suzuki 1913
* They trace the life cycle of Bilharzia

E. The proof
Liber 1915
* He sent to Egypt, he proved existence of 2 kind’s pf worms
Schistsoma haematiobium and Schistsoma mansoni, he named the
intermediate hosts Bulinus snail for Sch. hae. And Biomphalaria snail for Sch.
mansoni

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The role of Egyptian Scientists

1- Dr. Ali Pasha Ibrahim :-


* He pointed to the complication that caused by bilharzia to the uriary system

2-Dr. Soliman Azmy :-


* he pointed to the effect of bliharzia on blood ciculation nd heart

3-Dr.Khalil Aba El-Kahalek:-


* he confirmed the role of the drug called Fouadin in treatin Blharzia and role of
copper sulphate on controlling the snails

Bilharzia Worms
Infection In Egypt :-
1- Bilharzia infects 30% of population in Egypt
2- The life cycle includes alternation of generation and the parasitism in 2 hosts
[ Sexual reproduction in Man and Asxual reproduction in Snail ]

External features of adult worms :-

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* Flat worms unisxual ( Male and Female )
The male of bilharzia
1- The male short broad body, the length [10 – 15] mm and [1] mm broad
2-The male covered with tiny warts which help ity to cling to the walls of veins
3- The male has 2 muscular suckers the anterior suker is small , the posterior
suker larger
4- The sukers helps to stick to the wall of the blood vessel and not swept away by
blood current
The Female of bilharzia
1- The female ha thin cylindrical body and longer than male it lenght [20]mm
and [0.2] mm broad
2- The body of female is smooth but there is warts in the terminal parts
3- The 2 sukers are equal in size

Digestive system of Bilharzia


1. The digestive canal stsrts by mouth opening at the base of the anterior sucker
2. short muscular oesophagus that divides in the front of the ventral sucker
into 2 canals called intestinal caeca
3. The 2 canal units to form single canal called common caecum and closes in
the end with no anus