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THE DIFFERENCE

BETWEEN THE SHEE'AH AND


THE MUSLIMS

BY
SAEED ISMAEEL

1995-1416
fu ThE
iN rht NAME
rJAfrrE rhe MOST
of AILah, ThE
ofAllAh, nosr BENEficENT,
Ben{icetr, ThE firosr MERCiflJ1
rhe MOST nenciful
OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Introduction 1
Background
Backgroundof Shee'ah
Shee'ahIdeologies
Ideologies 2
The
TheHoly Qur'an
Qur'an 3
The
The Sunna Hadeeth
Sunnaor Hadeeth 6
Ijma' (Consensus
Ijma' (Consensus Semi-Consensus)
or Semi-Consensus) 8
Articles
Articlesof Faith andPillars
Faith and Islam
Pillarsof Islam 1l
11
The
The Shee'ah
Shee'ahConcept Imamate
Conceptof Imamate t3
13
The Family
Family ofof the Prophet
Prophet (peaceBeUponHim)
6ro""neuponHim) I6
16
The Companions
Companions of of the Prophet
Prophet (peace
@eaceBeUponHim)
Be Upon Him) 18
18
Toq'yah (Shielding)
Toq'yah(Shielding) 2r
21
ah -- Temporary
Mut'ah
Mut' Marriage
TemporaryMarriage 24
24
GhadeerKhum
Ghadeer 26
26
Conclusion
Conclusion 30
30
References
References 31
31
I*t*oDUCrroN
INTRODUCTION
Thanks be
Thanks be to ALLAH,
ALLAH, His help help we seek
seekand guidancewe
and His guidance we search
searchfor;
for'
ra*romsoeverALLAH
whomsoever ALLAH permits go astray
permitsto go astrayshall
shall never
neverhave guidan"", whomsoever
haveguidance, , rlrornro"rr.i
ALLAH guides shall
ALLAH guides neverbe
shall never be misled;
misled;and
and I bear
bearwitness
witnessthat thereis
that there is no
no God
God but
but
ALLAH alone
ALLAH alone and
and He has no
He has partner;and
no partner; and I bear
bearwitness
witnessthat Mohammedis
that Mohammed is His
His
servant
servant and
and messenger. Peace be
messenger.Peace upon him,
be upon him, his
his family,
family, his
his companions
companionsand and their
their
followers
followersuntil the day of resurrection.
the day resurrection.
ALLAH
ALLAH commands
commandsus us in the Qur'an'."Let
the Holy Qur'an: "Let there
there arise
arise out ofyou a
group of
of people iniviting
iniviting to all
all that Lv
is good (Islam), enjoining
enjoining Al-ma'ruf(i.e.
Al-ma'ruf (te.
Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do) do) andforbidding
andforbidding Al-
Al-
Munkar (polytheism and disbelief and all
Munhar (polytheism all that Islam has forbidden). And
hasforbidden). And it is
they
they who are the successful"l. pray to ALLAH
successful"r.I pray ALLAH thatthat He will accept
acceptthis
this work as
as
aa correct
correctresponse
responseto
to His
His commandment.
commandment.
The purpose of this
The purpose pamphlet is
this pamphlet is to presentaa brief idea
to present idea about
aboutthe
the religious
religious
issues
issuesthat
that the
the Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholars
scholarshave
havedisagreed
disagreedupon
uponwith
with the majorityof Muslim
the majority Muslim
scholars.It is
scholars. is to acquaint
acquaint especially
especially those
thosewho
who have
haveaa vague picture of what
vaguepicture what thethe
Shee'ah school
Shee'ahschool of thought
thought is
is in comparisonto the malority'sversionof Islam.In
comparison to the majority's version ofIslam. ln
short,
short, it is
is to answer
answerthe
the ever-rising questions.Is
ever-risingquestions. Is the
the disagreement
disagreementvital?
vital? And ifif it is
is
vital,
vital, as
as aa Muslim
Muslim Shee'ah
Shee'ahor or following
followingthe
the Muslim
Muslim scholars,
scholars,what
what should
shouldI do do toto
find the
find the right
right Islam
Islam and the right
and the path to
nght path to Paradise?
Paradise?May ALLAH
ALLAH bestow
bestowon on us
us His
His
mercy
mercyand andnot depriveus
not deprive us of His guidance.Ameen.
His guidance. Ameen.

t The
the Holy Qur'an: 104
I Qur'an: Chapter
Chapter 3 verse
verse 104.
BACKGROUND oF
Boa*cRouND SHEE'AD TDEoLocIES
OF 'HEE'AH IDEOLOGIES
When Islam
When Islam came
came asas a guidance
guidance for mankind,
mankind, the early generation
the early generation of
Muslims sincerely
devoted Muslims
devoted sincerely worked
worked hard propagate
hard to propagate and and defend allowing Islam
defend it, allowing Islam
steadfastly. However,
spread steadfastly.
to spread However, this created a wave
this created anger and
wave of anger and hatred
hatred towards
towards
Islam from
Islam some of the
from some the narrow minded religious
narrow minded figures,especially
religious figures, especiallyof Judarsm
Judaism.
They plotted
They plotted to
to assassinate
assassinate the prophet
the prophet (peae
(Peace Be
Be upo
Uprn Him) and to create
Him) and create discord
discord or
or
fighting among Muslims
fighting among (Fitnah). However,
Muslims (Fitnah). However, the the Iman faith of the
Iman or faith the companions
companions
was so
was so strong that they
strong that were not
they were affectedby such
not affected suchconspiracies.
conspiracies. After
After the deathof
the death
many companions,
many companions, the the Jewish
Jewish conspiracy
conspiracy among others, represented
among others, represented by Abdullah
Abdullah
bin Sabaa,
bin found its
Sabaa,found its way first, thru
way first, Muslims less
thru Muslims less educated
educated about then later
Islam then
about Islam later
on
on to the rest
to the rest of the
the Muslim
MuslimCommunity.
Community.l 1

During the
During the term
term of the first and
the first and second
secondCa'lee'phah's (Leaderof the
Ca'lee'phah's(Leader the whole
whole
Muslim
Muslim nation)
nation) there
there were still many
were still many companions.
companions.By the the endend of thethe third
third
Ca'lee'phah's
Ca'lee'phah'sreign, greatnumber
reign,aa great numberof the the companions
companions the Prophet
of the (peaeBer.rptnHim)
Prophet(Peace Be Uptm Him)

had passedaway,
had passed away, while
while the number of new
the number generationand
new generation and new new converts
convertshad had
multiplied
multiplied tremendously.
tremendously.At this this time,
time,the tribalist,racist
the tribalist, racistand Jewishmovements
and Jewish movements
found
found an an opportunity
opportunityto to come
cometo to the
the surface. Amongthese
surface.Among movementswas
thesemovements that of
was that
Abdullah
Abdullah Bin Bin Sabaa,
Sabaa,as had been
as had been mentioned above. He
mentionedabove. He isis aa Yemen
YemenJew who
Jew who
claimed
claimedthatthatAli had
had divine
divtneauthority.
authority.This
This developed
developedfurther into the
furtherinto the claim that he,
claimthat he,
his son-Al-Hassan.his sonAl-Hussainandthe
his son, AI-Hassan, his son AI-Hussain and the descendants
descendants of the
the latter
latter should
should be
be
the
the future
future leaders
leadersof the whole Muslim
the whole Muslim Ummah
Ummah forever. This was,
forever. This course.
was. of course,
contrary
contrary to to the
the current practicesince
currentpractice sinceafter the Prophet
afterthe (peaerlerJprnHiml
Prophet(Peace Abu Bakr
Be Up,m Him) Abu Bakr hadhad
been
been elected
elected as the Caliph
as the (Leader)of the
Caliph (Leader) whole Muslim
the whole Muslim Ummah (Nation),
Ummah (Nation),
followed
followed by by Omar.
Omar. There
There was
was as yet, until
asyet, today,no
until today, no claim
claimthat
thatAli should
shouldbe be the
the
d
first
firstCa'lee'phah
Ca'lee'phah'.2
This
This allegation
allegationhowever, finally found
however,finally placeof acceptance
foundaa place acceptance in the
in capitalof
the capital
the previouslyIranian
the previously lranian Empire,
Empire,AI-Madayen,
Al-Madayen,moremoreeasily
easilythan in the
thanin the other regions
otherregions
the IslamicEmpireat that time, especially
of the Islamic Empire at that time, especially since
since Al-Hussain,
AI-Hussain, second
second son
son of Ali,
was
wasthen
thenmarried to the
married to the daughter
daughterof the
the last Iranian Emperor?
lastIranian Emperor.3

This
This is
is why the Shee'ah
why the Shee'ah concept the hereditary
conceptof the hereditarysystem leadershipis
systemof leadership is
confined
confinedto to the
the descendants
descendants of AI-Husain, beginning with
Al-Husain, beginning fourth
with fourth Shiite's Imam
Shiite'sImam
(leader).The
(leader). The claim
claim that
that Ali should
shouldbe
be the first Caliph
thefirst Caliphstarted mainlyas
startedmainly political
asaa political
ploy to
ploy to create
creatediscord
discordamong Muslimsby
amongMuslims by agitating
agitatingthe
thetribal andracial
tribal and racialdifferences
differences
and
andhostilities.
hostilities.

' Zaheer,
I Zaheer,pp 17-24,
l7-24, quoting
quotingthree
threeShee'ah
Shee'ahsource.
source
2Ibn
2Ibn Taymiyah,
Taymiyah,Vol. pp. 116-72.
Vol. 33 pp. I 16-72.
t Ali Hassan pp. 230-231.
3 Hassanpp.230-231.

2
The
The end
endresult
resultof the
the political
politicalclaim,
claim,however,
however,was
was a religious
religious difference
difference and
and
deviation
deviationfrom
from the
the Islam
Islammaintained
maintainedby by the
the great
greatmajority
majorityof Muslim
Muslim scholars.
scholars.
l 2
Shee'ahr derive
Shee'ah derivetheir
theirname
namefrom
from Shee'ee
Shee'ee2 which
which means Arabic supporter,
meansin Arabic supporter,
here
here to to mean
meanthe
the supporters
supportersof Ali, his
his sons,
sons,Hassan
Hassanandand Hussain, and descendants
Hussain,and descendants
of Hussain.
Hussain.Shee'ah
Shee'ahareare divided
divided into
into groups:
groups'. the Zaidis,
theZaidis. who have deviated the
whohavedeviatedthe
least;
least; the
the Ja'fari
Ja'fari Eth'nai
Eth'naiAshri,
Ashri, the
the Ismailis,
Ismailis,and
andthethe Alawi Nusairi. Druzes
AlawiNusairi. Druzes derive
derive
their roots from Ismailism and Fatimid
their rootsfrom IsmailismandFatimidShee'ah.3Shee'ah?

The
The following
following pages
pagesare devotedto
are devoted to the
the discussion
discussionof the
the Ja'fari
Ja'fari Eth'nai
Eth'nai
Ashri
Ashri (Ja'fari
(Ja'faritwelve
twelveImams),
Imams),which
which represents
represents the
the Shee'ah majority.
Shee'ahmajority.

1
'Plural.
Plural.
2
Singular.
2 Singular.

3
3 Ibn
IbnTaymiuah, Minhaj, vol.
Tayrniuah, Minhaj, lp.3; vol
vol. Ip.3; vol2p.l24
2 p.124 Tabatabai pp.75-82;
Tabatabaipp. Abdulla pp.
75-82; Abdulla pp. 73-143; Al-Falwazan pp.
73-143;Al-Falwazan pp. 9-l 8.
9-18.

3
HOLYQUR'AN
oLY QIIR'AN
Ja'fari Shee'ah
The Ja'fari Shee'ah scholar says: 'that
scholar says: the number
'that the number of verses in the
of verses the Holy
Qur'an is 1700'.r
Qur'an 1700'" Al-Kafi by Al-Kolayni,
Al-Kolayni, which Shee'ah scholars
believed by Shee'ah
which is believed scholars as
as
the most
the most trustworthy
trustworthy andand celebrated
celebrated work of HADEETH known in the
ofHADEETH the Shee'ah
Shee'ah
world, says: 'Any
says: 'Any human
human being claims to have
being who claims have collected the Qur'an in its
collected the Qur'an
world,
complete form is a liar.
complete liar. Only Ali
Ali and
and the
the Imams
Imams collected and preserved
collected it all and preserved it'.2
it'.2
The Shee'ah
The Shee'ah Scholars
Scholars also
also allow their followers read the
followers to read existing Holy
the existing
Qur'an till
Qur'an till they are
are taught
taught their version.
version. This
This permission
permission is based
based on a Shee'ah
Shee'ah
th
tradition which says:
tradition says: I said
said to lmam
Imam Ali Musa (the
Ali Musa (the 8s Imam), we hear
8 Imam), from you
hear from
Qur'anic
Qur'anic verses
verses which we have
have not learned.
leamed. Are we committing
committing sins
sins tiy
by not reciting
reciting
them? The
them? The lmam
Imam said'No,
said 'No, read the way you have
read the have learned. Someone will
learned. Someone come to
will come
th
teach you' (referring
teach the 12
(referring to the Imam who will
l2e Imam will reappear
reappear and bring with him
and bring him the
the
complete
completeversion
versionaccording
accordingto the
the Shee'ah beliefi
Shee'ahbelief)3
The
The Muslim scholars
scholars assure
assure us
us that Prophet Mohammed
that Prophet Mohammed (peace (peae
BeUpoo
Be ttp@ Hin)
Him)

compiled
compiled the
the Holy Qur'an
Qur'an in its
its complete,
complete,current
cunent existing
existingform orally and
form orally dtring
and during
the C'laph'ah
the C'laph'ah (leadership)
(leadership) of Abu Bakr,
Bakr, a
a compilation
compilation which
which was
was written
written down
down in
4
aa single
singlevolume.
volume.a
During
During the
the C'laph'ah
C'laph'ah of Othman,
Othman, the
the language
language of the the Holy Qur'an was
Qur'an was
5
standardized
standardizedand
and universalized.
universalized.sThe
The approved
approvedvariations reciting aa few words
variationsin reciting words of
6
the
the Holy
Holy Qur'an
Qur'an do
do not
not touch
touchits
its basic
basicmeaning.
meaning.6
ALLAH
ALLAH says the Holy Qur'an:"Verily
saysin the Qur'an'."Verily We:
lile: It We Who
It is We have sent
Who have down
sent down
the
the Dhikr
Dhikr (Qur'an) and surely, (from corruption)"7;"It
We will guard it (from
surely,lVe isfor
corruption)"1;"It isfor
Us
IIs to
to collect and to give you (0
(O Mohammad (p.o".
Mohamtnud (peace Be upon
s,Upon Him)the ability to recite it"
Him)) it"
8;
8; "Falsehood sent down by
"Fahehood cannot come come toto itfrom
itfrom before
before it or behind it (it is)
is) sent down by
the
the All-Wise
Alt-Wise Worthy
Worthy ofall
of all praise
praise (ALLAH)".9
(ALL/lH)".e

1t Al-Usool
Al-UsoolMinal-Kafi,
Minat-Kafi, vol.
vol . 2p.
2p.634, 1961; see
634,1961; seealsoZaheer, pp
alsoZaheer,pp. 77-152.
77-152.
22Al-Usool
Al-Usml Min
Min al-kafi
al-kafi vol.
vol . 1, p. 228, 1968.
I,p.228, 1968.
3t Al-Kafi Min al-Usool, vol.
Al-Kafi Min al-Usool,vol . 2,
2, p.
p. 633,
633, 1961;
I 96I ; also
alsosee
seeAl-Khateeb p. 11.
Al-Khateebp. I l.
4oAl-Bukhari,
Al-Bukhari,vol.
vol. 6, pp. 477-8.
6,pp. 477-8.
5tAl-Bukhari,
Al-Bukhari,vol.
vol. 6,
6, pp.
pp.478-80.
478-80.
u
6 Qattan, pp.
Qattan,pp. 170-85.
17G85.
77Holy Qur'an: Chapter
HolyQur'an: Chapter15
15verse
verse9.
9.
8t Holy qur'an:
HolyQur'an: Chapter
Chapter75
75verse
verse17.
17.
9eHoly
Holy Qur'an:
Qu'an: Chapter
Chapter41
4l verse
verse42.
42.

4
ALLAH had
ALLAH promisedto
had promised preserveit as
to preserve guidancefor Muslims
asaa guidance Muslims everywhere
everywhere
and forever. This
and forever. This is
is in contrast
contrastto
to the previousdivine
the previous divine books
books wherein
wtrereinalthough
althoughtheir
their
original forms
original forms are preserved with ALLAH,
are preserved ALLAH, the the ones
onesin the the hands
handsof the the followers
followers
thesemessages
of these messagesare aredistorted.
distorted.
The Muslim
The Muslim scholars
scholarswho
udro consider
consider thethe belief
belief that
that the
the Holy Qur'an
Qur'an is is
1
adulteratedis
adulterated plain rejection
is aa plain rejectionof the
the Islamic
Islamicfaith.
faith.r
Brothersand
Brothers andsisters, you can
sisters,you canfind
find out
out for yourselfthat
for yourself that the
the number
numberof versesverses
the Holy Qur'an
in the Qur'an is is 6236
6236excluding
excludingthe the "Bismillah" at at the beginningof the
the beginning the Suras
Suras
(Chapter),but
(Chapter), but the
the Shee'ah
Shee'ah Scholars
Scholarsclaim
claim that
that this
this Holy Qur'an
Qur'an is
is not
not complete.
complete.
Should we
Should we believe
believe thethe Ja'fari
Ja'fari Shee'ah
Shee'ah source
source oror the
the Almighty ALLAH
ALLAH and andthe
the
Muslim Scholars?Perhaps
Muslim Scholars? Perhapssome
some Shee'ah
Shee'ah deny
denytheir
their belief that
that the
the existing
eisting Holy
Qur'an
Qur'an is is not
not complete.
complete. But thisthis denial
denial could
could be be shielding (Tuq'yah or to
shielding(Tuq'yah to lie
lie to
to
protectthe
protect the Shee'ah
Shee'ahbelief).
belief).

|I Zaheer,
7ahet,p.p. 141-7.
l4l-7.

5
SU'N' AD oR
Sar'*'o" OR HADEETH
HADEETH
The Ja'fari
The Ja'fari Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars
scholars consider SU'N'AH as
consider SU'N'AH as what the prophet
what the prophet (peaeBe
(peace Be
1
rrm and the
Him) and
Upon Hin) the Imams
Imams said.l
said. AL-Kafi
AL-Kafi byby Kolayni, Tabatabai's words
in Tabatabai's
Kolayni, in is "the
words is "the
most trustworthy
most trustworthy andand celebrated
celebrated work
work of HADEETH in
ofHADEETH in the
the Shee'ah world".2 In
Shee'ah world".2 In
this source,
this source, the
the names
names ofof the
the transmitters
transmitters ofof the HADEETH are
the HADEETH are not
not frequently
frequently
mentioned. Instead
mentioned. of the "prophet
Instead of "prophet said", finc\" the Imam
said", you fin{" said". Many
Imam said". Many of of these
these
HADEETHs contradict
I{ADEETHs contradict the Holy Qur'an.
Qur'an. The prominent
prominent criterion
criterion in validating
validating
actually whether
HADEETH is actually whether itit supports, least, does
supports, or at least, negate the Shee'ah
does not negate Shee'ah
school of
school of thought.
thought. The most
most trustworthy
trustworthy of of the prophet's peaer.t6-rr-r
the prophot'S traditions are
(Peace Be Upon Him) traditions are
the ones
the ones received
received through
through the household of
the household of the prophet, i.e. the Shee'ah
the prophet, i.e. the Shee'ah Imams, lmams,
even though
even though an an Imam
Imam could
could pass away while his
pass away his child is only nine, eight or five
nine, eight
years old.3
years old? For
For example,
example, a F{ADEETH reported by Ali
HADEETH reported Ali and compiled by Sahih
and compiled Sahih Al"
AI..
Bukhari is rejected
Bukhari rejected ifif it contradicts
contradicts the
the Shee'ah
Shee'ah concept Temporary Marriage
concept of Temporary Marriage
(Nikah Mut'ah), but ifif the
(Nikah the HADEETH were supportive of
were supportive the Shee'ah
ofthe school of
Shee'ah school
thought, it would
thought, would be
be accepted
acceptedno no matter
matter who
who said,
said,transmitted, it. 4
compiled it.a
transmitted, or compiled

The
The Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholars define
defineSU'N'AH or HADEETH as
or HADEETH as the sayingsof the
the sayings the
Prophet (peae
Prophet (Pea"" nim),his
rtotn
BeUpon
Be Him), his deeds,
deeds,tacit
tacit approvals the description
approvalsor the descriptionof his physical
his physical
appearance. s first
The first
authentication.The
appearance.sBasically,
Basically,there
thereare
aretwo
two ways
ways ofHADEETH
of HADEETH authentication.
is
is the
the "Isnad",
"Isnad". which
which means
means the the reliability
reliability of the the transmitters. Therefore
transmitters.Therefore
HADEETH
F{ADEETH with brokenbrokenlinkages
linkages between
betweentransmitters
transmittersare rejectedbecause
arerejected therel
becausetherel
is
is no
no way
way to
to find
find out
out how
how reliable
reliablethe
thetransmitters
transmitters are.Second,
are. thereis
Second,there "Matn'',
is "Matn",
which
which means content of the
means content the HADEETH;
HADEETH; that that is, whetheror
is, whether not it contradicts
or not contradicts thethe
teachings
teachingsof the
the Holy
Holy Qur'an,
Qur'an, there
thereis
is another
anotherversion
versionof the the same
sameHADEETH with wtth
6
aa different
differentchain
chainof transmitters,
transmitters,or
or whether
whetherthere
thereis is aa stronger Isnad,etc.
strongerIsnad, Basedon
etc.6Based on
these
these methodologies
methodologiesandandthe strictnessof
the strictness of the
thecompiler
compilerinin choosing
choosinghishis HADEETH,
HADEETH,
the
the Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholarsaffinned
affirmedthat
thatthe compilationsof
thecompilations Al-Bukhari and
of AI-Bukhari the Muslims
andthe Muslims
are
are the
the most
most trustworthy source of
trustworthy source of the
the SU'N'AH
SU'N'AH of of the Prophet(pea""
the Prophet @eaeBetrptnuim;.7
Be Upon Him/

While
While thethe Holy
Holy Qur'an
Qur'an was
was compiled
compiled in in written
writtenform right after
form right thedeath
afterthe deathof the
of the

ItTabatabai
Tabatabai ,,p.p.93
93and
andConstitution
Constitutionarticle
article2.2.
22Tabatabai,p.
Tabatabai, p. 110.
lto.
33Among
Amongother
othersources,
sources,Tabatabai, pp.
94,207-8, and
Tabatabai,pp.94,2O7'8, and210-1.
210-l
4oTabatabai,
Tabatabai,p.p.94.
94.
,t Azami,
Azami,p.3.
p.3.
66Azami,
Azami,pp. 32-72.
pp.32-72.
7 tIbn
lbnTaymiyah,
Taymiyah,Fatawi,
Fatawi,Vol. 18,p.p.17,
Vol.18, 17,Azami p.p.87-96.
Azailrlli 87-96.

6
prophet @"*
prophet Be npd
(peace Be Upoo Him), serious compilation
Him), the serious of the HADEETH took place
compilation of place after
after
l
almost 100 years.l
almost 100 years. There There were
were many
many reasons
reasons for this delay, the major one
delay, the one being
being
that a great proportion
that agreat proportion of
of F{ADEETH
HADEETH dealt
dealt with detailed
detailed teachings should be
teachings which should
practiced by a true
practiced companions were
The companions
true Muslim in his daily life. The actually living
were actually
compilations of
compilations ofHADEETH because they
HADEETH because were representing
they were the prophetic
representing the prophetic manners
manners
themselves. Therefore,
themselves. Therefore, there
there seemed urgent need
seemed to be no urgent serious efforts
need for serious efforts
towards a written compilation.
towards compilation. Furthermore, some great
Furthermore, some Companions were
great Companions were of
of the
the
opinion
opinion that
that the
the teaching
teaching of
of Islam
Islam should
should be
be focused
focused first in the
the Holy Qur'an so
Qur'an so
that it would be well-established.
that well-established. This
This was avoid what had
was to avoid had happened previous
happened to previous
Books in which divine
Holy Books divine words
words were mixed up with prophetic
were mixed prophetic sayings.
sayings.
So brothers
So brothers and
and sisters, definition of FIADEETH
sisters, which definition HADEETH is more more accurate,
accurate,
given the
given the fact
fact that
that Prophet
Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upoo Him) is
Mohammed reaeBeUpmrlim) the seal
is the seal of the Prophets? As
the Prophets?
God says
God says in the Qur'an: "Muhammad
the Holy Qur'an'. "Muhammad.lreoceBeuponni4 thefather of
(Peace Be Upon Him) is not thefother ofany
any
among you, hut
man among but he is the Messenger
Messenger of ofALLAH
ALLAH and the last (end) (end) of
ofthe
the
prophets... ,,2. Only the
prophets..."2. the Prophets
Prophets and
and the
the messengers
messengers of ALLAH ALLAH can can receive
receive
revelation
revelationwhich
which is binding unto
is binding unto whom
whom the
the messenger
messenger is sent.
is sent.When
When the Shee'ah
the Shee'ah
scholars
scholars equate
equate the sayings of the
the sayings the Imams
Imamsto the
the sayings the Prophet,
sayingsof the Prophet,they are
they are
claiming
claiming that
that the
the Imam
Imam also
also received
receivedrevelation. If these
revelation.If scholarsclaim
thesescholars that the
claimthat the
Imams
Imams were
were only inspired,
inspired,then
then the
the inspiration
inspirationis a different
differentstory. not binding
story. It is not binding
to
to be
be followed
followedor toto be
be enforced
enforcedonon others
othersnor
nor should
shouldit be
be shared
sharedbyby other human
otherhuman
beings.
beings.

1t Azami p.25.
|'zarnip.2s.
2'Holy
Holy qur'an: Chapter
Qur'an: Chapter33
33verse
verse40.
40.

7
IJMA'
I"*o (coNsENSUS
(CONSENSUS oR SEMI-CONSENSUS)
OR 'EMr-.'NSENSUS)
Shee'ah scholarshave
Shee'ah scholars have aa double
doublestandard positionconcerning
standardposition concemingIjma'.
[jma'. On
On the
the
one hand, the
one hand, Shee'ahscholars
the Shee'ah scholarsemploy
employconsensus
consensus to
to support
supporttheir
their arguments,
arguments,e.g.
e.g.
'... Both 'which were
Tabatabaiwrites
Tabatabai writes '... Both Sunniand
Sunni andShee'ee
Shee'eeclearly
clearlyasserted.. .' and
asserted...'and'which were
acclaimedby all...'1
acclaimed by all... And on
,1 And on the
the other, Ijma' is
other,Ijma' is rejected
rejectedbyby Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholars
scholarswho:
who:

l.Claim
1. Claim that thousandsof the
that thousands Prophet's(peace
the Prophet's Be Upon Him) companions
6r".*Berfuorrim) had plotted
companionshadplotted
against the
against Prophet's commands
the Prophet's commandsand and only
only less
less than
than ten
ten of them
them remained
remained
truthful, therebytaking
truthful, thereby taking knowledge
knowledgefrom from these
theseagainst
againstthe the majority.
majority.
2.Consider
2. Consider the millions of Muslim
the millions Muslim scholars throughoutthe
scholarsthroughout the Islamic
Islamichistory
history and
andthe
the
globe as
globe non-believersbecause
as non-believers becausethey
they don't
don't believe
believein in the
the I'ma'mah
I'ma'mahas asan
an article
article
of faith, one
offaith, which is
onewhich is based
basedon on claims rejectedby
claimsrejected by the
the majority.
majority.
3.Question
3. Question thethe authenticity
authenticityof the
the Holy Qur'an andthe
Qur'an and the HADEETHs
HADEETHs authenticated
authenticated
by the majority including
the majority includingthethe interpretations
interpretationswhich gainedthe
which gained the acknowledgment
acknowledgment
the same.
of the same.
Muslim scholars
Muslim scholars consider
consider Ijma'
Ijma' as as the
the third
third major source of Islamic
major source Islamic
teachings.When
teachings. nothingis
Whennothing is directly mentionedin
directlymentioned in the Holy Qur'an
the Holy or the
Qur'an or the SU'N'AH
2
about the
about the case,
case,then
thenthe
the Ijma'
Ijma' is
is considered
considered asaa valid
as valid source.
source.2 The most
The mostauthentic
authentic
text is the
text is the one
onereported
reportedby aa large group of transmitters
largegroup transmittersto
to another
anotherlarge group.This
largegroup. This
is called
is "Tawatur".3The
called "Tawatur".3 The most
mostvalid
valid interpretation
interpretation of the
the SU'N'AH/HADEETHS
SU'N'AH/FIADEETHS
is that
is that which gains the
which gains the approval
approvalofIjma'.4
of Ijma'.4For
For ALLAH says
saysin
in the
the Holy
Holy Qur'an:
Qur'an:
of you together,
"And holdfast, all ofyou together,to the
the Rope
Rope ofALLAH
of ALLAH (i.e.
(i.e. this Qur'an),
Qur'an), and
be
be not divided
divided among yourselves"s. Condemning
amongyourselves"5. Condemningdeviation,
deviation,ALLAH,
ALLAH, addressing
addressing
the Prophet (peace
the Prophet ip".*Be rtooHim)
BeUpon rrim)and referringto
and referring to those
thosewho who deviated
deviatedfrom
from the
the right path,
right path,
says'."Verily, those
says: those who divide their religion and break up into sects sects (all kinds of
of
sects), you (0
religious sects),
religious (O Muhammad (peace TpeaceBenponni^)
Be Upon Him)) have
have no concern
concern in them
them in
the least
leasl Their affair
affair is only with ALLAH, ALLAH, Who lVho thenthen will
will tell them
them what they
they
used to do"
used to do'6. The Proph€t 6reaenerp-n^1 '...stick
6. The Prophet (peace Be Upon Him) said:
said: ' ...stick to the Jama'ah(Majority)
to the Jama'ah (Majority)
and avoid
and division. Satan
avoid division. Satan is
is with
with the
the one personalone
oneperson but is
alonebut is more
morelikely
likely to
to avoid
avoid
the
the two together,
together, whosoever
whosoever wants abundance Paradiseshould stick
wants abundance in Paradise should stick to the
the

t Tabatabai, p. +0.
1 Tabatabai, 40.
'Ftawi,IbnTaymiahvol.
2 Fatawi, Ibn Taymiah vol. 1919pp.
pp. 5-8,
5-8, and lg2-2\2
and 192-202.
'Al-Jazari, l, pp.
vol. 1,
3 Al-Jazari, vol. 120-6.
pp. 120-6.
o Fatawa, Ibn Taymiyah,
4 Fatawa, vol. 19,
Taymiyah, vol. 19,pp.267-72.
pp. 267-72.
5 Holy qur'an:
'Holy Chapter 3 verse
Qur'an: Chapter 103.
verse 103.
u qur'an Chapter 6 verse
6 Holy Qur'an:: Chapter verse 159.
159.

8
Jama'ah.. .'.1 Jama'ah
Jama'ah...'.1 Jama'ah and
and consensus
consensus here
here is referring of Muslim
referring to the majority of
scholars rarho
scholars who are
are knowledgeable
knowledgeable about
about the commandments of
the commandments ALLAH. In another
of ALLAH. another
HADEETH, the the Prophet
Prophet @ecBcrlorrim) said: 'My
(peace Be Upon Him) said: Ummah will
'My Ummah will not have
have consensus
consensus
. on what
what is wrong'.2
wrong'.2 The Prophet p*Be
The Prophet (peace Be r&enin)also said: '...MyUmmahwillbe
UponHim) also said: ' ...My Ummah will be
divided into seventy
divided three groups.
seventy three groups. Only one
one of them shall
of them shall be saved
saved and the rest
and the rest
shall
shall be in hellfire'. When he
he was
was asked
asked which group
group is to be saved,
saved, he
he responded:
responded:
'The
'The followers
followers of of my path Companions'. [n
and my Companions'.
path and In another
another version
version of
of the
the same
same
HADEETH he responded: 'They
'They are the Jama'ah,.3
arethe Jama'ah'.3
HADEETH he responded:

Brothers and
Brothers sisters, don't you think that
and sisters, consistency is one
that consistency one of
of the
the crucial
crucial
elements of any
elements any valid measurement
measurement and and a tool of an an objective argument? Don't you
objective argument? you
suspicious ifif a person
think it is suspicious employs an
person employs argument when
an argument supports his
when it supports his biases
biases
and rejects
and rejects the
the same once it refutes
same once refutes them? about it. Let us
them? Think about us assume that you
assume that you
as Muslims
as want to know which path
Muslims want path leads paradise. A group
leads to paradise. people you
group of people
don't know anything about claimed
anything about claimed that they know which
that they which path
path leads
leads to it.
However,
However, one one among
among this
this group gave you
group gave you aa direction which contradicts
direction which contradictsthethe
directions
directions of the
the rest
rest of the group, numbering
the group, numbering no lessthan
no less elevenpeople.
than eleven Both
people. Both
descriptions
descriptionsseemed
seemedto be be equally reasonable, which
equally reasonable, shouldyou
directionshould
which direction you now
now
follow?
follow? What
What if if you came
cameto know that if you
that if do not
you do this person's
not know this direction
person's direction
or if
if you
you disagree
disagreewith him him he you, but
hateyou,
he will hate but the
the others won't? For
otherswon't? ALLAH
For ALLAH
says
says in the Qur'an: " there
the Holy Qur'an:" there is no compulsion
compulsionin religion.
religion. Verily,
Verily, the
the Right
Path
Path has become
become distinct from from the wrong path. Whoever l(hoever disbelieves Taghut
dkbelieves in Taghut
(anything worshipped other than the the Real God 'ALLAH")
God "ALLAH'~ and believes believes in
ALLAH,
ALLAH, then then he has grasped
grasped the most most trustworthy handhold that will will never
break
breahand ALLAH
ALL,AH is h all-Hearer,
all-Hearer, all Knower"
Knower"4. 4.

Brothers
Brothers and
and Sisters,
Sisters,just think
think about as aa basic
about it as basic rule. Thereare
rule. There arethree
three
categories
categoriesof issues
issuesupon
upon which
which scholars
scholarsdiffer
differ and they are
andthey areasasfollows:
follows:
1.
1.The
The Majority had had confirmed
confrrmedit as
asthe right one
the right onebut hadnot
but had not definitely rejectedit
definitelyrejected
as
aswrong.
wrong.
2. The majority
2.The majority had
had not
not approved
approvedof it as as the right one
the right buthadnotdefinitely
one but had not definitely
rejected
rejectedit asaswrong
wrong either.
either.
3.The
3. The Majority
Majority had
had rejected
rejectedit as
asdefinitely wrong.
definitelywrong.
The crucial differences
The crucial differences between
between the
the Muslim and
Muslim the Shee'ah
andthe Shee'ahscholars are
scholarsare
contained
containedin in the
the last
lastcategory.
category.

I
t Al-Jazari,
Al-Jazari,vol. 6,p.
vol. 6, p. 669.
669.
22Baleeq
Bale€qp.
p. 544.
5,14.
3
' Ibn
Ibn Taymiyah.
Taymiyalr.Minhaj, vol. 2.
Minhaj, vol. p. 122-5.
2. pp. 122-5
o
4 Holy qu'an: Chapter
HolyQur'an: ChaPer22verse256.
verse 256.

99
Brothers and
Brothers and sisters,
sisters, remember
remember that there isis aa great
that there deal of
great deal of difference
difference
between the 'majority
the 'majority of of Muslims'
Muslims' wtrich
which isis not evidence and
sufficient evidence
not aa sufficient andthe
the
between
'majority ofMuslims
'majority of Muslims scholars'
scholars' wtrich
which isis uitrat
what isis meant
meanthere by Ijma'
here by Ijma'
Dears let
Our Dears
Our let us
us remembqr
remember that
thatALLAH
ALLAH had
had wamed against deviating
us against
warned us deviating
from His straight
from His straight path.
path. He
He says
says in
in the
the Holy
Holy Qur'an: "And
Qur'an: "And verily,
verily, this
this is
is my
my
Straight Path,
Staight Path, so
so follow and follow
follow it, and follow not (other) paths,for they will seporute
not (other) paths,for they will separate
you away
you awayfrom
from Hispath.
path. This He ordainedforyou
He has ordainedfor that you may
you thatyou becomeAl'
may become Al-
Muttaqun (the
Muttaqun (thepious
pious)".
)".11

1 IHoly
HotyQur'an:
qr'an: Chapter
ChaFer66verse
verse153.
153.

10
10
~TICLES
TICLES OF
OF FAITH
EAITH AND
AND PILLARS OF
OF'ISLAM
ISLAM
The Ja'fari
The Ja'fari Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars
scholars say
say that
that believing
believing in aa hereditary
hereditarysystem
systemof
leadershipof the
leadership the whole
whole Muslim
Muslim Ummah
Ummah (I'ma'mah)
(I'ma'mah) is as fundamental as
is as fundamentalas
believingin
believing in one God.ll To
one God. To them,
them, I'ma'mah
I'ma'mah is
is an
an article
article offaith and a pillar of
offaithandapillarof
2
Islam.2
Islam. tn addition,
. In additioq among
amongthe
the articles
articlesreferred
referredto
to in the
the constitution
constitutionand
andthe
the other
other
Shee'ah sources,
Shee'ah sources, there
there is
is no
no mention
mention of believing
believing in the
the angels
angels or
or divine
divine
destiny(Al-Qader).
destiny(Al-Qader).
Muslim scholars
Muslim scholars affirm
affirm that
that there
thereisis no
no such
suchthing
thing asasI'ma'mah,
I'ma'mah, anan alleged
alleged
hereditary system of leadership
hereditary system leadership of thethe whole
whole Muslim
Muslim Ummah
Ummahin Islam.
Islam.There
Thereareare
evidencesin the
evidences the Holy Qur'an
Qur'an and
and the
the reliable
reliable SU'N'AH
SU'N'AH that
that even
even refute.and
refute.and reject
reject
this concept.
this concept. Inln the
the Holy Qur'an, ALLAH says:
Qur'an, ALLAH says: "... and who
"...and who (conduct)
(conduct)their
(Muslim) affairs
(Muslim) alfairs by
by mutual
mutuat consultation...
consultation..'tr '''' and
and the
the Prophet<Peace Be qxm Him) was
Prophet{peeBetloHin)was
commanded:
commanded: "... and consult
"..,and consultthem
themin the
the affairs...
affiirs...".a
".4

The Muslim
The Muslim scholars
scholarsbelieve
believethat
that Islam
Islam is
is built on
on five pillars: Testifying
five pillars: Testifuingthat
that
there is no God ALLAH and
there is no God but ALLAH and Mohammad
Mohammad is is His
His messenger, performing
messenger,performing
prayers, paying
prayers, paylng charity,
charity, fasting
fasting in the month of Ramadan
the month Ramadanand and making
making thethe
5
pilgrimage to the
pilgrimage the house
house of ALLAH.
ALLAH.s Furthermore,
Furthermore, they
they believe
believe that
that the
the
fundamentalarticles
fundamental articles of Iman
Iman are:
are:To
To believe
believein ALLAH,
ALLAH, HisHis Angles,
Angles, His
His Books,
Books,
His Messengers,
His Messengers,the the last
last Day andto
Day and to believe
believein divine
divine destiny,
destiny,both
both the good and
the good and
6
the evil thereof.
the thereof.6 If
If you readthe
read the whole
whole Holy Qur'an
Qur'an you will not
not find any
any support
support
'I'ma'mah
the 'I'ma'mah concept',
for the concept', the
the alleged
alleged hereditary
hereditary system
system of leadership
leadershipof the
the
qihole Muslim Ummah.
whole Muslim Ummah.
Brothers and
Brothers and sisters,
sisters,should
shouldwe
we believe
believethe
the majority
majority of Muslim scholars
scholarswho
who
are supported
are supportedclearly
clearly by thethe Holy Qur'an
Qur'an verses
versesand
and reliable
reliableHADEETHs,
FIADEETHs,or the the
Shee'ahscholars
few Shee'ah scholarswhose
whoseopinions
opinionsare
arenot sanctioned
sanctionedby the the Holy Qur'an
Qur'an or the
the
reliable HADEETHs?
reliable I{ADEETHs? Make Make suresurethat
that our
our sole intentionis
soleintention pleaseALLAH
is to please ALLAH only
only
and to find truth
and truth for our
our salvation
salvation in this
this world
world and
and in the the hereafter.
hereafter. Let us,
us,
remember
remember that
that ALLAH
ALLAH says saysin the
the Holy Qur'an: "0
Qur'an: "0 you who believe!
believe! Believe
Believe in
ALLAH, and His
ALIllH, flis Messenger (Muhammad(p~ ..u Be
Messenger (Muhammad(p*", B~ Upon
upon Him)t
Him)), and the Book
Booh (the

I Constitution
1 Constitution Article Asifi.. W.23-5
Article 2 and Asifi. pp.23-5
2Al-Kafvol. 1p.290.
2 Al-Kafi vol. 1 p. 290.
t3 Holy qur'an:
Qur'an: Chapter
Chapter 42 verse
verse 38.
38.
o
4 Holy qr'an: Chapter 3 verse
Qur'an: Chapter 159.
verse 159.
r, Bukhari - p. 35.
and Muslim Hadeeths, p.
Muslim - Forty Hadeeths, 35.
t6 Muslim -Forty Hadeeths, p. 30.
-Forty Hadeeths, 30.

l11l
Qur'an) which
Qur'an) which He has sent down to His Messenger,
Messenger, and the Scripture which He
Scripture which
down to those before (him), and
sent dmtn and whosover disbelieves
disbelieves in
in ALL'AH,
ALLAH, His
Angels, His Books, His
Angek, His Messengers,
Messengers, and Last Day, then indeed he has
and the Last
strayedfar a74tay"1.
strayedfar away"l.

1t Holy
HolyQur'an:
Qur'an:chapter
chapter44verse
verse136.
136

t2
12
CONCEPT oF
SHEE' AH .'NCEPT
S"""'AH OF I'M.{MAH
I'MA'MAH
The Shee'ah
The Shee'ah scholars
scholars believe
believe that
that the concept is
Immate concept
the Immate is an article of
an article faith
offaith
equal to
equal to believing
believing in
in one
one God.
God. I'ma'mah concept means
I'ma'mah concept that the
means that spiritual, religious,
the spiritual, religious,
educational
educational and
and political
political leadership
leadership of
of the
the whole
whole Muslim
Muslim Ummah
Ummah is
is a matter
matter ofof
inheritance confined
inheritance twelve Imams.
confined to only twelve These are
Imams. These the husband
are the husband of the youngest
of the youngest
daughter of
daughter of the
the Prophet
Prophet (peae
(Peace Be Upon Him),
Be uptn Fatima, her
Him), Fatima, her twO
two sons
sons andand sOme
some of of the
the
descendants
descendants of her second sons,
of her secondsons. Husain,
Husain, who was
was married
married to the
the Persian
Persian emperor's
emperor's
1
daughter.
daughter.r
This religious
This religious and
and political leadership could
political leadership could be inherited by a nine,
be inherited eight or
nine, eight
five year-old
five year-old boy.2
boy? For
For example,
example, the the Republic
constitution of the
the constitution Ir~n states
Republic of Iran states that:
that:
... the
... the official
official religion Iran is
religion of Iran is the Ja'fari Eth'nai
the Ja'fari Ashri and
Eth 'nai Ashri and this article is
this article is
unchangeable
unchangeable forever,3
forever'.3
4
First of all,
First all, this
this belief
belief is
is bound
bound with the belief
with the these Imams
that these
belief that Imams are infalliblea
are infallible
and share
and share with ALLAH the
ALLAH the power
power of knowing
knowing the including the
unseen including
the unseen the
5
knowledge
knowledge as as to
to when
when the
the Imams
Imamswould
would die. They believe
die.5They that obedience
believe that to these
obedienceto these
Imams 'even
unquestionable -- 'even the
the worship God becomes
worshipof God unnecessary
Imams should be unquestionable
shouldbe becomes unnecessary
' We cannot imagine
cannotimagine
if this
this is
is the
the Imam's
Imam's order,6
order'.6In
In Khomeini's words,it says'
Khomeini'swords, says. We
that
that the
the Imams
Imams cancan make
make mistake,7
mistake'.7Also
Also the I'ma'mahis
the I'ma'mah ts interwoven
interwoven with the
with the
belief 'the spiritual status Imam isis universal viceregency It is
universalviceregency. is aa
belief that
that 'the spiritual statusof thethe Imam
viceregency
viceregency pertaining
pertaining to the
to the whole
whole creation,
creation, by
by virtue
virtue of which
which all
all atoms
atoms in
in the
the
universe
universehumble
humble themselves
themselvesbefore
before the
the holder authority.It is
this authority.
holder of this is one
oneof the
the
essential
essential beliefs
beliefs of our
our Shee'ah
Shee'ah school
school that
that no
no one
one can
can attain
attain the
the spiritual
spiritual status
status of
8
the
the Imams,
Imams,not
not even
eventhe
theangels
angelsof the
thehighest rankor
highestrank messengers
or messengers ALLAH'.8 On
of ALLAH'. On
the
the other
other hand,
hand, the
the concept
conceptis
is inherent
inherentin the Shee'
in the Shee'ah
ah belief that all
belief that Muslim
all Muslim
Ca'lee'phahs (leadersof the
Ca'lee'phahs(leaders thewhole Muslimnation),
wholeMuslim nation),rulers judgesare
andjudges
rulersand aretaghoots
taghoots

1'Tabatabai,pp. 190-21I &&


Tabatabai,pp. 190-211 Hassan,
Hassan, pp.230-1.
pp. 230-1.
'2 Tabatabai,
Tabatabai, pp.
pp.205,
205,7,
7, 10.
10.
33Constitution
ConstitutionArticle
Article 12.
12.
4oe.g..
e.g..Asifi,
Asifi,pp. 23-25, Constitution,
pp.23-25, Constitution, Article2.2.
Article
5'Al-Kafi, vol. 1,1,pp.
Al-Kafi, vol. pp.206-62.
206-62
6uIslamic
Islamicgreat Libraryp.p.6.6.
great Library
7?Khomeini,
Khomeini,Arabic
Arabicp.p.91.
91.
88Khomeini,
Khomeini,p.p.64.
64.

t3
13
(evil ones)
(evil ones) if
if they
they are
are not
not Shee'ah
Shee'ahor
or of
of the
the twelve
twelve Imams.
Imams.lI Therefore
Thereforethe
the
constitutionof
constitution of Iran made sure
Iran made surethat
thatonly
only an
anIthna
IthnaAshari Ja'afai Shee'ah
AshariJa'afari Shee'ahcan
canbebe
president.22
and the 'national
the 'national legislative
legislativecouncil
president. and shall not enact laws that contradict
councilshallnot enactlaws that contradict
the principles and
the principles jurisprudenceof
and jurisprudence of the
the official
offrcial sect
sect of
of the
the state,.3
state'.3The
Thetwelfth
twelfth
Shee'ah Imam is
Shee'ahImam is believed
believedtoto have
have been
been born
bornin 868A.D.
in 868 A.D. and
andis
is still
still alive (now
alive(now
even after
even after eleven
elevencenturies)
centuries)but
but disappeared
disappeared when he
when he was yearsold.
was55 years old. He will
He
reappearand
reappear the current
and the current Republic
Republic of Iran
Iran will be
be dissolved
dissolvedfor
for him
him toto take
takethe
the
leadership.a
leadership.4

The Muslim
The Muslimscholars
scholarsregard
regardmonarchy questionable
monarchyquestionable where
whereonly
only the political
thepolitical
power is
power is inherited.
inherited. Therefore,
Therefore,they reject completely
they reject completely any any form
form of monarchy
monarchyin in
which even
which even the
the religious
religiousand
and the
the spiritual
spiritualleadership
leadership is inherited,unless
is inherited, unlessthere
thereis
is
clear evidence
clear evidencein in the Holy Qur'an
the Holy or the
Qur'anor thereliable
reliableSU'N'AH of the prophotlreaaner6,n
theprophetcPeaceBeUpoll
ni-r that
Him) that supports
supportsthis this claim.
claim. Not
Not only
only is
rs there
there no
no such
such evidence,
evidence,butbut also
alsothe
the
conceptof l'ma'mah
concept I'ma'mah contradicts
contradictsthe principleof the
the principle consultatIOn
the consultatron emphasized
emphasized by
by
the Holy
the Holy Qur'an. commandingthe
Qur'an.ALLAH, commanding Prophet,says:
the Prophet, and consult
says:,·".......and consultthem
them
affairs.........'6,
in affairs......... praisingthe
andpraising
'05, and the believers
believerssays: .......and
says:" ....... and who
who (conduct)
(conduct)their
their
by mutual consultation.......
affairs by consultation. ".6 tt o

The Muslim
The Muslim scholars
scholars also alsoaffirm
affirmthat
thatcomplete
completeinfallibility
infallibilityisis an
an attribute
attributeof
ALLAH alone alone and
and no
no creature
creatureshares
shares with Him. Eventhe infallibilityof the
it with Him. Even the infallibility the
prophetsis
prophets is limited
limitedto conveytngtheIr
to conveymg therrmessages
messages truly and
truly andin avoiding
avoidingcardinal
cardinalsins
sins
or disobedience
or disobedienceto to ALLAH. For For example,
example,ALLAH addressingaddressing the
the Prophet
Prophetsays:
says:
Proph€tp"o""
"The Prophetweace Be upon
Be Upon triml
llim) frowned and turned away
ftowned away because
becausea blind man man came
came
to (interrupting)".7
to him (interrupting)". The Holy
7 The Holv Qur'an
Qur'an assuresus that eventhe bestcreatureon
assures us that even the best creature on
earth does
earth does not sharewith
not share with ALLAH the the attributes
attributesof infallibility.Concerning
of infallibility. Concemingthe the
knowledgeof the
knowledge the unseen,
unseen,ALLAH says saysin the
the Holy
Holy Qur'an:
Qur'an: "I "I (Mohammad
(Mohamntod (Peace Be
Teeacene
upm Hin)
Upon H;mJ) have no power over ony
any good or harm to my self self except
except as God
(ALLAH) wills, ifif II had knowledge
knowledge of ofthe unseen, II should have
the unseen, have multiplied all
good,
good, und
and no evil should
should have have touched
touched me...'r.
me... ,,s. Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholars consider
consider those
those
who
who believe
believe that
that some
some human
human beings
beings are
are better
better than the messengers
than the messengers of ALLAH
ALLAH as
as

'1 Khomeini,
Khomeini, pp.92-1.
pp. 92-3.
2 ConstitutionArct. I 15.
2 Constitution Aret. 115.

3 Constitution Acft.72.
3 Constitution Aert. 72.

4 ConstitutionArct. 5.
4 Constitution Aret.

'Holy qur'an: Chapter3 verse159.


5 Holy Qur'an: Chapter verse 159.
u Holy qur'an:
6 Chapter42 verse
Qur'an: Chapter verse 38.
38.
t Holy qur'an:
Chapter 80verses
7 Holy qur'an: Chapter 80 verses l-10
1-10.
t Holy qur'an: 88.
Chapter 77 verse
8 Holy Qur'an: Chapter verse I188.

t144
kaferon (unbelievers),1
kaferon (unbelievers), I let alone
alone those
those who claim some creatures
claim that some share with
creatures share
ALLAH His unique
ALLAH unique attributes obedience to these
attributes or that obedience creatures is more
these creatures more
th
than to the
important than
important Creator. The
the Creator. concept of the
The concept the still alive 12ft
still alive Shee'ah Imam is a
12 Shee'ah Imam
myth which
myth should not bp
which should believed, let alone
be believed, alone build whole system
build a whole system of an Islamic
of an Islamic
th 2
goverrrment
government on it. Al-tabari assured us
Al-tabari assured us that the 1
that the 111ft Imam
Imam had offspring's at
had no offspring's all.z
at all.

There
There areare very
very few HADEETHs
HADEETHs compiled compiled by Termithy
Termithy and and Abu Dawood
Dawood
mentioning the
mentioning appearance of Al-Mahdi
the appearance AI-Mahdi amongamong the the signs
signs of the the Day
Day of
Resurrection.These HADEETHs say that
Resurrection. These HADEETHs say that he
he will have
have a name
name similar
similar to the
the
Prophet's (Mohammad (p",*
Prophet's (Mohammad Be up,-
(Peace r+ Up,m Hi-y)
Him») and his father's
and his name will be
father's name similar to the
be similar the
th
Prophet's
Prophet's father
father (Abdullah),
(Abdullah), not
not Hassan
Hassan the
the l
11lth Imam's
Imam's name.
name. He
He will be
be from
from the
the
descendants of the
descendants the first grandson
grandson of the the Prophet Be rhtn
(Peace ire
Prophet 1p""* Upon Him) not from
Him) but not from the
the
grandson's progeny
second grandson's i Furthermore,
progeny3 Furthermore, there is
there is no evidence that
no evidence such a
that such person
a person
second
will
wrll live twelve centuries.
live twelve centuries.
Brothers
Brothers andand Sisters. the Shee'ah
Sisters, the scholars consider
Shee'ah scholars consider the the I'ma'mah concept as
I'ma'mah concept as
an
an article
article of faith equalto
faith equal to believing
believing in ALLAH. That That is,
is, if you don't
if you don't believe this,
believe this,
then
then by their
their definition
definitionyou you could
couldbe be aa Kafer (unbeliever),
Kafer(unbeliever), forbid.On
God forbid.
God the other
On the other
hand, if you
hand, you believe suchwith
believe such with all its implications
all its implicationsand drmensions
anddimensions you could
you couldbebe aa
Kafer by the
Kafer by definrtron the scholarswhose
the defimtIOn of the scholars whose loyalty
loyalty is
is only
only to
to ALLAH
ALLAH and
and the
the
Prophet (peaeBerrprnHimr,
Prophet (Peace not for
Be Upon Him), not for aa special
specialdynasty
dynastyor race.Make
or race. Make sure
surethat you choose
that you choose
the
thenght pathto
nght path paradise
to paradise

1t AI-Tahawi,
Al-Tahawi,p.
p. 557.
557.
22Ibn
lbn Taymiyah,
Taymiyah,Minhaj
Minhaj vol.
vol.lI P.
P. 37.
37.
t3 Ibn
IbnAI-Atheer,
Al-Atheer,vol.
vol. 10, pp.330-2.
10,pp. 330-2.

l5
15
FAMILY oF
F*rLy THE pRopHET
OF THE PROPHET eo""n.uponrnm)
(peaceBeUponIDm)

The Ja'fari
The Ja'fari Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars confme "Family of the
scholars confine the prophet
prophet (pea€B€rbmHim)"
(Peace Be Upon Himj" to

the youngest
the youngest daughter
daughter of
of the Prophet (peae
the Prophet (pea"" Be
Be rrpd
Upon Him),
Him), Fatima
Fatima,, his his cousin
cousin Ali Ali--
husband of
husband of Fatima, the first grandson
Fatima, the grandson and
and thethe second grandson (who married
second grandson married thethe
last kanian
last Iranian emperor's
emperor's daughter,
daughter, then
then Shahrbanoo)
Shahrbanoo) and and thethe eight descendants of
eight descendants of the
the
1 'lt
secondgtandson
second grandson from his Persian
from his Persian wife.l
wife. Khomeini
Khomeini said:said:'It is one of the
is one the essential
essential
beliefs of Shee'ah
beliefs Shee'ah school that no
school that no one
one can
can attain
attain the spiritualstatus
the spiritual statusof Imam (Ali
ofImam
and his
and his descendants),
descendants), not
not even
even the
the close
close angels
angels or thethe prophets
prophets who are
are also
also
messengers of God,2.
messengers God'2. Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholars believe that
scholarsbelieve that the
the leadership
leadership of the
the whole
whole
Muslim Ummah
Ummah is confined
confinedonlyonly to the
the twelve
twelve Imams.
Imams. Therefore
Therefore they
they neglect
neglect the
the
accomplishments and
accomplishments and the virtues of or cast
the virtues cast cardinal
cardinal accusations
accusations against the rest
against the rest of
the prophet's
the prophet's 1p""o
(Peace Be
Be upm Him) family
Upon Him) family and
and Companions, unless they
Companions,unless are proven
they are proven to the
the
Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars
scholars to have have demonstrated
demonstrated strong
strongsupport (This can
supportto Ali. (This can be further
be further
corroborated
corroboratedby reading
readingany any of the
the Shee'ah
Shee'ahsources IslamichIstOry,
sourcesin Islamic for example
hrstory, for example
Tabatabai,
Tabatabai, Ali
AIi Shariati,
Shariati,IbnIbn Abi al-hadid,
al-hadid,etc.).
etc.).
The
The Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholarsconsider "Ahl-al Bait" the
consider"Ahl-al family of the
thefamily the Prophet (peaeB€
Prophet(Pea""Be
r}q Him)as
Upon Him) as all his
his relatives
relatives who
who cannot
cannot receive
receive charity.
charity. This
This includes
includes the
the Prophet
Prophet
@ee
(peace Be
Be rtom
Upon Him),Ali, Aqil, Abbas
Him), Abbasand
and their posterity,3the
their posterity,3 the wives
wrvesof the Prophet(pea""Be
the Prophet @eaeBe
rrim)are
rlo Him)
Upon are members
membersof his
his family,
family, ALLAH
ALLAH Says
Saysin the Qur'an: "And stay
the Holy Qur'an: stay in
your houses
yoar houses and do
do not display yourselves like that ofthe
display yourselves ofthe times
times ofignorance,
and perform
perform regular prayers (As-Salat),
(As-Salat), and give charity (Zakat)
(Zakat) , and obeyobey
ALLAH
ALI-/IH and his Messenger.
Messenger.ALLAH
ALLAH wishes
wishesonly to remove
removeAr-Rijs
Ar-Rijs ( evil deeds
deeds
and sin,
sin, ect) from you, 0O members
ecl) fromyou, of thefamily ofthe
membersofthefamity of the Prophet
Prophet (peace
@eaceBerJpon*im)ee
Be Upon Him)"

and to purfu
purify you with a thorough purification. ,,4, not
thorough purification.'4, not only
only that,
that, but
but allall the
the
Prophet's
Prophet'swives
wives are
arethe mothersof the
the mothers the believers,
believers,ALLAH
ALLAH Says
Saysinin the
the Holy Qur'an:
Qur'an:
"" The
The Prophet
Prophet is closer
closer to the
the believers
believersthan
than their ownselves,
ownselves,and his wives
wivesare
are
their (believers~
(believers') mothers
mothers (as
(as regards
regards respect
respectand marriage).......
marriage) ,,5.

The
The majority
majority of thethe Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholarsconsider
considerthosethosewho who believe
believethat some
that some
human
human beings
beings are
are better
betterthan
thanthe
the Prophets
Prophetsas (unbeliever).Muslim
asKafir (unbeliever). Muslim scholars
scholars
hold
hold respect
respect for
for the
the whole
whole family
family of the
the Prophet
Prophet (peaaBerlmnim;
(Pea"" Be Upon Him) in
in general.
general.

t Ash-Sheerazee
I Ash-sheerazee pp. 13-19.
pp. l3-19.
2Khomeni,
2 Khomeni,translation,
translation,Algar, p 64
Algar, p. PSGp.
64 & PSG p. 25.
25
3
3 Muslim,
Muslim, vol.
vol. 2, pp. 517-21
2,p. 517-21&& vol.
vol. 4, pp. 1286-7.
4, pp. 1286-7
4oHoly
Holy Qur'an:
Qur'an:chapter
chapter33
33 verse 33.
verse33.
St Holy qur'an: chapter
Holy Qur'an: chaper 33
33verse 6.
verse6.

16
l6
Prophet rp*
The Prophet Be rl'
(Peaao Bc Him), in a HADEETH
Upm Hin), reported by Muslimt
HADEETH reported Muslim 1 while
commanding Muslims
commanding Muslims to stick to thethe Holy Qur'anQur'an as as a source
source of.guidance,
ofguidance, also
also
them to be kind to his family.
asked them
asked family. Muslim scholars also preserved
scholars also preserved a high
high status
status
2
the Companions
for all the Companions of
of the
the Prophet {Peaao Be Upm Him), the
Prophet @wBcrlorrim), the chosen soldiers of
chosen soldiers Islam.2
ofIslam.

Brothers and
Brothers and Sisters,
Sisters, being
being Muslims, could we really
Muslims, could really neglect
neglect the the other
other
daughters of
daughters of the
the Prophet (peace Be Upon Him), his relatives
Prophet @eeBcrloHin), relatives and descendants who were
and their descendants were
excellent
excellent muslims?
muslims? Could
Could we confine
confine the
the family of the
the Prophetrp**B€r&aHim)
Prophet<Peace Be Upm Him) to just
just
ones as
a few ones as selected
selected by Shee'ah
Shee'ah Scholars? Could we really
Scholars? Could love only a few and
really love and
curse the
curse the other
other tens
tens of
of thousands
thousands of the early generation
the early generation of Islam? What
of Islam? What about
about
Othman, who was
Othman, was married
married to the daughters of
the two daughters of the
the Prophetrp**B€rD@Hin) and had
Prophet<Peace Be Upon Him) and had
a son
a son from
from one
one of them?
them? What What aboutabout thethe descendants Hassan,, the
descendants of Hassan the eldest
eldest
grandson of the
grandson Prophet (pcae
the Prophet Be q*
(peace Be Him)? Don't you think Ali
Upm ni-i? and his
Ali and his pious
pious
descendants would be
descendants be among
among the the fust
first to condemn concepts of the
these concepts
condemn these the Shee'ah
Shee' ah
scholars?
scholars?

1t Muslim,
Muslim,vol.
vol. 4, p.
4,p. 12879.
12879.
22The
TheVirtues
Virhresof
of the
theCompanions,
Companions,in
in Al-Bukhari&Muslim.
Al-Bukhari&Muslim.

17
l7
COMPANIONS oF
C'MPANI'NS PROPHET (PBUH)
OF THE PR.PHET (PBUH)
The Ja'fari
The Ja'fari Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars claim that the
scholars claim fIrst and
the first and the second guided
the second guided
Ca'lee'phahs,
Ca'lee'phahs, Abu Bakr and
and Omar
Omar plotted
plotted against
against Islam
Islam and
and tried to eliminate
eliminate the
the
HADEETH so so that they
they could
could interpret the Holy Qur'an such
interpret the in such a way as to serve
as serve
their purposes.
their purposes. The
The Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars
scholars also
also claim
claim that the fIrst guided
three first
the three guided
Ca'lee'phahs 'Broke
'Broke their covenant
covenant with the
the prophet
prophet (peaeBetbmHin) and
and changed
changed his
Ca'lee'phahs (Peace Be Upoo Him)

SU'N'AH,.I They
SU'N'AH'.I They divide
divide the
the thousands
thousands of the the Prophet's companions into
Prophet's companions into three
three
categories; 2
categories,2

1. The Companions
l. The Companions whom
whom the
the Shee'ah like, who
scholars like,
Shee'ah scholars are less
who are less than
than ten.
ten.
2. The
2. The worst elements (among
worst elements (among these
these was
was Abdullah Omar who reported
Abdullah bin Omar reported
numerous true
numerous true HADEETHs).
HADEETHs).
3. Those
3. Those who sold
sold their Honors (among
their Honors (among these
these were Hurayra, Abu Darda
were Abu Hurayra, Darda and
and
Abu Musal-Ashaari.
Musal-Ashaari.All reported
reportedmany
manytrue HADEETHs).
true HADEETHs).
One of the
One the official
official newspapers
newspapersthen, after describing
then, after describingthe the Prophet (peaeBeL[m
Prophet(Peace Be Upoo

Hin)as
Him) as having
having singled
singled out
out his son-in-lawunjustly
his son-in-law specialparts
unjustly with special parts of the Islamic
the Islamic
Message,
Message, assures
assuresthat "most of the
that "most (peaeBeLpruHim)
Prophet's(Peace
the Prophet's generationdid
Be Upon Him) generation have
not have
did not
aa clear
clear picture even of the
picture even the religious
religious issues that the
issues that prophet (Peace
the prophet (peae
B€Upon
Be up.-ni-; had
Him) had
3
practiced hundredsof times
practicedhundreds times before
before their
their eyes
eyesand within reach
andwithin their hearing.
reachof their hearing.s
Specifically,
Specifically, aa Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholar mentions''...
scholarmentions Abdul Rahman
... Abdul RahmanIbn Ibn Ouf, worshipper
Ouf, aa worshipper
of money;
money; the
the aristocrat,
aristocrat,Othman;
Othman; thethe careless Khalid Ibn
carelessKhalid Ibn Walid; and Saied
Walid; and SaiedIbnIbn
4
Vaqas,
Vaqas,asasaa man
manwithout piety'.0
withoutpiety' .

The
The Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholarssay
saythat
that the greatcompanions
the great companionsare trustworthyand
are trustworthy are
andare
5
reliable
reliable sources
sources- allall of them
themdeserve
deservehigh respect.s
high respect. ALLAH has pratsedthe
haspraIsed great
the great
Companions
Companionsin in the
the Holy Qur'an saying: "You
Qur'an saying: "You are
are the
the best of peoples" 66 "The
bestofpeoples" "The
Vanguard
Vanguard (of Islam),
Islam), the
the first
Jirst who forsook their homes
whoforsooktheir (Al-Muhaiirin) and
homes(AI-Muhajirin) andofof
those who
those who gave
gave them
them aid (AI-Ansar)
(Al-Ansar) and also
and also who follow
whofollow them
them in all good
good deeds.
deeds.
ALI"/IH is pleased
ALLAH" pleased with them
them asas they
they are with Him. For them them He prepared
gardens
gardens under
under which
which rivers
riversflow
flow to
to dwell
dwelttherein
thereinforever".
forever".T7;; "Mohammed
"Mohammed is the
is the

1t Al-Askari, p.
Al-Askari, p. 34-8.
3+s.
2t The
TheMinistry
Ministry of
of Islamic
IslamicGuidance
Guidancein
in Iran, pp. 28-30.
lran, pp. 28-30.
3'Al-Jehad,
Al-Jehad, No.
No.56
56
4Shariati, p.
4 shadati, p. 207
207
35Ibn
Ibn Taymiyah,vol.
Tayrniyah, vot. II p.
p. 307
307
66Holy qur'an:
Holy Qur'an: cp.apter
clrapter33verse
verselIIlo
0
t Holy
7 qur'an: chapter
HolyQur'an: chapter99verse I 00
versel00

t8
18
Apostle of
Apostle of God and
and those who are with
with each other. You see them bow ond
and
prostrate themselves
prostrate prayer) seehing
themselves (in prayu) seeking grace from and (His) good
from God and good
1

'The
In a reliable
reliable HADEETH the the Prophets** Be upm
Prophe1:(peace B€ said: 'The best
Him) said:
Upoo Hin) best of
of my
followers are
followers are those
those living in my century'.2
century'.2

The Muslim scholars


The scholars have
have no doubt that the
doubt that the Prophet (Pe;lce Be Upoo Him) conveyed
Prophet GeaeBcrbcorrim) conveyed
his message
message without any any discrimination bias for his son-in-law
discrimination or bias son-in-law or any anyone else of
one else of
the companions.
the companions. The The great Companions were
great Companions were in general,
general, more
more knowledgeable
knowledgeable
about the Islamic teachings.
about the Islamic teachings. Among the
the non-relatives
non-relatives of
of the
the prophet
prophet (peace Be Upoo Him),
@eacBerloHin),
there were
there were many
many who were more knowledgeable
were more knowledgeable than Ali or the
than Ali the other relatives of
other relatives of
3
Prophet (peaeBerporlm;
the Prophet
the (peaceBeUpooHim), in spite the HADEETH forged
spite of the Shee'ah scholars.3
forged by Shee'ah scholars.

those Companions
Among those Companions who have have been slandered by the
been slandered Shee'ah scholars
the Shee'ah scholars
are those
are those who have
have been
been told that
that they were the
they were people of paradise.
the people paradise. Among them
them
also are those to whom the Prophet (Peace Be Him) said:
said: 'May
'May my mother
mother and
and father
father
also are those the Prophet1reaeBerlmniml
Upro

be sacrificed
be sacrificed for you' or that
that the
the Prophet
Prophet(Peace is from
Be Upon Him) is
reaeBerlmrriml from them they are
and they
them and are
from
from him.
him.
Among
Among those
thosecompanions
companionstherethereare hundredsabout
are hundreds whom the
aboutwhom Prophet(Peace
the Prophet GwBc Be
Upoo said: 'None
'None loves them but a believer
loves them but a believer and
and non
non hates
hates them
them but a
a hypocrite'.
hypocrite'.
u* n-l said:
Him)

Certainly,
Certainly, the
the blind,
blind, biased
biasedand
and exaggerated love are
exaggeratedlove areexcluded.
excluded.For thesekinds
For these kinds of
"Love" should
shouldrather
ratherbe identifiedas
be identified as hatred. If there
hatred.If therewere disagreements
were disagreements amongaa
among
few Companions
Companionsbasedbased onon aa difference legal opinions
differenceof legal (Ijtehad),we should
opinions(Ijtehad), shouldnot
indulge in judging
indulge judging their personaldeeds,
their personal for ALLAH
deeds,for ALLAH condemns
condemnssuch i.e. latter
acts;i.e.
suchacts; latter
ones
ones judging
judging the deeds of the earlier
the deeds the earlierones. ones.
[n
ln the
the Holy Qur'an says:"That was
Qur'an it says: was a nation
nation who has passedaway.
has passed They
away. They
shall receive
receive the
the reward ofwhat
of what they
they earned, you
earned,andyou
and ofwhat
of what you earned, And
earned,
you will
will not be
be asked
askedofwhat
of what they
they used
usedto
to do"?4
do"?a

Brothers
Brothersand and sisters,
sisters,do you believe
do you believeALLAH who plainlystates
who plainly thatHe
statesthat is
He is
pleasedwith the
pleased Companionsof the
the Companions (peaeBeupmnim)
Prophet(Peace
the Prophet or the
Be Upon Him) or the Shee'ah scholars
Shee'ahscholars
who
who honor just aafew
honor just few Companions
Companionsand andcurse
curseandandaccuse others.Be
thousandsof others.
accusethousands Be
sure to find the right way
sure to find the right way to to paradise
paradise and not function unintentionally
and not function unintentionally as
as an
an agent
agent
of the
the enemies·
enemies'of of Islam
Islam whowho are
are trying
trying to destroythe
to destroy Holy Qur'
the Holy and the
an and
Qur'an the
'Ifyouseeaperson
HADEETH.
HADEETH. RememberRememberthat that Imam
Imam Ahmad
Ahmad bin Hanbal said: 'If you see a person
binHanbalsaid:
accusing
accusingthe the companions
companions of the the Prophet (peaeBertomHimr.
Prophet(Peace you have
Be Up= Him). you havethe right to
the right to doubt
doubt
his Islam'
his Islam'

' Holy
HolyQur'an:
1 Qur'an:chapter
chapter48
48verses
verses18-29.
18-29.
'Al-Bukhari,
2 A1-Bukhari, vol.
vol.5,
5,p.2.
p.2.
'3 Ibn Taymiyah,Minhaj
IbnTaymiyah, Minhaj vol.
vol. 3, pp. 116-73.
3, pp. 116-73.
aHoly
4 qur'an: chapter
HolyQur'an: chapter22verses
verses134.
134.

t9
19
Rahwaih and
Rahwaih Malik gave
and Imam Malik gave the verdict that whosoever accuses the
whosoever accuses
companions should
companions be punished.
should be punished. Ibn Taymiyah and Razi
Taymiyah and said: 'Whoever
Razi said: 'Whoever questions
questions
the
the good
good faith of the companions
of the companions is "Zindeeq"
"Zindeeq" and unbeliever'.
and unbeliever'.
Al-Haithami and
Ibn Hajar Al-Haithami and Imam Shaifee
Shaifee are of the opinion, that w?roever
are of whoever
hates the
hates the companions
companions is an an unbeliever.
unbeliever. Al-gadi abuabu Ya'ala concluded that the
concluded that the
majority of
majority of Muslim scholars have made
scholars have made a consensus that whoever
consensus that whoever disgraces
disgraces and
and
accuses
accusesa Companion believing that
Companionbelieving that the
the Companion
Companiondeserves
deservesdisgracing becomes a
disgracingbecomes
Kafer (unbeliever)but if
Kafer (unbeliever) ifhe does not believe
he does believe that
that the companiondeserves
the companion desOrves it then
then he
he
committed
committeda serious
serioussin (a Faseq).r
sin (a Faseq).l

I
1 Abu
Abu Mu'awiyah Muhammad,pp.
Mu'awiyahMuhammad, pp. 11-13,25
I l-13, 25 and
and62.
62.

20
20
T
Tno,YAH ('HTELDTNG)
UQ'YAH (SHIELDING)
'TUe'yAH comprises ninetenths of the
The Ja'afari
The Ja'afari scholars
scholarssay
say that:
that: 'TUQ'YAH comprises ninetenths of the
religion of
religion ALLAH and
of ALLAH and whoever
whoeverdoesdoesnot
not use
use TUQ'YAH
TUe'yAH has has no
no religion.
religion.
TUQ'YAH is to be used in everything
TUQ'YAH is to be used in everything except exceptin
in declaring
declaringthetheprohibition
prohibitionofofwine
wine
and the
and the rubbing
rubbingof of socks
socksinin WUdU,.1
wudu'.r TUQ'YAH
TUe'yAH means meansto pretendby doingor
to pretend by doing or
sayingexactly
saying exactlythe the opposite
oppositeof ofwhat
whatyouyoubelieve
believeororfeel,
feel,e.g.
e.g.to topretend
pretendtotobe
benice
nice
whilecursing
cursingthe personin
theperson 2
while inthe
theheart
heartwithout
withoutaapresent
presentdanger.
danger.2
The specific
The purposeof
specificpurpose of TUQ'YAH
TUQ'YAH isis the 'preservationof Islam and the
the 'preservation of Islamandthe
Shee'ahschool
Shee'ah school of of thought;
thought;if if the peoplehad
thepeople hadnot
notresorted
resortedto to it, ourschool
it, our schoolwould
would
havebeen
have beendestroyed,3,
destroyed'3, i.e., to
i.e., to the
the Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholars,
scholars. TUQ'YAH
TUe'yAH could couldbeused
be used
with non-shee'ah, including Muslims,
with non-Shee'ah, including Muslims, to to preserve
preserve the the Shee'ah
shee'ah Faith.
Faith. The
The
prominentShee'ah
prominent Shee'ahscholar
scholarTabatabai
Tabatabaisayssaysthat
thatShee'ah
Shee'ahTUQ'YAH
TUQ'YAH is is based
basedonon the
the
verses from the Holy
verses from the Holy Qur'an say'."Let
that say:
Qur'anthat "Let not the
the believers
believerstake
takethe
the disbelievers
disbelievers
as (supporters,helpers,
as Auliya (supporters, helpers, etc.) instead ofthe believers, and whoever does
etc.)insteadofthebelievers,andwhoeverdoes
never be
that will never be helped
helpedby by ALLAH
ALLAH in any any way,
way, except you indeedfear a danger
exceptyou danger
ftom them...".4',
from them... ". 4; "Whover disbelievedin ALLAH
"vl/hover disbelieved ALLAH after
after his
hisbelief,
betief,except
except him who
who
thereto and whose
is forced thereto whoseheart is at restrest with Faith...
Faith...,'.5
".5

The Holy Qur'an


The alsoassures
Qur'an also assuresusus that pretendingto
that pretending to believe
believedifferently
differentlyfrom
from
what is
what is in our
our hearts
hearts is
iS the
the distinguished
distinguished characteristic
characteristic hypocritesand it
of hypocrites and
condemns
condemns that.
that. ALLAH says in ,And when they
ALLAH says in the
the Holy eur'an. "And when
Holy Qur'an: meet those
they meet those
who believe they say
believe they 'We
say 'We believe'.
believe'. But when
when they alone with their Shaytan
Shaytan
they are alone
(devil'polytheist,
(devil- polytheist, hyprocrites,
hyprocrites, etc.),
etc.), they
they say:
say:"Truly are with you... ,'.6
we arc
"Trary we ".6

ALLAH
ALLAH also also says:
says: "Do yoa
you (aithfull
(faithfull believers)
believers) covet
covet that they
they will
will believe
believe
in your
your religion inspite of of thefact
fact that a party
party of
ofthem (Jewish rabbis)
them (Iewish used to
rabbis)used
hear the liltord
Word of of ALLAH
ALLAH [the
[the Taurat (Torah)J,
(Torah)}, then they used to change itit
lrnowingly
knowingly after they understood
understood it? "And
"And when
when thqthey (Jewg
(Jews) meet thoseiho
those who
believe (Muslims)
believe (Muslims) what
what ALLAH
ALLAH has revealed to you you pews,
[Jews, about description
and the qualities
and the qualities of Prophet Muhammad|peaceBeLponHi^)
ofProphet Muhammad(peace Be Upon Him) thatwhich
that which are
are writeen
writeen in
in

'
1 Al-Kafr,
Al-Kati, AL-Usool,
AL-Usool, vol.
vol. 2,2, pp
pp 217-9
217-9.
' Al-Kafi
A.l-frua,
2 Al-Kati Al-frua, vol. pp.
vol. 33 pp. 188-9.
188-9.
3 p.
Khomeini 144.
3 Khomeini p. 144.
o
Holyqur'an:
4 Holy Qur'an: chapter
chapter 33verse
verse 28.
28.
'Holy qur'an:
5 Holy Qur'an: chapter
chapter 1616verse
verse 106.
106.
t qur'an:
6Holy chapter zverse
Holy Qur'an: chapter 2 verse 14.
14.

21
21
they (Muslim)
Taurat(Torah), that they
Taurat(Torah), (Muslim) nay argue wtth
nay argue you (Jants)
with you then no
(Jews) then
understanding?".!
understanding?".r
ALLAH also also says: "Lol you are
says: "Lo! are the
the ones who love
ones who them but they
love them love you
they love
not, and you believe
not, believe in allall the Scriptures
Scriptures [te.[i.e. you believe
believe in the Taarat(Torah)
Taurat(Torah)
the Injee(Gospel),
and the Injeel(Gospel), while they disbelieve in your Book,
they disbelieve Qur'anJ. And
Book, the Qar'anJ. And
when they
when they meetmeet you, they say, "We believe". But
theysay, "We believe".Btttwhen they when they are alone,
alone, they
they bite
bite
the tips
the of their Jingers
tips of fingers at you in rage rage. Say: "Pefish in your tage.
Say:"Perish rage. Certainly,
Certainly,
ALLAH knows
ALI-/IH knows what is in the breast (alt
the breast (all the
the secrets)."2 Therefore, ALLAH
secrets).,,2 Therefore, ALLAH has has
prepared
prepared for the hypocrites
for the severe punishment.
hypocrites severe punishment. "They "They shall be the lowest
be in the lowest
depths of
depths of the
the ftre,
fire, no helpers
helpers wilt will you Jindfind for them".3 So
for them".3 So Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholars
that pretending
consider that
consider the opposite
pretending the opposite of whatwhat you hide is
you hide is lying, which is
lying, which a form
is a form of
hypocrisy, for the
hypocrisy, Prophet (peae
the Prophet (peace Be
Be upmrrim) said: 'The
Upon Him) said: signs of ahypocrite
'The signs are three:
a hypocrite are three:
whenever he
whenever he speaks
speaks he he tells
tells a lie,
lie, when
when ever he promises
ever he promises hehe always breaks it and
always breaks and
he abuses
abuses the trust given
the trust given to him...' a
him ... ' 4 The
The basic
basic rule therefore, is that
rule therefore, pretending
that pretending oneone
he
thing
thing and
and hiding
hiding another
anotheris hypocrisy
hypocrisyand condemnedby the
and is condemned Islamic teachings.
the Islamic teachings.
The
The case
case mentioned
mentioned in chapter
chapter3 verse 28 of the
verse28 the Qur'an
Qur'an above
aboveis applicable the
applicablein the
case
case of non-believers
non-believersONLY under
under special
special cases,
cases,i.e., Muslim cannot
i.e., aa Muslim cannotapply
applyit
5
against
againstaa Muslim.
Muslim.5 Chapter
Chapter 16
16 verse
verse 106
106 of the
the Holy Qur' is applicable
an is
Qur'an only
applicableonly
when
when aa Muslim faces faces aa situation
situation similar
similarto to the
the situation
situationof ofthe greatCompanion
the great Companion
Ammar
Ammar when when he he hadhad to choose
choose between
between dying dying under
under torture
torture like his parents
his parents
pretending
pretendingto be be unbeliever
unbelieverby tongue.
tongue.These
Thesecasescasesareare not
not the basicrule
the basic rule but rather
but rather
exceptions,
exceptions,let let alone
alonethe
the basis
basisfor nine-tenths
nine-tenthsof the the Islamic religion. Brothers
Islamicreligion. Brothersandand
sisters,
sisters, give
give it aa thought
thought - what
what would
would happen
happen if
if Muslims
Muslims were
were to
to believe
believe that
that nine-
nine-
tenths
tenths of the the whole
whole religion
religion lies
lies in TUQ'YAH? Which Which is is means
meansthat pretending
that pretending
what·
what is different
different from from our
our true
true belief
belief and
andfeelings
feelingsis is nine
nine times
timesas importantas
as important asall
all
the Islamic teachings?
the Islamic teachings?Could Could you
you ever trust a Muslim
ever trust a Muslim this if
if this were
were the
the case?
case? Can
Can we
we
really
really take
take ourour guidance
guidance andandreligious
religiousknowledge
knowledgefrom from scholars
scholarswho who believe that
believethat
deception
deception is nine-tenthsof his
is nine-tenths his religion?
religion?Is Is it right
right to
to accept
accepthis his non-religious views
non-religiousviews
as
as representing
representingthe the truth?
truth?If personconsiders
If aa person considerslying lying about ALLAH, His
aboutALLAH, Prophet
His Prophet
(peac
(peace BeuPon
Be Hi-l and
rdmHim) and thethe Muslims
Muslims as asessential
essentialpartpart ofhis
of his beliefs orderto
beliefsin order to serve
servehis
his
biased
biased goals,
goals, cancan we we trust
trust him?
him? Therefore, you
Therefore, if you really want success
really want in
success the the
hereafter
hereafteror or inin the
the eternal
etemal life,
life, be
be cautious
cautious of the the manymanyargumentsof Shee'ah
arguments of Shee'ah
scholars
scholarswhichwhich are arebased
basedondn distorted
distortedor or forged quotationsand
forgedquotations references.
andreferences.

1I Holy qur'an: chapter


Holy Qur'an: chapter22verses75-77
verses 75-77
22Holy
HolyQur'an:
Qur'an:chapter
chaper 33verse
verse119.
I19.
' Holy Qur'an: chapter
3 Holy Qur'an: chapter44 verse
verse145.
145.
o
4 Al-Bukhari, vol, 1.l p.
Al-Bukhari,vol, p. 31,
31,Muslim
Muslim vol.
vol. 4, p. 1374.
4,p. 1374.
3' Ibn Taymiyah,Minhaj.,
IbnTaymiyah, Minhaj.,vol p. 213
vol 1.l. p. 213and
andvol. p.259'260.
vol. 33 pp. 259-260.

22
22
Our Dears
Dears let us remember chapter 3 verse
remember that chapter verse 28 of Holy Qur'an is not
of the Holy
exception, but rathrer a restricted
only an exception, restricted exception. Not only is itit forbidden to be
exception. Not
used against
used also prohibits
against Muslims but it also prohibits us to lie upon others. It
upon others. means that ifif you
It means
behaviours and you are
oppose certain behaviours
oppose situation where
are in a situation admission would
where admission
endanger Islam
endanger community, you may choose
Islam or the Muslim community, choose to remain
remain silent
silent but
1
must avoid
you must avoid lying.l
lying.

1I Ibn Taymiyah,Minhaj.,
IbnTaymiyah, Minh4i., vol.
vol. p.
p. 213
213and
andIbn Tafseer.
Katheer,Tafseer.
Ibn Katheer,

23
23
MnrnAn
MUT'AH -- TEMPORARY
TEMP'RARY MARRIAGE
MARRTAGE
The Ja'fari
The Ja'fari Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars
scholars claim
claim that
that Mut'ah or temporary
temporarymarriage
marriageis
is
forbidden because
NOT forbidden because was
it was practiced
practiced during the Prophet's time.
during the Prophet'stime. Only Omar
Omar
forbade
forbadeit.
it.r1

purpose of Mut'ah is
l)The purpose physicalneed
is to fulfill aa physical needonly; thereis
only; there is no
no divorce
divorceand
and
2
the parhrers do
the two partners inherit each
do not inherit eachother. The Muslim
other.2The Muslim scholars
scholarssay
say that:
that: The
The
Holy Qur'an had established
Qur'an had established thethe legal forms of relationship
legalforms relationshipbetween male and
betweenmale and
female and
female and confined
confined it into
into two types:
types:the
the marriage
marriagein which
which thethe main
main reason
reasonis
is
multiplication and
multiplication andthe
the other
otherbeing
beingmutual relationshipand
mutualrelationship possession.
andpossession. The
The Holy
Qur'an says:
says: $And those
"And those who guard their chastity
chastity (Le.
(i.e. private parts,
parts,from
Qur'an from
illegal
illegal sexual acts).
acts). Except from
from their wives
wives or (the
(the captives
captives and the slaves)
slaves)
that their right hands - for then,
posses,-for
handsposses, then, they
they are free from
arefree blames" 33
from blames"
2)These
2) These two legal legal forms
forms Islamic
Islamic marriage
maniage were
were also
also confirmed
confirmed in the the Holy
Qur'an:"Also (forbidden
Qur'an:'Also (forbidden are) are) women
women already
already married,
married, except
exceptthose
those (captives
(captives
and slaves) whom you right hands
slaves) whom hands possess.
possess. Thus
Thus has has ALLAH
ALLAH ordainedfor
you. All lowful, provided
AII others are lawful, providedyouyou seek (them in marriage) with Mahr
seek (them Mahr
(bridal-money
(bridal-money given by
by the husband to his wife at the time ofmarriage)
of maniage) from from
your
your property, desiring chastity,
chastity, not committing illegal
illegal sexual intercourse, so so
with those
those of of whom you havehave enjoyed
enjoyed sexual relations, give them them their MahrMahr
is prescribed,
prescribed, you agreeagree mutually (to (to give more),
more), there is no sin on you.
Surely,
Surely, ALLAH
ALLAH is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise".AII-Wise". "And whoever ofyou
"Andwhoever ofyou havehave
not the meansmeans wherewith to wed free, free, believing women,
women, theythey may wed
girk from
believing girls from among
among those (captives and slaves)
those (captives slaves) whom your your right
right
possess,and ALLAH
possess, ALLAH has full knowledge
has full aboutyour Faith, yoa
ltnowledgeabout you are on from from
another.
another. Wed them with permission of
Wed them of their own folk folk (guardins,
(guardins, Auliya
Auliya or
masters)
masters) and give their MahrMahr according to what is reasonable;
reasonable; they
they (the
(the above
above
said captive
captive and slave-girls) should be be chaste,
chaste, not adulterous,
adulterous, nor taking
tahing boyboy
friends.
friends. And
And after they
they have
have been
been taken
taken in wedfolk, ifthey commit
wedfolk,iftheycommitillegal illegal
intercourse, their panishment
sexual intercourse, punishment is halfthatfor
half thatforfreefree (unmarried) women.
women.
This is for him among you who is afraid
This isfor afraid ofbeing
of being harmed in his religion
religion or in
his body;
body; but it is better for you that you practise
betterfor practise self-restraint,
self-restra'nt, and ALLAH
ALLAH is
Oft-Forgiving,
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful".4
Merciful".a In which
which the laws of marriage
the laws marriagewere detailed.
were detailed.
The
The Muslims
Muslimsscholars
scholarsconfirmed
confirmedthat
that the
the meaning "lstam'tum" is
meaninsof "Istam'tum" is referring
referringto
to

' Tabatabai, pp. 227-10.


1 Tabatabai,pp. 227-30.
2
2 Moosavi, pp.79-96.
Moosavi,pp. 79-96.
'Hory qur'an: chapter
3 Holy Qur'an: chapter23: verses5-7,
23:verses chapter70:
5-7,chapter verses28-31.
70:verses 28-31
o qur'an: chapter
4 Holy
Hory Qur'an: chapter4 verses
verses24,25.
24,25.

24
24
enjoyment as
the enjoyment as part of
of the
the duties of the legal
duties of legal forms of marriage
forms of between a man
marriage between man
and his wife. This part of
and the verse
of the verse is spelling of a wife to a Mahr
spelling out the right of
(maniage
(marriage gift). This is clearly demonstrated by a HADEETH using
clearly demonstrated using the
the same
same
word "Istamta'ta"
"Istamta'ta" in its single
single form.l
form. I

3)Mut'ah was was permitted


permitted under
under severe circumstances during'Jihad"
severe circumstances time, but it
during "jihad" time,
always prohibited
was always
was prohibited immediately after the
immediately after need for it vanished.
the need When it was
vanished. When was
permitted
permitted for the the last time, its prohibitions
last time, prohibitions after
after that was final.
that was final. The
The Prophet
Prophet 6r**
(peace

Be upo
Be Upon rrim)said : 'l'I have
Him) said given you permlsslon
have given contract "temporary
permission to contract "temporary marriage"
marriage"
with women,
wrth women, butbut ALLAH
ALLAH has forbidden it 'till
has forbidden 'till the
the day resurrection' .2 So
day of resurrection'.2 So the
the
permissions
permissions were
were actually only occasional
actually only exceptions from
occasional exceptions from the original rule
the original rule set
set
the Qur'an
in the Qur' an and
and were
were made the prophet
made by the prophet (peae
(Peace Be
Be tto,nHim) who had
Upon Him) had the
the
authority; and
authonty; and the exceptions were
the exceptions were not left open
not left but were
open but closed by the
were closed the above
above
3
HADEETH forever.3
FIADEETH forever.

Later on,
Later on, Ca'lee'phah
Ca'lee'phah Omar came to know
Omar came that Amru
know that Huraith was
Amru bin Huraith was
practising Mut' ah and so he announced:
practisingMut'ah and so he announced: 'Verily
'Verily ALLAH
ALLAH made
made permissible
permissible for
for his
his
messenger (peae
messenger(Peace r3eUpm
Be lrtrn)
Lrp(n
Hunl whatever he likes
whateverhe likes and he liked
as he
andas it And the
liked it. revelationof
the revelation
the Holy Qur'an
the Holy Qur'an hadhad been
been completed.
completed. So
So complete
complete Hajj
Hajj and
and Umra
Umra for
for ALLAH
ALLAH had
had
commanded
conmanded you you and confirm by proper
and confirm the marriage
conditionsthe
proper conditions marriageof those women
thosewomen
(with
(with whom you have
whom you performedMut'ah).
haveperformed Mut'ah). And
And any personwho
any person who would cometo
would come to me
me
with marriageof fixed
with aa marriage fixed duration (Mut'ah), I would
duration(Mut'ah), would stone him to
stonehim to death (which
death(which is is
the
the penalty
penaltyfor
for committing
committingfornication
fomicationby previouslymarried
by aa previously person).'a
marriedperson). ,4

Brothers
Brothers and and sisters,
sisters, isis there
thereany
any difference betweenaa woman
differencebetween lendingher
woman lending her
body
body forfor aa few
few minutes
minutesas asIn prostitutionor
rn prostitution or for few days
for aa few daysor monthsas
or months in Mut'ah,
asin Mut'ah,
since
since both
both are temporary?Don't
are temporary? Don't youyou think thatthe
think that permissionof Mut'ah
the permission today
Mut'ah today
would humiliate our sisters,open the doors
would humiliate our sisters, open the doors for
for playmates
playmates and
and finally
finally destroy
destroy the
the
concept
conceptof familyfamily inin Islam?
Islam?Remember
Rememberthe Shee'ahscholars
the Shee'ah high status
scholarsof high rarely
statusrarely
'allow
allow their
their female
female relatives
relatives to
to practice
practice Mut'ah
Mut'ah in
in order
order to
to avoid
avoid humiliation.
humiliation. In
In fact
fact
the
the Mut' permittedoccasionally
ah permitted
Mut'ah occasionallybefore
beforeits
its final prohibitionsdid
final prohibitions requirethe
not require
did not the
female
femaleto to be
be aa Muslim
Muslim or or even
even oneonefrom
fromthe peopleof the
thepeople thebook
book which makesit
which makes
completely
completely distinguished from marriage.
distinguishedfrom marriage.How could could aa Muslim legalizesuch
Muslim legalize type
suchaa type
of illegal
illegal relationship
relationshipfor for Muslims
Muslims or practice it himself?
or practice Whatis
himselfl What is the difference
the difference
between
betweenfornication
fomication today
today and Mut'ah in
and Mut'ah in terms
termsof their purposes?
theirpurposes? Aren't bothto
Aren't both to
satisfy
satisfothe
the sexual
sexualdesires
desiresalone?
alone?.

1t AI-Mahmood
Al-Mahmoodp.
p. 13.
ll.
22Muslim,
Muslim,vol.
vol.2, p. 707.
2,p. 707.
3
'Asqalani,
Asqaiani, vol.
vol.9,9.pp.
pp.164-74.
l6zt-74.
o
4 Muslim,
Muslim,vol.
vol.2,2,pp.
pp.610-1.
610-I .

25
25
G"ooEERr(HU,M
GHADEER KHU'M
Tabatabaisaid:
Tabatabai "For Shee'ah,
said: "For shee'ah,the the central
centralevidence
evidenceof ofAli's
Ali's legitimacy
legitimacyas
as
successorto
successor to the prophet(peace
theprophet (peaeBerloHim) isthe
Be Upoo Him) is theevidence
evidenceof
ofGhadeer
GhadeerKhu'm
Khu'm when
whenthe
the
prophet(peace
prophet (peae Be
Be rlo Him)
Upoo rrim)choseAli
chose Ali to to the "generalguardianship".
the "general guardianship".Referring
Refening toto aa
bookletdevoted
booklet devotedto tothe
thedetails
detailsof
of Ghadeer
GhadeerKhu'm,Khu'm, we
wefind
find the
thefollowing:
following: 1I

1.L More
Morethan
than100,000
100,000Companions
companionsattended
attended theGhadeer
the Ghadeer Khu'm
Khu'm address.
address.
2.lt took place on the
2. It took place on the 18 of th
18ft of the
the Thul
Thul Hijja
Hrjja after
after the "bidding farewell"
the "bidding farewell,'
pilgrimage of
pilgrimage of the
the Prophet(peace
Prophete",o Be BeUprn
rpmHim).
Hnm).The
The reason
reason thethe Prophet
Prophet (peace Be Upoo Him)
@eaeBerfmgim)
made this
made this address
addressat at this place was
this place was because
becauseALLAH
ALLAH revealed ths verse
revealed thIs verscat at
GhadeerKhu'm:
Ghadeer Khu'm: "0 apostle,deliver
"o apostle, deliverwhat
what has
hasbeen
beenrevealed
revealedtotoyoufromyoul:
you from yout
Lord; and
Lord,. ond if you do
if you do not
not do
do itit then you have
thenyou havenot
not delivered
deliveredHisHismessage,.
message;and and
ALLAH will
ALLAH protectyou
will protect you from the people,'.2
thepeople".2
3. Therefore,
3. Therefore, the
the Prophet(Peace Be Upon Him) made
Proph€tpeaeBeLrpmHiml made these
these announcements:
announcements:
•o that
that hehe was
was leaving
leaving forfor Muslims
Muslims two two most precious things:
most precious 'one is the
things: 'one is the
book of God;
book God,oneoneendendof which
whichis is in
in the
thehands
handsof GodGodand
andthe
theother
otherisis in
in your
your
hands.And
hands. And the
thesecond
secondvaluable
valuablethingthing isismy
my descendants'.
descendants'. 'God has informed
'God has informed
me that
me that both
both of these
thesethings
thingswill never
neverseparate
separatefrom
from each
eachother
othertill they
they reach
reach
me at
me at the
the Fountain
Fountainof Kausar'
Kausar'. .
•o Taking
Taking Ali's hand hand andand raising
raising it he he said, 'of whomsoever I am master
said, 'of whomsoever am master
(mawla),Ali is
(mawla), is his
his master
masteror or mawla
mawlatoo'. too'.
•. The
The Prophet(Peace
Prophets""*Be BeUprn
rtomHim)
nim)also said: '0
also said: 'O my God, be a friend of his who is a
God, be a friend his who is a
friend of Ali
friend Ali and
and treat
treat him like aa foe
foe hehe who opposes
opposesAli. Help themthem who help help
Ali and abandonthem
and abandon them who
who gogo against
against Ali'.
Ali' .
o 'O
• And he he said:
said: '0 my lord,
lord, whichever
whichever way Ali Ali turns
turns orient
orient the
the right in the
the same
same
direction'.
direction' .

Now,.let
Now,.let us discover
discover what the Muslim
Muslim scholars
scholars say:3
say:3
l.1. According
According to Shee'ah
Shee'ah sources,
sources, only a handful
handful of
of Companions
Companions (less
(less that
that l0
10 at a
maximum)
maximum) did not break covenant with the prophet
break their covenant Prophet sp",*
(peace *.4-
Be Upoo r*;.4
Him).4

The
The 100,000
100,000 companions
companions who
who heard
heard the address plotted
the address plotted to
to deprive
deprive Ali
Ali of
ofhis
his
right
right to to be
be the
the successor
successor of the Prophet
dfthe Prophet @eaeBellorlin).
(peace Be Upon Him). What
What is
is the
the probability
probability ofof
this to have
this to have happened?
happened? ForFor what
what benefit
benefit would
would thisthis overwhelming
overwhelming mEority
majority do
do
that? IfIfyou
that? you read
read the
the non-shee'ah
non-Shee'ah sources,
sources, you will find
you will find no
no reason
reason atat all.
all.

'Najafi, pp.
1 Najafi, pp. 9-19:
9-19: Tabatabai,
Tabatabai, pp.
pp. 178-218.
178-218.
2 Holy qur'an:
2 Holy Qur'an: Chapter
Chapter 55verse
verse 62.
67.
3 For detailed
3 For detailedcomments
comments refer
referto
toMinhaj,
Minhaj, in
in Ibn
IbnTaymiyah, pp. g,l-7
volA, pp.
Taymiyah, vol.4, 84-7.
a Shariatipp. 28-30;
4 Shariati pp. 28-30;A-estari
N-Askari pp.34-43.
pp. 34-43.

26
26
th
The Ghadeer
2.The
2. Ghadeer Khu'm address placeon the
addresstook place 186 of Thul Hijja
the 18 Hrjja month,
month, the
the
same year as
same year as the
the Prophet's "bidding farewell"
emuin)"bidding
Prophet's(peaooBeUpooHim)
ireaeBe pilgrimage.On the
farewell" pilgrimage. the
th
99ft of the
the same
same month
month the
the Prophet
Prophet (peaoo Be Upoo Him) received
rpeeBelfmHim) receivedthe
the last
last verse
versewhich
which
says: "This day
says'."This have perfected
day I have your religion,
perfectedyour religion, completed
completedmymyfavors uponyou
favors upon you
and
and I have
hqve chosen
chosen Islam
Islam to
to be
be your religion"
religion" l
1 How could
could a
a verse
verse which
which asks
asks
the
the Prophet qe""*Be
Prophet (peaoo B€Upoo Hin)to convey
rhmHim) conveythe the message
messagefollow this this concluding verse,
concludingverse,
th
especially
especially after
after the
the crowd
crowd of the "bidding
the "bidding farewell" (on the 9e
sermon(on the 9 of Thul
farewell" sermon Thul
Hijja)
Hrjja) hadhad already
alreadyattested
attestedthe
the Prophet (peaeBerlmr{im)
Prophet(peace BeUpoo Him) and
and conveyed
conveyedthe message?
the message?
matter of fact,
As aa matter fact, chapter
chapter 5 verse
verse67 67 of the
the Qur'an
Qur'an was
was revealed
revealed before
before the
the
Khaibar
Khaibar expedition,
expedition, the conquest of Mecca
the conquest Mecca and and the farewell"
the "bidding farewell"
pilgrimage.
pilgrimage.
3.
3. The
The acclaimed
acclaimed announcement
announcementof the the Prophet (p""oBe
Prophet (peaoo L[tnHim)
BeUpon Him)in the and
the way and
context
context that
that the
the Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholars
scholarsmentioned
mentionedwas was aa blatant
blatantlie,lie, as Taymiyah
as Ibn Taymiyah
emphasized:
emphasized:
•o The
The authenticated 'two most preciousthings' (al-Thaqalayn)
authenticatedoriginal Hadeethof 'two
original Hadeeth most precious things' (al-Thaqalayn)
'I
says:'I am
says: you
am leaving
leavingamong
amongyou two valuable
valuablethings:
things : the
the first
first one
one being
being the
the book
book
of ALLAH
ALLAH in which there is
which there is the
the right guidanceand
right guidance and light,
light, soso hold
hold fast the
fast to the
book of ALLAH
book ALLAH and and adhere
adhere toto it'. He
He extorted
extortedus (Zaid Ibn
us (Zaid Ibn al-Arqam said)to
al-Arqam said)
hold 'The
hold fast
fast toto the
the book
book of ALLAH
ALLAH and andthen
thensaid
saidthe
the Prophet
Prophet(PeaooBeUpooHim):
@eaeBertomuim): 'The
second
secondare are the
the members
members of my my household.
household.I remind
remindyou you to to observe ALLAH in
observeALLAH tn
treating
treating them,.2
them'.2 The householdof the
The household the Prophet peaeBerlonim)
Prophet(Peaoo Be Upoo Him) as
as was previously
was previously
explained
explainedincludes
includes all
all his
his wives,
wives,Ali, Ageel,
Ageel,Ja'far,
Ja'far,Abbas
Abbasand andtheir
their offsprings.
offsprings.
Did the
the Prophet (peae
Prophet (Peace BeUpon
Be Him)say
rh.EHim) say stick
stick to
to my family
family as you stick
as you stick to
to the
the Holy
Qur'an?
Qur'an? Certainly
Certainly he he did
did not.
not. He
He asked muslimsto
askedmuslims to be
be kind
kind to
to all
all his
his household,
household,
not just Ali or the
not the 12 Imams of the
12Imams the Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholars.
scholars.If the
the HADEETH indicates
HADEETH indicates
any
any special power or
specialpower privilege for
or privilege for his
his household,
household,then then wewe should praisethe
shouldpraise the
Abasid
Abasid Ca'lee'phahs,
Ca'lee'phahs,thethe offspring
offspringof Abbas.
Abbas.Why thendo
Why then do the
the Shee'ah
Shee'ahscholars
scholars
curse
cursethem
them instead?
instead?
•o The
The last part of the
last part the claimed
claimedHADEETH
HADEETH "is also alsoaalie",Ibn
lie", Ibn Taymiyah
Taymiyahassured,
assured,
whether the
whether the Prophet's peaeBerrpcnuim)
Prophet's (Peaco Be Up"" Him) said:
'of whomsoever
said: 'of whomsoeverI am am "mawla", Ali is
his "mawla" or
his "mawla" or not".
not". Ibn
Ibn Taymiyah
Taymiyahassuredassuredus that it is
us that is definitely
definitelyrejected this
rejectedin this
context
context and
and thethe majority
majority of HADEETH
FIADEETH scientists rejected it completely.
scientistsrejected completely.
Assuming
Assumingthatthat the
the Prophet Be Upon Him) uttered
(peaeBer!,nHim)
Prophet(Peaco utteredit, what
what thenthen is
is special
specialabout
aboutit?'
The
The Holy Qur'an,
Qur'an, addressing
addressingthe the Prophet
Prophetsays:
says:"ALLAH
" ALLAH is his mawla,mawla, so so is
Gabriel and so
Gabriel so are thethe righteous believers".3 The
righteous believers".3 righteous believers
The righteous are
believers are
certainly
certainly not not the
the master
masterof the prophetbut
the prophet but friends
friendsand
and supporters.
supporters.If If the Prophet
the Prophet
(peae
(peaoo BcUpon
Be LtomHim)had
Him) had said: "of
said: "of whomsoever
whomsoever I am am "wali", Ali is his "wali", then it
his "wali", then
would
would have probablymeant
haveprobably meantmaster guardian.Furthermore,
masteror guardian. Furthermore,the prophet(Peaoo
the prophet (pea€B€
Be

' Holy
Holy Qur'an:
1 Qur'an: Chapter
Chapter55 verse
verse3.
3
2
2 Muslim
Muslim vol. pp. 1286-7.
vol. 4 pp. 1286-7.
'Holy
3 qur'an: 66
Holy Qur'an: 66 verse
verse4.
4.

27
27
rlm
Upm Hin) did not
Him) did not say
say that
that Ali
Ali was
was tO to bebe "mawla"
"mawla" or or "wali"
"wali" after
after his
his death.
death. The
The
argument of
argument of the Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars
scholars seem
seem to to be
be nonsense,
nonsense, especially
especially when
when we we read
read
the authenticated
the authenticated HADEETH
HADEETH indicating
indicating the
the prophet's
prophet's @eae
(peace Be
Be (bm
Upon Him)
Him)

"suggestions"
"suggestions" for Abu
Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman as his
Omar and Othman as his respective respective successors
successors
(successively). (Bukhari and
(successively). and Muslim, chapters
chapters on on the
the virnres
virtues of^these
of-these three).
three).
•. The
The HADEETH scientists scientists consider
consider this statement
statement claimed
claimed byby Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholars
scholars
as aa lie.
as lie. Even
Even by glancing
glancing at its meaning,
meaning, itit doesdoes not
not indicate
indicate anyany special
special
advantage to
advantage Ali. Ali. The Prophet
Proph€t peaeBeupmrmr
(Peace Be Upon Him) had prayed
prayed for many
many believers
believers all
all
sorts ofprayers
sorts of prayers on various
various occasions.
occasions.
•o Just glancing at this
Just by glancing statement, a Muslim is quick to recognize
this statement, recognize that that the
the
statement
statement is a blatant
blatant lie which was
was forged
forged without even
even giving it
it any
any thought.
thought.
What is this
What this "right"
"right" (Haqq)
(Haqq) which follows the decisions decisions that Ali Ali makes, makes,
opinions
opinions thatthat hehe gives,
gives, and
and the
the whims
whims that
that come
come to his mind?
mind? IfIf thethe lie werewere to
say: 'direct Ali to follow the then it would seem
say: 'direct Ali the right
right (Haqq)
(Haqq) wherever
wherever right
right is' then seem
to be
be logical.
logical.
Nevertheless,
Nevertheless,Tabatabai,
Tabatabai, arguing
arguing the the necessity
necessity of the hereditary system
the hereditary system of of
C'laph'ah, 'the everything possible destroy it
possible to destroy
C'laph'ah, said: said: 'the enemies
enemiesof IslamIslam whowho did
did everything
thought that
thoughtthat since since the
the protector
protector of Islam was the Prophet
lslamwastheProphet(peaeBeltomnimlafterhis
(Peace Be Upon Him), after his
death,
death, Islam
Islam would
would be be left
left without
without aa guide
guide and and would thus
leader and
and leader thus definitely
definitely
perish.
perish. ButBut in Ghadeer
GhadeerKhu'm,
Khu'm, their
their wishes brought to naught
were brought
wishes were naught and and the
the
Prophet
Prophet (peae
(Peace BerJp<n
Be Upon presented
Him)presented
Him) Ali as a
as a guide
guide and
and leader
leader of Islam
Islam to the
the people.
people.
After
After Ali,
Ali. this
this burdensome
burdensomeand and necessary
necessaryduty guide and
duty of guide leaderwas
and leader was left upon
upon
the
the shoulder
shoulderof his his family'.
family'.I1 Tabatabai,
Tabatabai,the the recent prominent Shee'ah
recent prominent Shee'ah scholar scholar
contradicts
contradictshimself
himself in the the same
samebook. book. In In the
the first pages,he
first pages, describesthe
he describes the Imam
Imam
including
includingAli as ashelpless
helplessand
andbeing
beingoppressed
oppressed by the muslimCa'lee'phahs
the muslim Ca'lee'phahsand andin
this
this argument
argument says saysthat
that ALLAH
ALLAH has chosenthem
haschosen protectIslam
them to protect Islam as
as well as guide
as guide
and
and lead leadthe
theMuslim
Muslim Ummah.
Ummah.If they they could
couldnot protectthemselves,
not protect themselves, how couldthey
how could they
ever
ever protect
protect Islam
Islam andandlead
leadthetheMuslim
MushmUmmah?Ummah?Or Or isis this
this an indirectaccusation
an mdirect accusation
that
that ALLAH
ALLAH did did not
not make
makethetheright
right choice (mayALLAH forgive
choice(may forgiveme). Indeed,the
me). Indeed, the
Shee'ah scholars,to
Shee'ahscholars, to argue
arguetheir
theirbias,
bias,did not mind
did not accusingthe
mind accusing the Prophet (peaatseUptn
Prophet(Peace Be Upon

and
ni-r snd the
Him) the great
great soldier
soldier of
of Islam
Islam as
as being
being unfair
unfair and
and of being
being disloyal.
disloyal. Even
Even their
their
Imams
Imamswere were accused
accusedof of being
beingcowards
cowardsto to the degreethat
thedegree thatthey
theyconsidered pretense
consideredpretense
and
and lying
lying (TUQ'YAH)
(TUQ'YAH) as
as nine-tenths
nine-tenths of
of the
the religion.
religion.
said : 'The'The Ca'lee'phahsbeforeme did
AA Shee'ah
Shee'ah scholar
scholarclaimed
claimedthat Ali said:
thatAli Ca'lee'phahs before me did
things
thingswhichwhichconsciously
consciouslywent went against
againstthe the dictates
dictatesof of the
theholy (pcae
Prophet(Peace
holy Prophet Be
Be ttp@
Up,m Him)
Him)

of
of ALLAH.
ALLAH. They Theybroke
broketheir
theircovenant
covenantwith him and
with him changed
andchanged his his SU'N'AH'. Now
ifif II force
forcethe
thepeople
peopleto giveup
to give upthose thingsand
thosethings restorethe
andrestore theaffairs
affairsas they had
asthey been
hadbeen
in
in the
the days
days ofof the
theProphet (peaaBettomHim), my army will be scattered
Prophet(Peace Be Upon Him), my army will be scattered away from me, away from me,
leaving
leavingme me alone
aloneand and helpless....
helpless....In In short,
short,if!if I try
try to to make
makethe peoplefollow
the people followthe the
commands
commandsof ALLAH of ALLAH and
and His
His Holy
Holy Proph€t
Prophet lpeaeBe
(Peace Be L[mHi-y,
Upon Him), they
they wrll
will leave
leave me
me and
and

I
tTabatabai
Tabatabai p.p.179.
179

28
28
wanderaway'.
wander away'.I gleatwarrior
Ali, aagreat
1 Ali, waniorof ofIslam
Islamand
andananexcellent
excellent muslim
muslimisisdescribed
described
here as
here asifif he
hebelieved
believedthat
thatworldly
worldlypower powerwas wasbetter
befferthan
thantototeach
teachtrue
trueIslam.
Islam.He
Heisis
afraidof
afraid of becoming
becomingalone!
alone!Blind
Blindbias biascan
cancause
causemore
morethan
thanthat.
that.Instead
lnsteadof
ofpraising
praising
the beloved,
the beloved,the theextreme
extremebias
biasleads leadsto
tocasting
castingcardinal
cardinalaccusations
accusationsunwittingly.As
unwittingly. As
Ibn Taymiyah 'The
putsit:it: 'The worst
indeedputs
Ibn Taymiyah indeed worstcalamity
calamityto
tohit
hitthe
theShee'ah
Shee'ahImams
lmamswaswasto
to
have such
have suchscholars
scholarsas
astheir
theirsupporters'.
supporters'.

'Al-askaripp.37-41
1 Al-askari pp. 37-41.

29
29
Co*"LUSIoN
CONCLUSION
Finally and
Finally and in
in brief,
brief, because
because of ofthe lack of
the lack evidences in
reasonable evidences
ofreasonable the Holy
in the Holy
Qur'an and
Qur'an and the
the SU'N'AH'
SU'N'AH' of ofthe Prophet (peace BeUpm Him) that support the claims of
the Prophet (p€s@BerDmnim) that support the claims of
the Shee'ah
the Shee'ah scholars,
scholars, they
they usually
usually resort
resort to
to the
the following
following techniques
techniques to
to rationalize
rationalize
their biased
their biased versions ofIslam
versions of Islam as
as follows:
follows:
1. Claiming that
l.Claiming that the
the Holy
Holy Qur'an
Qur'an is is not
not complete and is
complete and corrupted. This
is comrpted. This allegation,
allegation,
although denied
although denied or or excluded
excluded byby the
the Shee'ah scholars in
Shee'ah scholars in their public propagation
their public propagation
of Shee'ahism,
of Shee'ahism, still
still exists
eists in
in their
their most
most trustworthy
trustworthy sources.
sources.
2. Inventing many
Z.lnventrng many "FIADEETHs"
"HADEETHs" or or distorting context or
the context
distorting the content of
or content of the
the
prophet's
prophet's HADEETH. This is either
either used
used as
as a complimentary
complimentary means
means to falsifu
falsify
Qur'an verses
the Holy Qur'an verses or to independently argue bias.
independently argue bias.
3. Inventing or adulterating
3.lnventing context or content
adulterating the context of the historical
content of events and
historical events and
stories to use
stories use them
them in comrpting
corrupting the the Holy Qur'an
of the
meanings of
the meanings or the
the
SU'N'AH'
SU'N'AH' ofthe
of the Prophet
Prophet (peace BeUpoo Him).
@eaeBerfmlrim).
4. Filtering
4. Filtering these
these comrption
corruption into the non-Shee'ah scholars'
the non-Shee'ah order to use
scholars' works in order use
them later in supporting
them later supporting their claims.
claims. These
These xe
are cited
cited even
even if
if they
they were
were refuted
refuted or
recorded indiscriminately
just recorded indiscriminately to include informations available
include all informations available for purposes
purposes
of the total
the total record.
record.
Brothers
Brothers and and sisters,
sisters, the cornerstoneof the
the cornerstone faith claims
Shee'ah faith
the Shee'ah that
claims that
ALLAH
ALLAH assignedassignedAliAli as
asthe successorofthe
the successor Prophetrr**Betb{auin).
of the Prophet(PeaceBeUpmHim). If we
If we check this
checkthis
claim
claim against
against the
the historical
historicalfacts
factswhich
which confirms that
confirmsthat Ali did not sacrifice himself,
did not sacrifice himself,
as it
as was was expected
expected of a
a person
person of his
his quality
quality to
to carry
carry out
out the commandmentof
the commandment
ALLAH,
ALLAH. the the result
resultwill definitely
definitelybe be one
oneof these
thesethree possibilities:l
threepossibilities: 1

1. Ali, the
l.Ali, the pious
pious companion,
companion, willingly disobeyed ALLAH and
disobeyedALLAH and betrayed the
betrayed the
prophet(Peace
prophetlr""oBe B€Upoo Him) by
npdrrin) by claiming
claimingthat
thathis judgmentand
hisjudgment andwisdom werebetter
wisdomwere than
betterthan
ALLAH'S, (may ALLAH
ALLAH'S, (may ALLAH forbid). forbid).
2. Ali, the
z.Lli, the great
great warrior
warrior of of Islam,
Islam, unwillingly disobeyedthe
unwillingly disobeyed commandmentof
the commandment of
ALLAH, becausehe was a coward and his fear
ALLAH, because he was a coward and his fear of
of people
people was
was greater
greater than
than his
his
fear
fearof
ofALLAH,
ALLAH, the theAll-Mighty (m"y ALLAH
All-Miehty (may forbid).
ALLAH forbid).
3. The cornerstone
3.The cornerstone of
of the
the Shee'ah faith isis false
Shee'ahfaith false and as well
baselessas
and baseless as its
well as its
dimensions
dimensionsand
andtheir
theirevidences.
evidences.
Our
Our dear
dearbrothers, sisters
brothers,sisters andfriends, haveiust
wehave
andfriends,we presented
just presented to
to
you
you thefacts
thefactsto
toprove
pfove that
that the
theShee'ah aredifferentfrom
Shee'ahare Muslims.
dilfetentfrom Muslims.

1 tSee pp.
SeeAmerebrahim Pp. 7-22
Amerebrahim 7-22.

30
30
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