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` d 

 deformation occurs by dislocations
3 xxd very few slip systems due to electrically charged nature of ions and slip
is restricted due to repulsive forces
3 d  resistant to slip because of strong bonds, limited slip systems, and
dislocation structures are complex

 deform by viscous flow because there is no regular atomic
3 ^ate of deformation is proportional to the applied stress
3 ‘toms or ions slide past one another by the breaking and reforming of inter-
atomic bonds
£ o prescribed manner or direction
` º

3 lastic deformation occurs at low stress levels
£ lastic deformation occurs from chain molecules in amorphous regions
elongating in the direction of the applied stress
£ èeformation in the second stage occurs by changes to align and become
elongated, bending and stretching of the strong chain covalent bonds
£ ›eads to a slight reversible increase in the lamellar crystallite thickness
3 Ñlastic deformation occurs after the last stage above
£ ‘djacent chains slide past one another which results in tilting of the
lamellae so the chain folds and aligns with the tensile axis. (drawing)
which is used to improve mechanical properties of polymer fibers and
` -actors that Influence the Mechanical Ñroperties of Semicrystalline Ñolymers
3 ensile strength increases with increasing molecular weight
3 ensile modulus increases with degree of crystallinity which generally enhances
its strength 
3 èrawing causes the molecular chains to slip past one another and become highly
£ Materials drawn in uniaxial tension tensile modulus and strength values
are significantly greater in direction of deformation than in other
3 ‘nnealing can lead to an increase in the percent crystallinity
3 -or materials that are undrawn and subjected to heat treatments
£ Increase in tensile modulus
£ Increase in yield strength
£ ^eduction in ductility
` èeformation of lastomers
3 ‘bility to be deformed to quite large deformations and then elastically spring
back to original shape
£ ^esults form crosslink in the polymer than provide a force to restore the
chains to their undeformed conformations
£ [nstressed state ± elastomer will be amorphous and composed of
crosslinked molecular chains that are highly twisted, kinked and coiled ±
elastic deformation is the uncoiling of these chains
£ ntropy ± measure of the degree of disorder within a system which
increases with increasing disorder
£ ‰hen stretched ± temperature increases and they experience and
increasing modulus of elasticity
£ o be elastomeric:
{ Must not easily crystallize ± they are amorphous
{ dhain bond rotations must be free for coiled chains to respond
readily to an applied force
{ o experience a large elastic deformation, onset of plastic
deformation must be delayed ± cross linking takes care of this
` ulcanization ± cross linking process in elastomers which is achieved by a chemical
reaction carried out at an elevated temperature
3 Sulfure compounds are added to the heated elastomer chains of sulfur atoms bond
with adjacent polymer backbone chains and crosslink them.
£ darbon atoms that were doubly bonded before vulcanization but, after
have become singly bonded


separation of a body into two or more pieces in response to an imposed stress that is
static (tensile, compressive, shear, or torsional)

` è 
substantial plastic deformation with high energy absorption before fracture
3 dharacterized by extensive plastic deformation in the vicinity of an advancing
crack ± proceeds relatively slowly as the crack is extended
£ Stable: resists any further extension unless there is an increase in the
applied stress
3 Ñreferred for two reasons:
£ Ñlastic deformation gives warning to imminent fracture
£ More strain energy is required to induce ductile fracture and ductile
materials are generally tougher
3 Stages:
£ ‘fter necking begins, small cavities form in the interior of the cross
£ èeformation continues microvoids become large and come together to
form an elliptical crack
£ drack continues to grow by microvoid coalescence
£ -racture ensues by the rapid propogation of crack around the outer
perimeter of the neck
` å 
 little or no plastic deformation with low energy absorption
3 dracks spread extremely rapidly with little plastic deformation
£ [nstable: crack propagation will continue spontaneously without an
increase in the magnitude of applied stress
3 dharacteristics:
£ In some steel pieces, a -shaped markings may form near the center of the
fracture cross section that point back towards the crack initiation site
£ ^idges or lines that radiate from the origin of the crack in a fanlike pattern
3 drack propagation corresponds to the successive and repeated breaking of atomic
bonds along specific crystallographic planes
3 ransgranular: cracks pass through grains
3 Intergranular: crack propagation is along grain boundaries
` $ º

3 drack formation and crack propagation in response to an imposed stress
` Ñrinciples of -racture Mechanics:
3 Stress concentrations: measured fracture strengths for most brittle materials are
significantly lower than those predicted by theoretical calculations based on
atomic bonding energies
£ Ñresence of small microscopic flaws or cracks that always exist under
normal conditions (stress raisers)
{ More significant in brittle materials
£ Sharp corners and large notches in large structures
3 -racture toughness: measure of a materials resistance to brittle fracture when a
crack is present
£ Ñlain strain: when fracture toughness is much less than the thickness ±
when a load operates on a crack ± there is no strain component
perpendicular to the front and back faces
£ årittle materials have low fracture toughness values however they are
relatively large for ductile materials
3 Ñlain strain fracture toughness ± decreases with increasing strain rate and
decreasing temperature, decreases with strain hardening or enhancement in yield

` ‘t room temperature, crystalline and noncrystalline ceramics fracture before any plastic
deformation can occur
3 Stress raisers: in brittle ceramics may be minute surface or interior cracks, pores,
and grain corners which are impossible to control
3 Static -atigue: fracture of ceramic material will occur by the slow propagation of
£ specially sensitive to environmental conditions ± moisture causes ionic
bonds to rupture which leads to a sharpening and lengthening of the cracks
until one crack grows to a size capable of rapid propagation
3 dracks accelerate up to a terminal velocity, once the velocity is reached the cracks
begin to branch. [p to the critical velocity the crack is flat and smooth. -or glass
fracture this mirror is extremely flat and highly reflective
£ Ñolycrystalline ceramics the flat mirror surfaces are rougher and have a
granular texture
3 ‘fter critical velocity is reached, the crack begins to branch and changes
direction, there is roughening of the crack interface and formation of mist and
£ Mist: faint annular region just outside the mirror ± often not discernible
£ üackle: which is an even rougher texture composed of striations that
radiate away from the crack source


` #  
fracture strength of polymeric materials are low relative to those
of metals and ceramics, mode of fracture in polymers is brittle ± covalent bonds in the
network or crosslinked structure are severed during the fracture that propagate from stress
3 hermoplastic: both ductile and brittle modes are possible ± many materials can
experience ductile to brittle transition
£ årittle: reduction in temperature, increase in strain rate, presence of a
sharp notch, increased thickness
£ lassy thermoplastics are brittle below their glass transition temperature ±
but as the temperature is raised, they become ductile and experience
plastic yielding prior to fracture
£ drazing: regions of localized plastic deformation that lead to formation of
small and interconnected microvoids ± can support a load across its face
unlike a crack
{ -orm at highly stressed regions associated with scratches, flaws
and molecular inhomogeneties
` x #  

 &chosen to represent deformation at a relatively low
temperature, high strain rate, and a triaxial stress state
3 dharpy and Izod fracture technique are used where a repeated pendulum-knife his
struck on a cut out v-notch.
£ nergy absorption computed from the difference between h¶ and h is a
measure of impact energy ± main difference is specimen support
3 èuctile to årittle ransition: charpy/izod used to determine whether a material
undergoes this transition with decreasing temperature and if so, what temperature
ranges does it occur
£ ‘s temperature is lowered, the impact energy drops suddenly over a
relatively narrow temperature below which the energy has a constant but
small value ± which is brittle fracture
£ ‘ppearance of the failure surface is indicative of the nature of fracture and
may be used in transition temperature determinations
{ èuctile: surface appears fibrous or dull
£ o explicit criterion has been established and so this temperature is
defined as the temperature at which the d energy assumes some value
£ Most conservative temperature is when the surface becomes entirely
£ ›ow strength -dd metals and most üdÑ metals do not experience a
ductile to brittle transition and retain high impact energies with decreasing
temperature which is similar to that of high strength materials; but these
materials are very brittle
` #&
form of failure that occurs in structures subjected to dynamic and fluctuating
stresses which can cause failure at a lower stress level than the tensile or yield strength
for the material
3 #&
 below this value ± failure will not occur (steel: 35%-60% of tensile
3 #&

&' stress level at which failure will occur for some specified
number of cycles
3 #&
 number of cycles to cause failure at a specified stress level
£ c

£ º %

£ otch or geometric discontinuity can act as a stress raiser and fatigue
crack initiation site
£ º %

£ d
' (
 & both surface hardness and fatigue life are enhanced for
steel alloys
{ darburizing or nitriding by which a component is exposed to a
carbonaceous atmosphere at an elevated temperature and a carbon
or nitrogen rich outer surface layer is introduced by atomic
diffusion from the gaseous phase
` d

deformation under constant loading (turbines etc)

` d

 subjecting a specimen to a constant load or stress while maintaining the
temperature constant ± most tests are constant load type
3 [pon application of load there is an instant deformation which is elastic
3 Ñrimary/transient creep occurs first: slope of the curve diminishes with time ±
strain hardening
3 Secondary creep: rate is constant and the plot becomes linear ± longest duration
3 ertiary dreep: acceleration of the rate of creep and ultimate failure


` Ñhase èiagrams:
3 d 
pure metals and or compounds of which an alloy is composed
3 º
 refer to a specific body of material under consideration or to the series of
possible alloys consisting of the same components but without regard to alloy
` Solubility ›imit: maximum concentration of solute atoms that may dissolve in the solvent
to form a solid solution
` Ñhases: homogeneous portion of a system that has uniform physical and chemical
characteristics all having different physical properties
` quilibrium: free energy ± function of the internal energy of a system (randomness or
disorder of the atoms or molecules)
` Ñhase quilibrium: equilibrium as it applies to systems in which more than one phase
may exist ± reflected by a constancy with time in the phase characteristics of a system 
` Metastable: approach to equilibrium is very slow and almost never achieved and may
exist indefinitely
` Ñhase èiagram: displays the control of the phase structure of a particular system, pressure
temperature and composition all affect phase structure and they are all present on the
` åinary Isomorphouse Systems: 
3 Isomorphous: complete liquid and solid solubility of the two components


` å  
there are three single phase regions 
3 º ( 
 line extended between the maximum solubility positions which
represents the lowest temperature at which a liquid phase may exist for any
copper-silver alloy that is in equilibrium
3 *( 
 line at which the alloys become totally liquid
3 x +  !   the location of intersection between both liquidous lines
   upon cooling, the liquid phase is transformed into one of the
two solid phases at the e temperature ± the reaction is completed at a constant
 x '
 the horizontal solidus line drawn at e
 microstructure that forms consists of alternating layers
(lamellae) of the alpha and beta phases that form simultaneously during the

*- è& .+ &x 

 d   (

  upon heating two solid phases become one solid phase
` !

  ,   upon heating, one solid phase transforms into a liquid phase and
another solid phase
` d & 
  %   no compositional alterations