Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Members subjected to

bending and axial compression (beam-column)


Outlines

Basic principles of steel structures


— Introduction
— Section capacity of beam-column
— Overall stability of beam-column

Dr. Xianzhong ZHAO — Local buckling of plate element in beam-clomn


x.zhao@mail.tongji.edu.cn — Rigidity of compression members
www.sals.org.cn

Beam-column Beam-column
introduction introduction
; Beam-column members in structures ; Structural shapes used in beam-column
- column in frame structure
- rafter in portal frame
- longitudinal girder of cable-stayed bridge
- members in truss structures

; Selection of cross-section
Loading status cross-section used
- major in compression, plus minor bending doubly symmetric section
- major in bending about one axis singly symmetric section
- bi-axial beam-column

Beam-column Beam-column
introduction: failure modes section capacity of beam-column
; Section capacity: normal stress dominated
; strength failure (section capacity)
yield, fracture, fatigue, connection
— yield at compressive fiber
; stability failure (buckling resistance) of beam-column N Mx
+ ≤ fy
Overall stability: in-plane buckling and flexural-torsional buckling
A Wx1
Local buckling of plates in beam-column — yield at tensile fiber
Chord buckling in built-up beam-column N Mx
− + ≤ fy
A Wx2
; Less rigidity of beam-column
excessive deflection, loss of rigidity — plastic failure
N M
A( + n )α + B ( x + m ) β = 1
Np M px

1
Beam-column Beam-column
section capacity of beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column
practical design equations (net section) ; In-plane overall stability
; Criteria of elasticity
My
N Mx My
N
±
Mx
± ≤ fd Mx Mx Mx :0 → Mx
± ± ≤ fd An W xn W yn
An W xn W yn
N :0→ v N N v N
; Criteria of partial plasticity N Mx
Np M px
N Mx My N Mx My
± ± ≤ fd ± ± ≤ fd M pcx
An γ xW xn γ yW yn An γ xW xn γ yW yn NE

; Criteria of full plasticity (bending about one axis)


N Equ.(4.18), pp85
if ≤ 0 . 13 M x ≤ W pnx f d
An f d v v
N N
if > 0 . 13 M x ≤ 1 . 15 (1 − )W pnx f d
An f d An f d Why in-plane buckle s of beam-column?

Beam-column Beam-column
In-plane buckling of beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column

; differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column ; solution for differential equation of elastic buckling of
beam-column
Mx Mx
Mx Mx
N N
y v z N N EI x v' '+ Nv = − Ney
v z
y
bending equilibrium about
x-axis for all types section
if M x = Ney let α = N / EI x we got,
ey
EI x v' ' = −( M x + Nv) For all types sections with v= [cos(αA / 2 − αz ) − cos(αA / 2)]
illustrated supports, the cos(αA/2)
EI x v' '+ Nv + M x = 0 differential equation will be
eyα 2
differential equation while EI x v' '+ Nv = − Ney v' ' = − cos(αA / 2 − αz )
subjected to bending cos(αA/2)
solution satisfy the Mx
EI x v' '+M x = 0 boundary condition: v0 = vA = 0 v0'' = vA'' = −
EI x

Beam-column Beam-column
In-plane buckling of beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column
; curves for differential equation of elastic buckling of ; criteria of yielding at extreme fiber for beam-column
beam-column N
Mx Mx Mx Mx
N NE
N N N N
z NE v z
y v y
yield at
ey Ney
v= [cos(αA / 2 − αz ) − cos(αA / 2)] N M max N
+ = + ≤ fy
extreme fiber
v max
cos(αA/2) A Wx A Wx cos(αA / 2)
1 v max
vmax = ey [ − 1] N Aey
cos(αA/2) [1 + sec(αA / 2)] ≤ f y
N A Wx
Ney Mx
M max = = NE N fy
cos(αA/2) cos(αA/2) σ= ≤
A 1 + ε 0y sec(αA / 2)
π 2 EIx αA π
N ⇒ NE = , cos ⇒ cos = 0 Ae
A2 2 2 M max where, ε 0 y = y
Wx

2
Beam-column Beam-column
In-plane buckling of beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column
; second-order effects ( P − Δ effects) ; ultimate capacity of beam-column
N N
M x = Ne y Mx M x = Ne y Mx
ultimate capacity N u
N N N N
v z v z
y yield at yield at
extreme fiber extreme
v max fiber v max
first-order moment: M1 = Ney — develop plasticity after yielding at
Before yield at extreme fiber, extreme fiber
In-plane buckling of beam-column
load-deflection curve is nonlinear — the increase of load effect
second-order moment: performs →
αA due to second-order effect (moment) is nonlinear
M 2 = Ney (sec − 1) — the difference of increase
extreme value of load-deflection
2 curve →
Criteria of yield at extreme fiber of in-plane between moment and section
second-order effect of
amplification factor considering buckling of beam-column is strength problem resistance leads to decrease of
compression and deflection →
second-order effect in elasticity: considering second-order effect, but it is not a loads to maintain the bending
In-plane buckling is not section
αA section capacity problem due to its pertaining equilibrium
sec to the deflection of the whole member
capacity (strength) problem
2

Beam-column Beam-column
In-plane buckling of beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column
; (beam-)column with initial imperfection ; numerical algorithm to obtain
N N / Np
the ultimate capacity of beam-
N 1 .0
N v0 NE column considering material λ = 20 ε 0y = 1
v z
ultimate capacity nonlinearity, pp191-193 λ = 40
EI x v ' ' + Nv = Nv 0 yield at Nu λ = 80
extreme ; axial force – deflection curves λ = 120
v max
v 0 = v 0 m sin( π z / A ) fiber (slenderness as parameter) vmax / A
v0 m πz obtained by numerical N / Np
v= sin( )
1− N / NE A algorithm 1 .0
λ = 0 section capacity
Nv0m
M max = criteria of
1 - N/N E ; curves of axial force – max. 20
yield at extreme fiber: moment of beam-column
amplification factor considering 80
N Nv 0m while buckles (slenderness
second-order effect in elasticity: + ≤ fy
1 A W x (1 − N / N E ) as parameter) In-plane stability 120 M / Mp
1 - N/N E ultimate capacity 1 .0

Beam-column Beam-column
In-plane buckling of beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column
; design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of solid- ; End moment factor (pp196)
web beam-column Beam-column with Beam-column without
N M x + Nvo
N M x + Nvo + =1 sideway in the plane of sideway in the plane of
+ =1 Af y ⎛ N ⎞
N P M (1 − N ) Wx1 f y ⎜⎜1 − ⎟⎟ bending bending
ex ⎝ N EX ⎠
Mx = 0
N EX
1 .0 — no any transverse load
Wx1 ( Af y − N ox )( N EX − N ox ) M2
vo = 0.65 + 0.35
AN ox N EX M1
N β mx M x
M x — moment based on + =1 — with end moment and
first-order analysis ϕ x Af y ⎛ N ⎞ yield at transverse load
Wx1 f y ⎜⎜1 − ϕ x ⎟⎟ 1 .0
extreme fiber
0.8 — factor obtained from test ⎝ N EX ⎠

and numerical results, 0.85


considering the
N β mx M x
development of plasticity + = fy — no end moment, but
N β mx M x ϕx A ⎛ N ⎞
+ = fy γ xWx1 ⎜⎜1 − 0.8 ⎟⎟
having transverse load
ϕx A ⎛ N ⎞ ⎝
'
N EX ⎠
Formula applied to “member” γ xWx1 ⎜⎜1 − 0.8 ' ⎟⎟ partially
⎝ N EX ⎠ plasticity 1 .0

3
Beam-column Beam-column
In-plane buckling of beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column

; design formula for in-plane buckling resistance ; Characteristic of flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column
of unsymmetric solid-web beam-column with (out-of-plane buckling)
larger flange in compression Mx Mx
N N
v z
y
N β mx M x
− + ≤ fy N
A ⎛ N ⎞ N
γ xWx2 ⎜⎜1 − 1.25 ⎟ u,θ
z
' ⎟ x
⎝ N EX ⎠
Similarity with overall buckling of beam:
occur flexural and torsion deformation out-of-plane
; design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of
built-up section about virtual axis Difference with overall bucking of beam:
FTB occur under the combined axial force and moment
N β mx M x
+ ≤ fy
ϕx A ⎛ N ⎞ Difference with the FTB of axial compression member:
Wx1 ⎜⎜1 − ϕ x ' ⎟⎟ occur flexural and torsional deformation simultaneously for
⎝ N EX ⎠
doubly symmetric section

Beam-column Beam-column
flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column
; differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column ; solution for differential equation of elastic buckling of
doubly symmetric section
beam-column
Mx Mx
simply-support at ends EI y u IV + Nu '' + M xθ '' = 0
N N subjected to equal end moments 2 ''
EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + M x u '' + ( Nr0 − R)θ = 0
v z
y
N N
x u,θ
z EI y u '' + M xθ = 0 Solution Procedure refers to pp197
IV '' N N M2
EI y u + Nu = 0 Solution: (1 − )(1 − ) − 2x = 0 (7-18)
N Ey Nθ M crx
EI y u IV + Nu '' + M xθ '' = 0
where, N Ey = π 2 EI y / A2oy
EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + M x u '' + ( Nr02 − R)θ '' = 0
Nθ = (π 2 EIω / A2oθ + GIt + R) / r02
2 ''
EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + ( Nr0 − R)θ = 0 Axial force satisfying Equ.(7-18) is the critical FTB force
EI ωθ ''' − GI tθ ' + M x u ' = 0 Discussion: beam-column buckles when compression reach N Ey , Nθ ?

Beam-column Beam-column
flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column
; illustration of critical flexural-torsional-buckling resistance ; design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance
of beam-column of beam-column
N N M2
Solution: (1 − )(1 − ) − 2x = 0 Theoretical value (lower limit) for N M
+ x =1
N Ey Nθ M crx beam-column without imperfection: NEy Mcrx

N / N Ey For most members


Comparison between theoretical formula and real steelwork:
1 .0 in real structures: — not doubly-symmetric section
Nθ / NEy = 5
— elasto-plastic period
Nθ / NEy > 1
2 — coupling of differential equation due to initial imperfection
1 That is ,
0.5 N M
+ x =1 design formula:
N Ey M crx
0.2 M x / M crx N β tx ⋅ M x
It is the lower limit for + ≤ fd
0 .0 1 .0 flexural-torsional buckling of ϕy ⋅ A ϕ b ⋅ Wx
beam-column

4
Beam-column Beam-column
flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column

; design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance ; design formula of in-plane buckling resistance of
of beam-column beam-column about virtual axis
N β ⋅Mx N
+
β mx M x
≤ fy
+ tx ≤ fd
ϕ y ⋅ A ϕ b ⋅ Wx ϕx A ⎛ N ⎞
Wx1 ⎜⎜1 − ϕ x ' ⎟⎟
— buckling out-of-plane (out-of-plane stability factor φy) ⎝ N EX ⎠ comparison with solid-web
— moment used is the max. moment in segment to be checked beam-column
N β mx M x
— end moment factor for FTB has the same meaning as that in-plane + ≤ fy
buckling pp.199 ϕx A ⎛ N ⎞
γ xWx1 ⎜⎜1 − 0.8 '
⎟⎟
— stability factor of beam should be calculated as beam subjected to ⎝ N EX ⎠
equal bending moment
How to calculate the section modulus (compression)?
; design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance
of beam-column with closed section
W x1 = I x / y 0
N β ⋅Mx η −1.0 for open section
+ η tx ≤ fd
ϕy ⋅ A ϕ b ⋅ Wx 0.7 for closed section y0 y0 y0

Beam-column Beam-column
overall stability of built-up beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column

; design formula of out-of-plane buckling resistance of ; buckling resistance of chord in built-up beam-column:
beam-column subjected to bending about virtual axis axial force loaded on each chord
N N
No need if chord stability is ok M
e= e e
N
M is the max. moment
; design formula of in-plane buckling resistance of in member
beam-column subjected to bending about actual axis
y2 + e
N1 = N
Same as that of solid-web beam-column y1 + y 2

N 2 = N − N1
; design formula of out-of-plane buckling resistance of
beam-column subjected to bending about actual axis
y 2 y1 y 2 y1
Same as that of solid-web beam-column, but…. N2 N1 N2 N1

Beam-column Beam-column
overall stability of built-up beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column

; buckling resistance of chord in laced beam-column ; buckling resistance of chord in battened beam-column
x x
1. Each chord performs as member 1. Each chord withstands the local
pinned at two ends and withstands y y bending moment and shear force, y y
the force N 1 or N 2 in addition to axial force N 1 or N 2
x x
2. Effective length: 2. Shear force:
in-plane: length of adjacent joints shear force in battened beam-column
N1
≤ fd λ1 =
l1 V = max{ΔM x / ΔH , ( Af d / 85) f y / 235}
ϕA1 i1 V acts to each chord, generating M
out-of-plane: lateral supported length
3. Effective length:
3. Segments of member: in-plane (beam-column):
in-plane: M along the member length of adjacent battening
out-of-plane: max. M in each segment y 2 y1 out-of-plane (compression member): y 2 y1
Q/A: shall we consider the shear force in beam-column? N 2 N1 lateral supported length N1

5
Beam-column Beam-column
local buckling of plates in beam-column local buckling of plates in beam-column

; Flange subjected to compression ; Web


(limit of width-to-thickness ratio while no local buckling allowed) (limit of height-to-thickness ratio while no local buckling allowed)
hw 235
I-shape section: 0 ≤ α 0 ≤ 1 .6, ≤ (16 α 0 + 0 . 5 λ + 25 )
tw fy
b 235
outstand flange: ≤ 15 hw 235
t fy 1 .6 < α 0 ≤ 2, ≤ ( 48α 0 + 0 .5λ − 26 .2 )
tw fy
λ is in-plane slenderness, ranged 30~100
T-shape section:
hw 235
b 235 web in tension: ≤ (15 + 0.2 λ ) (hot rolled W split)
edge-supported flange: ≤ 40 tw fy
t fy
hw 235
≤ (13 + 0.17 λ ) (welded T section)
tw fy
h 235
web in compression: α 0 ≤ 1 . 0 , w ≤ 15
tw fy
hw 235
α 0 > 1 .0, ≤ 18
tw fy

Beam-column Design procedure of beam-column


stiffness of beam-column summary

; slenderness ; Selection of member section


As compression member,
Section: requirement of overall stability, local buckling and ease to connect
max. slenderness is 150~200
; In-plane deflection for beam-column ; Strength: cross-section resistance

Lateral displacement ; Overall buckling resistance


Solid-web compression members: in-plane and out-of-plane
; Ascertain of slenderness in real steelwork
Laced or battened compression members: about virtual axis
chord stability: laced beam-column, battened beam-column
in-plane and out-of-plane

; local buckling resistance


Allowable ratio of width to thickness

; rigidity of beam-column