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MAHARASHTRA ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING AND EDUCATIONAL

RESEARCH’S

MIT COLLEGE ENGINEERING

PUNE - 411038

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

A Seminar Report on

4G Wireless System

By

Nikhil Patil

Roll No-3426

Academic Year 2010-2011

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MAHARASHTRA ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING AND EDUCATIONAL
RESEARCH’S

MIT COLLEGE ENGINEERING

PUNE - 411038

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Certificate

This is to certify that Mr. Patil Nikhil Umakant of TE , Roll No. T3426, has successfully
completed seminar on

4 G WIRELESS SYSTEM

To my satisfaction and submitted the same during the academic year 2010-1011 towards the
partial fulfillment of third year of Engineering in Information Technology of Pune University
at MIT College of Engineering, Pune.

Prof. Manjiri Hoshing Prof B.A.Dixit

Seminar Guide (H.O.D)

INDEX
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1) Abstract……………………………………………………………5

2) Introduction ……………………………………………………….6

3) Evolution………………………………………….……………….9

4) Difference between 3G and 4G ………………………………….12

5) Wireless Security …………………………………….…………..13

6) Merits and demerits of 4G ……………………………………18

7) Market trend ………………………………………………………19

8) Application of 4G …………………………………………………20

9) Future Scope……………………………………………………….21

10) Conclusion………………………………………………………..22

11) References … ………………………………….…………………23

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List of Figures-
Fig. No. Fig. Name Page No.
1 Evolution of 4G 10
2 IP base 4G Network 11
3 Information Security 15
Model

List of Tables
Table no. Table Name Page No.
1 Difference between 3G 12
and 4G

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Abstract
The aim of this research line is to develop a system for robust coding of video content for
4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short
video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a
cell phone will be carried out. The selection of image and video standards, error concealment,
displays and batteries have also been pursued. Research has also been carried out in markets and
applications, network evolution and radio access for 4G. Other topics that are relevant to 4G
such as java based I-mode programs and FOMA technology have also been included.[1]

Initiatives have also been identified that will have an impact on the development of 4G
and how it will diverge along with its concerns. The selection of multiple access techniques
suitable for 4G and 3G standards that will integrate with 4G have also been addressed. Many
enabling techniques including software radio, smart antennas and digital signal processing
aspects are improving the spectral efficiency of 3G systems and have been marked as suitable
technologies for 4G.[1]

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Introduction

Pick up any newspaper today and it is a safe bet that you will find an article somewhere
relating to mobile communications. If it is not in the technology section it will almost certainly
be in the business section and relate to the increasing share prices of operators or equipment
manufacturers, or acquisitions and take-over thereof. Such is the pervasiveness of mobile
communications that it is affecting virtually everyone life and has become a major political topic
and a significant contributor to national gross domestic product (GDP).

The major driver to change in the mobile area in the last ten years has been the massive
enabling implications of digital technology, both in digital signal processing and in service
provision. The equivalent driver now, and in the next five years, will be the all pervasiveness of
software in both networks and terminals. The digital revolution is well underway and we stand at
the doorway to the software revolution. Accompanying these changes are societal developments
involving the extensions in the use of mobiles. Starting out from speech-dominated services we
are now experiencing massive growth in applications involving SMS (Short Message Service)
together with the start of Internet applications using WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and i-
mode. The mobile phone has not only followed the watch, the calculator and the organizer as an
essential personal accessory but has subsumed all of them. With the new Internet extensions it
will also lead to a convergence of the PC, hi-fl and television and provide mobility to facilities
previously only available on one network.

The development from first generation analogue systems (1985) to second generation
(2G) digital GSM (1992) was the heart of the digital revolution. But much more than this it was a
huge success for standardization emanating from Europe and gradually spreading globally.

However, world-wide roaming still presents some problems with pockets of US standards
IS-95 (a code division multiple access [CDMA] rather than a time division multiple access
[TDMA] digital system) and IS- 136 (a TDMA variant) still entrenched in some countries.
Extensions to GSM (2G) via GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data
rates for GSM Evolution) (E-GPRS) as well as WAP and i-mode (so called 2.5G) will allow the
transmission of higher data rates as well as speech prior to the introduction of 3G.

Mobile systems comprise a radio access together with a supporting core network. In
GSM the latter is characterized by MAP (Mobile Applications Protocol), which provides the
mobility management features of the system.

GSM was designed for digital speech services or for low bit rate data that could fit into a
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speech channel (e.g. 9.6kbit/s). It is a circuit rather than a packet oriented network and hence is
inefficient for data communications. To address the rapid popularity increase of Internet services,
GPRS is being added to GSM to allow packet (Internet Protocol [IP]) communications at up to
about 100kbit/s.

Third generation (3G) systems were standardized in 1999. These include IMT-2000
(International Mobile Telecommunications 2000), which was standardized within ITU-R and
includes the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) European standard from
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), the US derived CDMA 2000 and the
Japanese NTT DoCoMo W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) system. Such
systems extend services to (multi rate) high-quality multimedia and to convergent networks of
fixed, cellular and satellite components. The radio air interface standards are based upon W-
CDMA (UTRA FDD and UTRA TDD in UMTS, multicarrier CDMA 2000 and single carrier
UWC-136 on derived US standards). The core network has not been standardized, but a group of
three evolved GSM (MAP), evolved ANSI-41 (from the American National Standards Institute)
and IP-based are all candidates. 3G is also about a diversity of terminal types, including many
non-voice terminals, such as those embedded in all sorts of consumer products. Bluetooth
(another standard not within the 3G orbit, but likely to be associated with it) is a short-range
system that addresses such applications. Thus services from a few bits per second up to 2Mbit/s
can be envisioned.

For broadband indoor wireless communications, standards such as HIPERLAN 2 (High


Performance Local Area NetworkETSI broadband radio access network [BRAN]) and IEEE
802.lla have emerged to support IP based services and provide some QoS (quality of service)
support. Such systems are based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) rather
than CDMA and are planned to operate in the 5GHz band.

Whereas 2G operates in 900 and 1800/1900MHz frequency bands, 3G is intended to


operate in wider bandwidth allocations at 2GHz. These new frequency bands will provide wider
bandwidths for some multimedia services and the first allocations have been made in some
countries via spectrum auctions (e.g. in the UK, Holland and Germany) or beauty contests (in
France and Italy). The opportunity has also been taken to increase competition by allowing new
operators into the bands as well as extending existing operator licenses. These new systems will
comprise microcells as well as macrocells in order to deliver the higher capacity services
efficiently. 3G and 2G will continue to coexist for some time with optimization of service
provision between them. Various modes of delivery will be used to improve coverage in urban,
suburban and rural areas, with satellite (and possibly HAPS high altitude platform stations)
playing a role.

For broadband indoor wireless communications, standards such as HIPERLAN 2 (High

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Performance Local Area NetworkETSIs broadband radio access network [BRAN]) and IEEE
802.lla have emerged to support IP based services and provide some QoS (quality of service)
support. Such systems are based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) rather
than CDMA and are planned to operate in the 5GHz band.

Whereas 2G operates in 900 and 1800/1900MHz frequency bands, 3G is intended to


operate in wider bandwidth allocations at 2GHz. These new frequency bands will provide wider
bandwidths for some multimedia services and the first allocations have been made in some
countries via spectrum auctions (e.g. in the UK, Holland and Germany) or beauty contests (in
France and Italy). The opportunity has also been taken to increase competition by allowing new
operators into the bands as well as extending existing operator licences. These new systems will
comprise microcells as well as macrocells in order to deliver the higher capacity services
efficiently. 3G and 2G will continue to coexist for some time with optimisation of service
provision between them. Various modes of delivery will be used to improve coverage in urban,
suburban and rural areas, with satellite (and possibly HAPS”high altitude platform stations)
playing a role.

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Evolution
• First Generation (1G): 1G wireless mobile communication systems, was introduced in
the early 1980s. 1G wireless was analog and supported the first generation of analog cell
phones. They include a signaling protocol known as SS7 (Signaling System 7).

• Second Generation (2G): 2G systems, fielded in the late 1980s, were intended primarily
for voice transmission and was all about digital PCS.

• Third Generation (3G): 3G in wireless will be a deliberate migration to faster, data-


centric wireless networks. The immediate goal is to raise transmission speeds from
125kbps to 2M bit/sec.

• Fourth Generation (4G): In reality, as of first half of 2002, 4G is a conceptual


framework for or a discussion point to address future needs of a universal high speed
wireless network that will interface with wirelinebackbone network seamlessly.

Fig 1. Evolution of 4G
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Fig2.IP base 4G Network

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Difference between 3G &4G

3G (including 2.5G) 4G

Major Requirement Driving Predominantly voice driven - data Converged data and voice over IP
Architecture was always add on

Network Architecture Wide area cell-based Hybrid - Integration of Wireless


LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide
area

Speeds 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode

Frequency Band Dependent on country or continent Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz)
(1800-2400 MHz)

Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100 MHz (or more)

Switching Design Basis Circuit and Packet All digital with packetized voice

Access Technologies W-CDMA, 1 OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi


Carrier CDMA)

Forward Error Correction Convolution rate 1/2, 1/3 Concatenated coding scheme

Component Design Optimized antenna design, multi- multi-band adapters Smarter


band adapters Antennas, software multiband and
wideband radios

IP A number of air link protocols, All IP (IP6.0)


including IP 5.0

Wireless Security
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History

The original cellular phone network in the United States was called the Analog Mobile
Phone System (AMPS). It was developed by AT&T and launched in 1983. AMPS operated in
the 800 MHz range, from 824-849 MHz and 869-894 MHz. The lower band was used for
transmissions from the phone to the base station, and the upper band was for the reverse
direction (Leon-Garcia and Widjaja 2000). This allows full duplex conversation, which is
desirable for voice communications. The bands were divided into 832 subchannels, and each
connection required a pair: one each for sending and receiving data. Each subchannel was 30
KHz wide, which yielded voice quality comparable to wired telephones. The subchannels were
set up so that every subchannel pair was exactly 45 MHz apart (Leon-Garcia and Widjaja 2000).
Several of the channels were reserved exclusively for connection setup and teardown. The base
station in a particular cell kept a record of which voice subchannel pairs were in use.
Though usable, this system included a number of security flaws. Because each
phone transmitted (like any radio transmitter) in the clear on its own frequency, the phones in
this system “were almost comically vulnerable to security attacks” (Riezenman 2000, 40). The
crime of service theft plagued cellular service providers, as individuals with radio scanners could
“sniff” the cellular frequencies and obtain the phone identification numbers necessary to “clone”
a phone (Riezenman 2000, 39). The abuser could then use this cloned phone to make free
telephone calls that would be charged to the legitimate user’s account. In an attempt to stem
these attacks, service providers worked with Congress to punish such abuse. Congress passed a
law in 1998 to make owning a cellular scanner with intent to defraud a federal crime (Riezenman
2000, 40). Unfortunately, punitive legislation was not enough to solve the problem; a new
standard was needed. To create a new standard, engineers needed to start anew, examining each
part of the current system.

Stakeholders in Wireless Security

In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation
cellular systems, engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as
an afterthought. Unfortunately, this is no easy task. Implementing good security requires that
security be designed into every aspect of the system; otherwise, a security leak exists. Thus, the
following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system:
• Government regulator
• Network infrastructure provider
• Wireless service provider
• Wireless equipment provider
• Wireless user (Russell 2001, 172)
3.3 Information Security Model
Before seeking to design and implement wireless security, however, one first needs to
understand what this elusive concept of security really means. In this case, wireless security is
really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and
network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). These
collectively can be referred to as “wireless network security” (Russell 2001, 173). But this still
does not explain the security aspect. In a digital realm, security almost always means
“information security.” Therefore, we can use the information security model proposed by the
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National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee
(NSTISSC), as seen in Figure 2: Along the top edge of the cube are the three states information
can be in, while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the
security policy should provide. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad
categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. The cube is thus
split into 27 smaller cubes, each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any
extensive security audit. This document, on the other hand, is not meant to contain such an audit,
but rather to present the major issues of wireless security, the objectives of future wireless
technology, and the security measures needed to reach those goals.

Wireless Security Issues


Wireless systems face a number of security challenges, one of which comes from
interference. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of lectromagnetic
spectrum, the possibility of interference increases. This can result in a loss of signal for users.
Moreover, an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-of-service attack (lowering availability) by
jamming the frequencies used. Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that “an
RF engineer using $50 worth of readily-available components can build a simple short-range
jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies” (Russell 2001, 174).

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Fig3: Information Security Model

Physical security can pose problems as well. Cellular phones and other handheld devices were
designed to be small and mobile, but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces
of technology to get lost or stolen, and thieves can easily conceal them. Because of their size,
these devices often have extremely limited computing power. This could manifest itself in lower
levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST, U.S. Dept. of Commerce , 5-26). As
encryption is improved in the same device, speed is consequently lowered, as is available
bandwidth (Russell 2001, 174). Other software issues can open security holes as well. For
example, many handheld wireless devices include the ability to download and run programs,
some of which may not be trustworthy. Even the core operating system software may not be
secure; engineers may have rushed to release it in order to offer new features in the competitive
handheld device market. Perhaps most damaging, the users typically lack awareness that any of
these security issues may be present in their wireless handheld device (NIST, U.S. Dept. of
Commerce 5-27). These security issues serve as a reminder that designing for security is never a
finished process. Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully
implemented. Even then, one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop.

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Security Analysis

Objectives

The first step in analyzing cellular wireless security is to identify the security objectives.
These are the goals that the security policy and corresponding technology should achieve.
Howard, Walker, and Wright, of the British company Vodafone, created objectives for 3G
wireless that are applicable to 4G as well:
• To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected
against misuse or misappropriation.
• To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected
against misuse or misappropriation.
• To ensure that the security features are compatible with world-wide availability...
• To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide
interoperability and roaming between different providers.
• To ensure that the level of protection afforded to users and providers of services is considered
to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks...
• To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and
enhanced as required by new threats and services.
• To ensure that security features enable new ‘e-commerce’ services and other advanced
applications(Howard, Walker, and Wright 2001, 22) These goals will help to direct security
efforts, especially when the system is faced with specific threats.

Threats
Because instances of 4G wireless systems currently only exist in a few laboratories, it is
difficult to know exactly what security threats may be present in the future. However, one can
still extrapolate based on past experience in wired network technology and wireless transmission.
For instance, as mobile handheld devices become more complex, new layers of technological
abstraction will be added. Thus, while lower layers may be fairly secure, software at a higher
layer may introduce vulnerabilities, or vice-versa. Future cellular wireless devices will be known
for their software applications, which will provide innovative new features to the user.
Unfortunately, these applications will likely introduce new security holes, leading to more
attacks on the application level (Howard, Walker, and Wright 2001, 22). Just as attacks over the
Internet may currently take advantage of flaws in applications like Internet Explorer, so too may
attacks in the future take advantage of popular applications on cellular phones. In addition, the
aforementioned radio jammers may be adapted to use IP technology to masquerade as legitimate
network devices. However, this would be an extremely complex endeavor. The greatest risk
comes from the application layer, either from faulty applications themselves or viruses
downloaded from the network.

Security Architecture
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The above topics merely comprise a brief overview of some of the issues involved in
wireless handheld device security. They by no means define a complete security solution for 4G
wireless security. Rather, these topics serve as examples of some of the more prominent security
problems that currently exist or may exist in future wireless systems. A more thorough security
analysis is needed before a 4G wireless system can be implemented. This should lead to a 4G
security architecture that is:
Complete The architecture should address all threats to the security objectives. Unfortunately, it
may be difficult to avoid missing some features when there are so many independent parts of the
4G system.
Efficient Security functionality duplication should be kept to a minimum. Again, this may
be difficult given the number of independent functions. Effective Security features should
achieve their purpose. However, some security features may open up new security holes.
Extensible Security should be upgradeable in a systematic way.
User-friendly End users should have to learn as little about security as possible. Security should
be transparent to the user; when interaction must be involved, it should be easy to understand
(Howard, Walker, and Wright 2001, 26).
These objectives were taken into account when the current generation of cellular
technology was designed. This generation, referred to as 2G, has worked well; though it is
showing its age, it is still in use.

Merits and Demerits of 4G-


Considering 4G characteristics, expected scenarios and market trends, we can
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find out strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of 4G with better
understandings. The lists and findings follow.

Merits in 4G:
• 4G visions take into account installed base and past investments
• Strong position of telecommunications vendors expected in the marketplace.
• Faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth, allow more
business applications and commercialization
• Has advantage for personalized multimedia communication tools

Demerits in 4G:
• No large user community for advanced mobile data applications yet
• Growing divergence between telecommunications vendors and operators
• Not possible to offer full internet experience due to limited speed and
bandwidth
• Comparatively higher cost to use and deploy infrastructure compared fast
mobile generation

MARKET TRENDS

In consideration of the market situation, we review market acceptance and


adoption of wireless data and deployments of 3GPP and WiMAX networks
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around the world. 3GPP LTE and WiMAX technologies encompass a huge range
of evolving capability, but how well do these technologies actually address
market needs. Basically, 3G operators have shown less interest in mobile
WiMAX and are more interested in upgrading their own networks that would
enable them to compete with WiMAX.
In Korea, launching of WiBro has not been spectacular. What was supposed to
become a flagship for Korea’s WiMAX technology can still be considered a pilot
project. In July 2006, KT launched commercial service in Seoul and surrounding
cities where it had provided pilot service. Both KT and SKT offer only the
PTC’07 Proceedings
Samsung PCMCIA card for the service. However, it is expected that WiBro
adoption in Korea will be rather gradual and modest compared to initial
estimations.
Currently, UMTS is commercially launched by 107 operators in 50 countries with
79 more networks planned or in deployment. After Cingular Wireless launched
the world’s first wide scale UMTS/HSDPA network in December 2005, 103
operators have announced their HSDPA deployment plans. [6] It is expected that
nearly all UMTS operators will deploy HSDPA, essentially a simple upgrade to
the existing system. Furthermore, this upgrade can be continued to 3GPP LTE in
a few years.
In a handheld industry, manufacturers have already shipped the world’s first
handsets that support HSDPA, and in May of this year, 2006, the first commercial
network with HSDPA handhelds was launched in South Korea. In addition to
allowing data to be downloaded at up to 1.8 Mbps, the initial handsets offer such
applications as satellite-transmitted Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) TV
programs; have two to three-megapixel cameras, Bluetooth, radios and stereo
speakers.
Although there are still a lot of things to be considered, according to these market
changes, to meet needs of consumer demands in a right time, time-to market is
also critical factor.

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF 4G

• Virtual Presence:
4G system gives mobile users a "virtual presence" --for example, always-on
connections to keep people on event.
• Virtual navigation:
A remote database contains the graphical representation of streets, buildings, and

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physical characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks
of is database are transmitted in rapid sequence to
vehicle.
• Tele-medicine:
4G will support remote health monitoring of patients.
• Tele-geoprocessing
Queries dependent on location information of several users, in addition to
temporal aspects have many applications.
• Crisis-management applications
• Education

Future scope in 4G:


○ Evolutionary approach may yield opportunities for the 4G
○ Emphasis on heterogeneous networks capitalizes on past investments
○ Strategic alliance and coalition opportunities with traditional non
telecommunication industries
○ Sophisticated and mature commercialization of 4G technology would encourage
more applications of e-commerce and m-commerce

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○ Worldwide economy recover stimulates consumption and consumer confidence,
therefore bring in opportunities for telecommunication sections
○ It is expected and predicted that consumers will continue to replace handsets with
newer technology at a fast rate.
○ Desirable higher data capacity rates, the growth opportunity for 4G is very bright
and hopeful.

• Threats in 4G:
○ Faster rate of growth and developments in other region
○ Since 3G mobile is still in the market, it squeezes the market competition in the
mobile industry.

Conclusion :
The MPEG-4 codec is the most likely to become the prevailing format, as it facilitates
compatibility among products from different vendors and has been optimised for wireless
communications. However, licensing and patent fees issues may become a potential impediment
to the success of MPEG-4, since several companies have patents that apply to different aspects of
MPEG-4. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging.

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Hardware-based codec’s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller
amount of power and are faster than software routines. Some hardware codec’s are currently
available in the market, but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power
requirements. However, significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-
based encoders. Therefore, they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on
PCs, using the computer’s CPU for processing. One of the key issues for the operator consists of
the definition of an “ideal” service roadmap. The mobile operator must take advantage of the
opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce increasing airtime traffic,
revenue, and customer loyalty. It should be known that services with video content will initially
be low volume compared to other text and voice based services. The mobile operator must then
define a service roadmap including realistic video applications but prioritising those services that
are expected to generate more revenues in the short term. The operator should also take into
account that mobile subscribers need to be knowledgeable and become familiar with these new
services. Finding viable pricing models for mobile video services is yet another key challenge,
as high charges might hamper the general usage of mobile video applications.

Current market drivers such as future-proof equipment, seamless integration of new


services, multi-mode equipment and over-the-air feature insertion in commercial wireless
networking industry have resulted in widespread interest in SDR technology. The technology
can be used to implement wireless network infrastructure equipment such as wireless handsets,
PDA’s, wireless modems and other end-user devices. However, factors like higher power
consumption, increased complexity of software and possibly higher initial cost of equipment
should be taken into account before considering using SDR technology to build a radio system. it
is also important to recognise what device types, mobile subscribers are using today, and which
mobile devices they are likely to use in the next few years. Many users would ideally want to
have video and other features integrated into one single mobile device. The addition of a camera
to mobile terminals will have a considerably bigger impact than adding WAP, GPRS, Mobile
Java, FOMA etc. This difference is evident simply because when looking at a mobile phone
with an integrated camera lens, mobile users will understand that, somehow, they should be able
to take and even send pictures or videos to other people. personally believe it will have a
phenomenal impact with users in years to come.

References-
1)Journal Articles (Accepted/Published)
J9. D. Niyato, P. Wang, E. Hossain, W. Saad, and A. Hj_rungnes, \Ex-
ploiting mobility diversity in wireless access: A game-theoretic approach,"
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, to appear.

2)J8. W. Saad, Z. Han, A. Hj_rungnes, D. Niyato, and E. Hossain, \Coalition


formation games for distributed roadside units cooperation in vehicular
networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special
Issue on \Vehicular Communications Networks", to appear.
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3)J7. D. Niyato, E. Hossain, and P. Wang, \Optimal channel access manage-
ment with QoS support for cognitive vehicular networks," IEEE Transac-
tions on Mobile Computing, to appear (accepted on 23 June 2010).
25

4)J4. E. Hossain, G. Chow, V. Leung, B. McLeod, J. Misic, V. Wong, and


O. Yang, \Vehicular telematics over heterogeneous wireless networks: A
survey," Computer Communications Journal (Elsevier), vol. 33, no. 7,
May 2010, pp. 775-793.

5) Fourth Generation Cellular Systems: Spectrum Requirements


Joseph M. Nowack Member of the Technical Staff Communication Systems and Technologies
Labs December 6, 2000

6) The Early Development and Impact of 4G Technology pdf by Jane Sharman

7) Ekram Hossain, Ph.D., P.Eng.Professor


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Manitoba
75A Chancellor's Circle
Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 5V6
Email: ekram@ee.umanitoba.ca
Tel: +1 204 474 8908, Fax: +1 204 261 4639
http://www.ee.umanitoba.ca/_ekram
Citizenship: Canadian
Curriculum Vitae
December 12, 2010

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