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Republic of the Philippines

Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Quezon City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Degree of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education

BTE 440
Student Teaching

Submitted by:

Gefrey P. Marcos

Submitted to:

Prof. Sheryl R. Morales

Practice Teaching Coordinator

March 201


I would like to sincerely acknowledge the people behind my successful stint in this teaching
profession. I am just an inexperienced practice teacher looking for learning in the profession
but with the help, inspiration and guidance of the people I made it through.

To my parents who gave their steadfast support throughout my studies.

To my influences, my mentors who shared their experiences to me and guided me to become

the best teacher I could be.

To my friends who never forget to encourage my chosen profession. To my students who

shared their time and let be inspired with my teachings.

To my better half that always inspires me to give all the best that I could give.

To the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Administration who gave a once
in a lifetime opportunity to teach in the institution.

- Sir Gefrey

My Prayer

Oh Almighty God
You are the greatest of all
Thank you for another day that you give me
I’ll be on the road today
Please guide me as I go to teach my students
Bless me with your love as what you always do to me
I offer you my life. Let me a blessing to my students
Let me be your instrument to inspire them to good living
Let me the one to share the good news that you shared to me
I ask you this through my Lord Jesus Christ

Teacher’s Creed

The Best Dentist

"Absolutely" the Best Dentist

By John S. Taylor, Superintendent of Schools for the Lancaster County School District

My dentist is great! He sends me reminders so I don't forget checkups. He uses the

latest techniques based on research. He never hurts me, and I've got all my teeth, so when I ran

into him the other day, I was eager to see if he'd heard about the new state program. I knew

he'd think it was great.

"Did you hear about the new state program to measure effectiveness of dentists with

their young patients?" I said.

"No," he said. He didn't seem too thrilled. "How will they do that?"

"It's quite simple," I said. "They will just count the number of cavities each patient has at

age 10, 14, and 18 and average that to determine a dentist's rating. Dentists will be rated as

Excellent, Good, Average, Below Average, and Unsatisfactory. That way parents will know

which the best dentists are. It will also encourage the less effective dentists to get better, “I


"Poor dentists who don't improve could lose their licenses to practice."

"That's terrible," he said.

"What? That's not a good attitude," I said. "Don't you think we should try to improve

children's dental health in this state?"

"Sure I do," he said, "but that's not a fair way to determine who is practicing good


"Why not?" I said. "It makes perfect sense to me."

"Well, it's so obvious," he said. "Don't you see that dentists don't all work with the same

clientele; so much depends on things we can't control? For example," he said, "I work in a rural

area with a high percentage of patients from deprived homes, while some of my colleagues

work in upper middle class neighborhoods. Many of the parents I work with don't bring their

children to see me until there is some kind of problem and I don't get to do much preventive

work. Also," he said, "many of the parents I serve let their kids eat way too much candy from an

early age, unlike more educated parents who understand the relationship between sugar and

decay. To top it all off," he added, "so many of my clients have well water which is untreated

and has no fluoride in it. Do you have any idea how much difference early use of fluoride can


"It sounds like you're making excuses," I said. I couldn't believe my dentist would be so

defensive. He does a great job.

"I am not!" he said. "My best patients are as good as anyone's, my work is as good as

anyone's, but my average cavity count is going to be higher than a lot of other dentists because

I chose to work where I am needed most."

"Don't get touchy," I said.

"Touchy?" he said. His face had turned red and from the way he was clenching and

unclenching his jaws, I was afraid he was going to damage his teeth. "Try furious. In a system

like this, I will end up being rated average, below average, or worse. My more educated

patients who see these ratings may believe this so-called rating actually is a measure of my

ability and proficiency as a dentist. They may leave me, and I'll be left with only the neediest

patients. And my cavity average score will get even worse. On top of that, how will I attract

good dental hygienists and other excellent dentists to my practice if it is labeled below


"I think you are overreacting," I said. “‘Complaining, excuse making and stonewalling

won't improve dental health'...I am quoting from a leading member of the DOC," I noted.

"What's the DOC?" he asked.

"It's the Dental Oversight Committee," I said, "a group made up of mostly laypersons to

make sure dentistry in this state gets improved."

"Spare me," he said, "I can't believe this. Reasonable people won't buy it," he said


The program sounded reasonable to me, so I asked, "How else would you measure good


"Come watch me work," he said. "Observe my processes."

"That's too complicated and time consuming," I said. "Cavities are the bottom line, and

you can't argue with the bottom line. It's an absolute measure."

"That's what I'm afraid my parents and prospective patients will think. This can't be

happening," he said despairingly.

"Now, now," I said, "don't despair. The state will help you some."

"How?" he said.

"If you're rated poorly, they'll send a dentist who is rated excellent to help straighten

you out," I said brightly.

"You mean," he said, "they'll send a dentist with a wealthy clientele to show me how to

work on severe juvenile dental problems with which I have probably had much more

experience? Big help."

"There you go again," I said. "You aren't acting professionally at all."

"You don't get it," he said. "Doing this would be like grading schools and teachers on an

average score on a test of children's progress without regard to influences outside the school,

the home, the community served and stuff like that. Why would they do something so unfair to

dentists? No one would ever think of doing that to schools."

I just shook my head sadly, but he had brightened. "I'm going to write my

representatives and senator," he said. "I'll use the school analogy-surely they will see the

He walked off with that look of hope mixed with fear and suppressed anger that I see in

the mirror so often lately.

Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City

The PUP-Commonwealth Campus in Quezon City was established through the

generosity and benevolence of Mr. Walter Rothlehner, a German church leader and an owner

of a certain square building situated at the Sikhay Compound, Don Fabian Street, Brgy.

Commonwealth, 1119 National Government Center, Quezon City. Mr. Rothlehner donated the

said property to the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

The 1.9 hectares of land presently occupied by the PUP-Open University,

Commonwealth Campus is donated by the SIKHAY - an association duly registered with

Securities and Exchange Commission represented by its President, Rev. Fr. Joel T. Tabora, S.J.

PUP-Commonwealth is an establishment

campus of Polytechnic University of the

Philippines with the National Government

Center in order to bring quality education to

the urban poor communities especially the

underprivileged families of Quezon City.

The PUP-Commonwealth started as a two-building campus. These two existing buildings

were donated by its owner to the Polytechnic University of the Philippines purposively used as

classrooms, library and offices for students and faculty members. Hence, the PUP through its

Open University committed to administer and maintain the described buildings and portion of

land in the interest of its students in the locality and in the nearby the vicinity.

The PUP-Commonwealth is an extension campus of PUP Sta. Mesa, Manila. It came to

exist through its formal launching held at the Misereor Hall, last July 29, 1997. It was attended

by the former PUP President, Dr. Zenaida A. Olonan, who presented the Plaque of Recognition

to the donor of the PUP-Commonwealth Campus, Mr. Walter Rothlehner The said activity was

graced by former Congressman of the 2nd District of Quezon City, Hon. Dante V. Liban and

other special guests from the local government of Quezon City and the PUP Administration.

At present, the PUP-Commonwealth Campus has still four (4) existing buildings namely ,

the Rothlehner Hall, Miseor Hall, New building through the courtesy of Cong. Magsaysay ,

Susano and Villar and the Student Multi-Purpose Hall, library, two rooms for keyboarding and

computer laboratory having more than 20 computers, administration offices and classroom

serving almost 1600 students in the campus. Furthermore, PUP-Commonwealth is now on its

10th year of promoting quality education and nurturing her constituents toward a rich and

meaningful life by providing them a highly technologically advance education, a continuing

quest for academic excellence, and deep commitment to serve human kind.

Finally, PUP-Commonwealth Campus is under the directorship of Director Pascualito B.

Mission and Vision


The mission of PUP in the 21st Century is to provide the highest quality of comprehensive and

global education and community services accessible to all students, Filipinos and foreigners

alike. It shall offer high quality undergraduate and graduate programs that are responsive to

the changing needs of the students to enable them to lead productive and meaningful lives.

PUP commits itself to:

1. Democratize access to educational opportunities;

2. Promote science and technology consciousness and develop relevant expertise and

competence among all members of the academe, stressing their importance in building

a truly independent and sovereign Philippines;

3. Emphasize the unrestrained and unremitting search for truth and its defense, as well as

the advancement of moral and spiritual values;

4. Promote awareness of our beneficial and relevant cultural heritage;

5. Develop in the students and faculty the values of self-discipline, love of country and

social consciousness and the need to defend human rights;

6. Provide its students and faculty with a liberal arts-based education essential to a

broader understanding and appreciation of life and to the total development of the


7. Make the students and faculty aware of technological, social as well as political and

economic problems and encourage them to contribute to the realization of nationalist

industrialization and economic development of the country;

8. Use and propagate the national language and other Philippine languages and develop

proficiency in English and other foreign languages required by the student's fields of


9. Promote intellectual leadership and sustain a humane and technologically advanced

academic community where people of diverse ideologies work and learn together to

attain academic, research and service excellence in a continually changing world; and
10. Build a learning community in touch with the main currents of political, economic and

cultural life throughout the world; a community enriched by the presence of a

significant number of international students; and a community supported by new

technologies that facilitate active participation in the creation and use of

information and knowledge on a global scale.


Towards a Total University.

10-point Vision Towards a Total University.

1. Foster High Quality Campus Environment

2. Strategize and Institutionalize Income Generating Projects

3. Strengthen Research, Publications and Creative Works

4. Model Quality Management and Fiscal Responsibility

5. Improve Sense of Community Involvement and Linkages

6. Institutionalize the Principles of Academic Freedom and Responsibility

7. Promote Academic Excellence in Student and Faculty Performance Nationally and


8. Nurture and Enrich Our Cultural Heritage

9. Integrate ICT with Instruction, Research, Service and Production

10. Evolve Wholesome Living and Pleasant Working Environment for Faculty, Employees

and Students

Examples of Examinations

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration

Major in Marketing Management

Logic Finals

Name: ___________________________________Course, Yr. and Sec.: __________ Score: ___________

I. Identification

Direction: Below is the SQUARE OF OPPOSITION for quantified attributive, or categorical,

propositions. Identify and explain the different kinds of oppositional inferences. (5 pts. Each)

1. __________________________________________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________________________________________

4. __________________________________________________________________________________

II. Simple Categorical Syllogism

Direction: Identify the terms ( - minor term, - major term and - middle term). Pick
out the conclusion of each of the following syllogisms. Use circles to show the syllogisms.

1. Nelson Mandela was a Black,

But Nelson Mandela was an eminent social activist;

Therefore; __________________________________________.

2. No mortal is an angel,

But every man is mortal,

Therefore; __________________________________________.

III. Enumeration

1-10. 10 General Rules of the Categorical Syllogism (2 pts. Each)

11-16. 6 Fallacies of Language

17-23. 7 Fallacies of Not Language

24- 28. 5 Minor Forms of Ignoratio Elenchi

29-30. Give 2 other Fallacies

Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management

Human Behaviour in Organisation Finals

Name: _______________________________ Course, Yr. and Sec.: _______________Score:__________

I. Identification

Direction: Write the appropriate answer for each item in the following statements. Look for the
answers in the box below. (2 pts. Each)

alliances homeostasis alienation organic Role playing

Collective beeaucracy Expatriate delegation matrix
bargaining manager
grievances specialisation Expert power Legitimate power politics
decentralisation change Civil Rights Act generalist union
___________ 1. It is characterised by its being a large complex system operating with interpersonal
detachment from people.

___________ 2. This organisation are more flexible and open.

___________ 3. It is another system designed to meet changing organisational needs.

___________ 4. It is a person who directs the activities of two or more specialists.

___________ 5. The distribution of authority and responsibility to the samllest-size units.

___________ 6. It is also known as the authority of knowledge.

___________ 7. It is a social process to accomplish an agrrement covering terms and conditions.

___________ 8. It is an informal organisation that is separate from the formal organisation and the

___________ 9. He must consider what his role will be in a local community.

___________ 10. It is the self-correcting characteristic of organisation that pertains to balance.

___________ 11. It gives authority to a lower-leverl executive manager.

___________ 12. It is the outcome of functionalisation.

___________ 13. It is the way by which leaders earn and gain power.

___________ 14. It is further referred to as position power or official power which is handed down from
higher authorities.

___________ 15. It requires employees, labor unions and employment agencies to treat all people alike,
without regard to race, color, religion, nationality, sex or age in all phases of employment.

II. True or False

Direction: Write True if the statement is correct and write False if the statement is wrong.

______ 1. The interference that may limit the receiver’s understanding of the message are known as
barriers to communication.

______ 2. Words are, by and large, the main means of communication used on the job.

______ 3. If symbols can be simplified the receiver will understand the message more easily.

______ 4. Action is a non-verbal means of communication whereby we communicate with our bodies.

______ 5. One hears not only with the ears but with the mind.
______ 6. Group dynamics may not be conducted without an apparent leader.

______ 7. The organisation has a minor influence in communication.

______ 8. Lower-level employees have a number of communication.

______ 9. A genuine open door policy can be a real aid to upward communication.

______ 10. Directive counseling is the process of hearing a person’s emotional problem.

III. Enumeration

1-3 Types of production technology

4-5 Types of counseling

6-8 Bargaining Tactics

9-13 Differences of Nondirective counseling from Directive counseling

14-19 What counseling can do

20-22 Types of resistance

23-25 Three-step change procedure

Links of E-learning Modules
Bachelor of Business Teacher Education

Methods of Teaching Offices System Subjects with E-learning Approach
Facebook Groups

Bachelor of Science in Information Technology

General Psychology
Bachelor of Business Teacher Education

General Psychology
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration

Major in Human Resource Development Management

Fort Santiago Tour

Tagged Photos
Professional Development Plan

I enrolled my baccalaureate degree at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Quezon City. I took up Bachelor of Business Teacher Education Major in Technology and

Livelihood Education. I underwent various school seminars as well as outside seminars too.

These seminars were very much related to my studies.

I took up a crash course at the Asian Academy of Business and Computers where I took

up Basic HTML. I was also enlisted as a Reserved 1st Class Private of the Armed Forces of the

Philippines under its Reserved Officer Training Program.

I will definitely take my Licensure Examination for Teachers right after I graduated. I am

planning to take up graduate studies, maybe Master of Education Major in Educational

Management or Major in Social Psychology. I am very much interested to enter college

Professional Readings and Teaching Articles

Progressive Education

Why It’s Hard to Beat, But Also Hard to Find

By Alfie Kohn

If progressive education doesn’t lend itself to a single fixed definition, that seems fitting

in light of its reputation for resisting conformity and standardization. Any two educators who

describe themselves as sympathetic to this tradition may well see it differently, or at least

disagree about which features are the most important.

Talk to enough progressive educators, in fact, and you’ll begin to notice certain

paradoxes: Some people focus on the unique needs of individual students, while others invoke

the importance of a community of learners; some describe learning as a process, more journey

than destination, while others believe that tasks should result in authentic products that can be


What It Is

Despite such variations, there are enough elements on which most of us can agree so

that a common core of progressive education emerges, however hazily. And it really does make

sense to call it a tradition, as I did a moment ago. Ironically, what we usually call “traditional”

education, in contrast to the progressive approach, has less claim to that adjective — because

of how, and how recently, it has developed. As Jim Nehring at the University of Massachusetts
at Lowell observed, “Progressive schools are the legacy of a long and proud tradition of

thoughtful school practice stretching back for centuries” — including hands-on learning,

multiage classrooms, and mentor-apprentice relationships — while what we generally refer to

as traditional schooling “is largely the result of outdated policy changes that have calcified into

conventions.”[2] (Nevertheless, I’ll use the conventional nomenclature in this article to avoid


It’s not all or nothing, to be sure. I don’t think I’ve ever seen a school — even one with

scripted instruction, uniforms, and rows of desks bolted to the floor — that has completely

escaped the influence of progressive ideas. Nor have I seen a school that’s progressive in every

detail. Still, schools can be characterized according to how closely they reflect a commitment to

values such as these:

Attending to the whole child: Progressive educators are concerned with helping children

become not only good learners but also good people. Schooling isn’t seen as being about just

academics, nor is intellectual growth limited to verbal and mathematical proficiencies.

Community: Learning isn’t something that happens to individual children — separate selves at

separate desks. Children learn with and from one another in a caring community, and that’s

true of moral as well as academic learning. Interdependence counts at least as much as

independence, so it follows that practices that pit students against one another in some kind of

competition, thereby undermining a feeling of community, are deliberately avoided.

Collaboration: Progressive schools are characterized by what I like to call a “working with”

rather than a “doing to” model. In place of rewards for complying with the adults’ expectations,

or punitive consequences for failing to do so, there’s more of an emphasis on collaborative

problem-solving — and, for that matter, less focus on behaviors than on underlying motives,

values, and reasons.

Social justice: A sense of community and responsibility for others isn’t confined to the

classroom; indeed, students are helped to locate themselves in widening circles of care that

extend beyond self, beyond friends, beyond their own ethnic group, and beyond their own

country. Opportunities are offered not only to learn about, but also to put into action, a

commitment to diversity and to improving the lives of others.

Intrinsic motivation: When considering (or reconsidering) educational policies and practices,

the first question that progressive educators are likely to ask is, “What’s the effect on students’

interest in learning, their desire to continue reading, thinking, and questioning?” This

deceptively simple test helps to determine what students will and won’t be asked to do. Thus,

conventional practices, including homework, grades, and tests, prove difficult to justify for

anyone who is serious about promoting long-term dispositions rather than just improving short-

term skills.

Deep understanding: As the philosopher Alfred North Whitehead declared long ago, “A merely

well-informed man is the most useless bore on God’s earth.” Facts and skills do matter, but

only in a context and for a purpose. That’s why progressive education tends to be organized

around problems, projects, and questions — rather than around lists of facts, skills, and
separate disciplines. The teaching is typically interdisciplinary, the assessment rarely focuses on

rote memorization, and excellence isn’t confused with “rigor.” The point is not merely to

challenge students — after all, harder is not necessarily better — but to invite them to think

deeply about issues that matter and help them understand ideas from the inside out.

Active learning: In progressive schools, students play a vital role in helping to design the

curriculum, formulate the questions, seek out (and create) answers, think through possibilities,

and evaluate how successful they — and their teachers — have been. Their active participation

in every stage of the process is consistent with the overwhelming consensus of experts that

learning is a matter of constructing ideas rather than passively absorbing information or

practicing skills.

Taking kids seriously: In traditional schooling, as John Dewey once remarked, “the center of

gravity is outside the child”: he or she is expected to adjust to the school’s rules and

curriculum. Progressive educators take their cue from the children — and are particularly

attentive to differences among them. (Each student is unique, so a single set of policies,

expectations, or assignments would be as counterproductive as it was disrespectful.) The

curriculum isn’t just based on interest, but on these children’s interests. Naturally, teachers will

have broadly conceived themes and objectives in mind, but they don’t just design a course of

study for their students; they design it with them, and they welcome unexpected detours. One

fourth-grade teacher’s curriculum, therefore, won’t be the same as that of the teacher next

door, nor will her curriculum be the same this year as it was for the children she taught last

year. It’s not enough to offer elaborate thematic units prefabricated by the adults. And
progressive educators realize that the students must help to formulate not only the course of

study but also the outcomes or standards that inform those lessons.

Some of the features that I’ve listed here will seem objectionable, or at least unsettling,

to educators at more traditional schools, while others will be surprisingly familiar and may even

echo sentiments that they, themselves, have expressed. But progressive educators don’t

merely say they endorse ideas like “love of learning” or “a sense of community.” They’re willing

to put these values into practice even if doing so requires them to up-end traditions. They may

eliminate homework altogether if it’s clear that students view after-school assignments as

something to be gotten over with as soon as possible. They will question things like honors

classes and awards assemblies that clearly undermine a sense of community. Progressive

schools, in short, follow their core values — bolstered by research and experience — wherever

they lead.

What It Isn’t

Misconceptions about progressive education generally take two forms. Either it is

defined too narrowly so that the significance of the change it represents is understated, or else

an exaggerated, caricatured version is presented in order to justify dismissing the whole

approach. Let’s take each of these in turn.

Individualized attention from caring, respectful teachers is terribly important. But it

does not a progressive school make. To assume otherwise not only dilutes progressivism; it’s

unfair to traditional educators, most of whom are not callous Gradgrinds or ruler-wielding nuns.
In fact, it’s perfectly consistent to view education as the process of filling children up with bits

of knowledge — and to use worksheets, lectures, quizzes, homework, grades, and other such

methods in pursuit of that goal — while being genuinely concerned about each child’s progress.

Schools with warm, responsive teachers who know each student personally can take pride in

that fact, but they shouldn’t claim on that basis to be progressive.

Moreover, traditional schools aren’t always about memorizing dates and definitions;

sometimes they’re also committed to helping students understand ideas. As one science

teacher pointed out, “For thoughtful traditionalists, thinking is couched in terms of

comprehending, integrating, and applying knowledge.” However, the student’s task in such

classrooms is “comprehending how the teacher has integrated or applied the ideas… and [then]

reconstruct[ing] the teacher’s thinking.” There are interesting concepts being discussed in some

traditional classrooms, in other words, but what distinguishes progressive education is that

students must construct their own understanding of ideas.

There’s another mistake based on too narrow a definition, which took me a while to

catch on to: A school that is culturally progressive is not necessarily educationally progressive.

An institution can be steeped in lefty politics and multi-grain values; it can be committed to

diversity, peace, and saving the planet — but remain strikingly traditional in its pedagogy. In

fact, one can imagine an old-fashioned pour-in-the-facts approach being used to teach lessons

in tolerance or even radical politics.

Less innocuous, or accidental, is the tendency to paint progressive education as a

touchy-feely, loosey-goosey, fluffy, fuzzy, undemanding exercise in leftover hippie idealism —

or Rousseauvian Romanticism. In this cartoon version of the tradition, kids are free to do

anything they please, the curriculum can consist of whatever is fun (and nothing that isn’t fun).

Learning is thought to happen automatically while the teachers just stand by, observing and

beaming. I lack the space here to offer examples of this sort of misrepresentation — or a full

account of why it’s so profoundly wrong — but trust me: People really do sneer at the idea of

progressive education based on an image that has little to do with progressive education.

Why It Makes Sense

For most people, the fundamental reason to choose, or offer, a progressive education is

a function of their basic values: “a rock-bottom commitment to democracy,” as Joseph

Featherstone put it; a belief that meeting children’s needs should take precedence over

preparing future employees; and a desire to nourish curiosity, creativity, compassion,

skepticism, and other virtues.

Fortunately, what may have begun with values (for any of us as individuals, and also for

education itself, historically speaking) has turned out to be supported by solid data. A truly

impressive collection of research has demonstrated that when students are able to spend more

time thinking about ideas than memorizing facts and practicing skills — and when they are

invited to help direct their own learning — they are not only more likely to enjoy what they’re

doing but to do it better. Progressive education isn’t just more appealing; it’s also more

I reviewed decades’ worth of research in the late 1990s: studies of preschools and high

schools; studies of instruction in reading, writing, math, and science; broad studies of “open

classrooms,” “student-centered” education, and teaching consistent with constructivist

accounts of learning, but also investigations of specific innovations like democratic classrooms,

multiage instruction, looping, cooperative learning, and authentic assessment (including the

abolition of grades). Across domains, the results overwhelmingly favor progressive education.

Regardless of one’s values, in other words, this approach can be recommended purely on the

basis of its effectiveness. And if your criteria are more ambitious — long-term retention of

what’s been taught, the capacity to understand ideas and apply them to new kinds of problems,

a desire to continue learning — the relative benefits of progressive education are even

greater.[5] This conclusion is only strengthened by the lack of data to support the value of

standardized tests, homework, conventional discipline (based on rewards or consequences),

competition, and other traditional practices.

Since I published that research review, similar findings have continued to accumulate.

Several newer studies confirm that traditional academic instruction for very young children is

counterproductive. Students in elementary and middle school did better in science when their

teaching was “centered on projects in which they took a high degree of initiative. Traditional

activities, such as completing worksheets and reading primarily from textbooks, seemed to

have no positive effect. n Another recent study found that an “inquiry-based” approach to

learning is more beneficial than conventional methods for low-income and minority

students. The results go on and on. In fact, I occasionally stumble upon older research that I’d

missed earlier — including a classic five-year investigation of almost 11,000 children between
the ages of eight and sixteen, which found that students who attended progressive schools

were less likely to cheat than those who attended conventional schools — a result that

persisted even after the researchers controlled for age, IQ, and family background.

Why It’s Rare

Despite the fact that all schools can be located on a continuum stretching between the

poles of totally progressive and totally traditional — or, actually, on a series of continuums

reflecting the various components of those models — it’s usually possible to visit a school and

come away with a pretty clear sense of whether it can be classified as predominantly

progressive. It’s also possible to reach a conclusion about how many schools — or even

individual classrooms — in America merit that label: damned few. The higher the grade level,

the rarer such teaching tends to be, and it’s not even all that prevalent at the lower grades.[11]

(Also, while it’s probably true that most progressive schools are independent, most

independent schools are not progressive.)

The rarity of this approach, while discouraging to some of us, is also rather significant

with respect to the larger debate about education. If progressive schooling is actually quite

uncommon, then it’s hard to blame our problems (real or alleged) on this model. Indeed, the

facts have the effect of turning the argument on its head: If students aren’t learning effectively,

it may be because of the persistence of traditional beliefs and practices in our nation’s schools.

But we’re also left with a question: If progressive education is so terrific, why is it still

the exception rather than the rule? I often ask the people who attend my lectures to reflect on
this, and the answers that come back are varied and provocative. For starters, they tell me,

progressive education is not only less familiar but also much harder to do, and especially to do

well. It asks a lot more of the students and at first can seem a burden to those who have figured

out how to play the game in traditional classrooms — often succeeding by conventional

standards without doing much real thinking. It’s also much more demanding of teachers, who

have to know their subject matter inside and out if they want their students to “make sense of

biology or literature” as opposed to “simply memoriz[ing] the frog’s anatomy or the sentence’s

structure.”[12] But progressive teachers also have to know a lot about pedagogy because no

amount of content knowledge (say, expertise in science or English) can tell you how to facilitate

learning. The belief that anyone who knows enough math can teach it is a corollary of the belief

that learning is a process of passive absorption —a view that cognitive science has decisively


Progressive teachers also have to be comfortable with uncertainty, not only to abandon

a predictable march toward the “right answer” but to let students play an active role in the

quest for meaning that replaces it. That means a willingness to give up some control and let

students take some ownership, which requires guts as well as talent. These characteristics

appear not to be as common as we might like to think. Almost a decade ago, in an interview for

this magazine, I recalled my own experience in high school classrooms with some chagrin: “I

prided myself on being an entertaining lecturer, very knowledgeable, funny, charismatic, and so

on. It took me years to realize [that my] classroom was all about me, not about the kids. It was

about teaching, not about learning.”[13] The more we’re influenced by the insights of
progressive education, the more we’re forced to rethink what it means to be a good teacher.

That process will unavoidably ruffle some feathers, including our own.

And speaking of feather-ruffling, I’m frequently reminded that progressive education

has an uphill journey because of the larger culture we live in. It’s an approach that is in some

respects inherently subversive, and people in power do not always enjoy being subverted. As

Vito Perrone has written, “The values of progressivism — including skepticism, questioning,

challenging, openness, and seeking alternate possibilities — have long struggled for acceptance

in American society. That they did not come to dominate the schools is not surprising.”[14]

There is pressure to raise standardized test scores, something that progressive

education manages to do only sometimes and by accident — not only because that isn’t its

purpose but also because such tests measure what matters least. (The recognition of that fact

explains why progressive schools would never dream of using standardized tests as part of their

admissions process.) More insidiously, though, we face pressure to standardize our practices in

general. Thinking is messy, and deep thinking is really messy. This reality coexists uneasily with

demands for order — in schools where the curriculum is supposed to be carefully coordinated

across grade levels and planned well ahead of time, or in society at large.

And then (as my audiences invariably point out) there are parents who have never been

invited to reconsider their assumptions about education. As a result, they may be impressed by

the wrong things, reassured by signs of traditionalism — letter grades, spelling quizzes, heavy

textbooks, a teacher in firm control of the classroom — and unnerved by their absence. Even if

their children are obviously unhappy, parents may accept that as a fact of life. Instead of
wanting the next generation to get better than we got, it’s as though their position was:

“Listen, if it was bad enough for me, it’s bad enough for my kids.” Perhaps they subscribe to

what might be called the Listerine theory of education, based on a famous ad campaign that

sought to sell this particular brand of mouthwash on the theory that if it tasted vile, it obviously

worked well. The converse proposition, of course, is that anything appealing is likely to be

ineffective. If a child is lucky enough to be in a classroom featuring, say, student-designed

project-based investigations, the parent may wonder, “But is she really learning anything?

Where are the worksheets?” And so the teachers feel pressure to make the instruction worse.

All progressive schools experience a constant undertow, perhaps a request to

reintroduce grades of some kind, to give special enrichments to the children of the “gifted”

parents, to start up a competitive sports program (because American children evidently don’t

get enough of winning and losing outside of school), to punish the kid who did that bad thing to

my kid, to administer a standardized test or two (“just so we can see how they’re doing”), and,

above all, to get the kids ready for what comes next — even if this amounts to teaching them

badly so they’ll be prepared for the bad teaching to which they’ll be subjected later.[15]

This list doesn’t exhaust the reasons that progressive education is uncommon. However,

the discussion that preceded it, of progressive education’s advantages, was also incomplete,

which suggests that working to make it a little more common is a worthy pursuit. We may not

be able to transform a whole school, or even a classroom, along all of these dimensions, at least

not by the end of this year. But whatever progress we can make is likely to benefit our students.

And doing what’s best for them is the reason all of us got into this line of work in the first place.


A Dozen Questions for Progressive Schools

Because of what I’ve described as the undertow that progressive educators inevitably

experience, it’s possible for them to wake up one morning with the unsettling realization that

their school has succumbed to a creeping traditionalism and drifted from the vision of its

founders. Here are some pointed questions to spur collective reflection and, perhaps,

corrective action.

1. Is our school committed to being educationally progressive, or is it content with an

atmosphere that’s progressive only in the political or cultural sense of the word?

2. Is a progressive vision being pursued unapologetically, or does a fear of alienating potential

applicants lead to compromising that mission and trying to be all things to all people? (“We

offer a nurturing environment . . . of rigorous college preparation.”)

3. Is the education that the oldest students receive just as progressive as that offered to the

youngest, or would a visitor conclude that those in the upper grades seem to attend a different

school altogether?

4. Is the teaching organized around problems, projects, and questions? Is most of the

instruction truly interdisciplinary, or is literature routinely separated from social studies – or

even from spelling? Has acquiring skills (e.g., arithmetic, vocabulary) come to be over-

emphasized rather than seen as a means to the end of understanding and communicating


5. To what extent are students involved in designing the curriculum? Is it a learner-centered

environment, or are lessons presented to the children as faits accomplis? How much are

students involved in other decisions, such as room decoration, classroom management,

assessment, and so on? Are teachers maintaining control over children, even in subtle ways, so

that the classrooms are less democratic than they could be?

6. Is assessment consistent with a progressive vision, or are students evaluated and rated with

elaborate rubrics[16] and grade-substitutes? Do students end up, as in many traditional

schools, spending so much time thinking about how well they’re doing that they’re no longer as

engaged with what they’re doing?

7. Do administrators respect teachers’ professionalism and need for autonomy – or is there a

style of top-down control that’s inconsistent with how teachers are urged to treat students?

Conversely, is it possible that teachers’ insistence on being left alone has permitted them to

drift from genuinely progressive practice in some areas?

8. Are educators acting like lifelong learners, always willing to question familiar ways – or do

they sometimes fall back on tradition and justify practices on the grounds that something is just

“the [name of school] way”? Are teachers encouraged to visit one another’s classrooms and

offered opportunities to talk about pedagogy on a regular basis?

9. Is cooperation emphasized throughout the school – or are there remnants of an adversarial

approach? Do students typically make decisions by trying to reach consensus or do they simply

vote? Do competitive games still dominate physical education and even show up in

classrooms? Do most learning experiences take place in pairs and small groups, or does the

default arrangement consist of having students do things on their own?

10. Is homework assigned only when it’s absolutely necessary to extend and enrich a lesson, or

is it assigned on a regular basis (as in a traditional school)? If homework is given, are the

assignments predicated on – and justified by -- a behaviorist model of “reinforcing” what they

were taught – or do they truly deepen students’ understanding of, and engagement with,

ideas? How much of a role do the students play in making decisions about homework?

11. Does the question “How will this affect children’s interest in learning (and in the topic at

hand)?” inform all choices about curriculum, instruction, and scheduling – or has a focus on

right answers and “rigor” led some students to become less curious about, and excited by, what

they’re doing?

12. Is the school as progressive and collaborative in nonacademic (social, behavioral) matters

as it is in the academic realm, or are there remnants of “consequence”-based control such that

the focus is sometimes more on order and compliance than on fostering moral reasoning, social

skills, and democratic dispositions?

The Philippines hands out cash for education

By Alice Kok | 12 January 2009

Esperanza I Cabral, Social Welfare and Development Secretary, The Philippines,

announced that more than 6500 families will have a brighter year this 2009 as they receive cash

grants from the 4Ps (Pantawid para sa Pamilyang Pilipino) project of the Department of Social

Welfare and Development (DSWD).

The 4Ps programme offers cash grant for five years of US$126

a year or US$10 a month for every household for health and

nutritional expenses, and three years of US$63 for one school year or

10 months, or US$6 a month for every child’s educational expenses.

The programme covers a maximum of three children for every

household, Cabral said. “This means a household with three qualified children could have a

subsidy of US$30 a month or US$315 annually as long as they comply with the requirements.”

An initial US$232,058 has been distributed by the DSWD to cover the last three months

of 2008. Under the 4Ps project, needy families are given cash grants by the government to

reduce poverty and hunger incidence, provide primary education, reduce child mortality, and to

improve maternal health and promote gender equality, explains Cabral.

“The programme gives parents an incentive to accomplish their parental roles and

responsibilities as the project provides money directly only on the condition that the grantees

send their children to school and take them for health checks regularly,” Cabral says.
Non-compliance with the rules of the programme will result to suspension of the cash

grants or dropping of the programme, she added.

The selection of municipalities covered by the program was based on the listing of

poorest provinces nationwide according to the Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES)

and labour survey while the selection of the poorest town is based on Small Area

Estimates (SEA).

“This project which started middle of 2008 will be implemented for five years and will

end by 2013,” she said. “Aside from these seven towns in the province of Negros Oriental,

another 10 barangays in Cebu City will also be piloted in this project for the highly urbanised

area,” Cabral added.

The Philippines and Korea exchange teaching expertise

By Alice Kok | 23 January 2009

Twenty-one teachers of information and communication

technology (ICT) in Manila are participating in a training seminar

conducted by South Korean volunteers, in line with their

government’s bilateral cooperation with the Philippines.

The Joint E-learning Training and Education Exchange Programme, under the APEC (Asia-

Pacific Economic Cooperation) Internet Volunteers Programme (AIV), is co-sponsored by the

Institute of APEC Collaborative Education of the Republic of Korea. AIV aims to support the ICT

needs of APEC member-economies by dispatching volunteers from different levels of

education. This initiative is in support of DepEd (the Philippines Department of Education)-

initiated ICT for Education (ICT4E).

This partnership ensures that Filipino school heads and teachers will be well-versed in e-

learning and the Problem-based Learning (PBL) method. This is also part of the preparations for

the implementation of a full-scale APEC Education Exchange Programme later this year.

“Our Korean friends are returning the favour this time,” Jesli Lapus Education Secretary

said, noting that Filipino public school teachers conducted an English proficiency training for

their counterparts in Busan, South Korea, in 2008.

Lapus said the symbiotic exchange of expertise on teaching trends among Asian

teachers is very relevant in further strengthening regional cooperation.

“This gesture of the Korean people will endow our teachers with relevant skills that will

enable them to meet the needs of 21st century teaching,” Lapus said. “We need to further

strengthen our bilateral cooperation with Korea especially in the field of education.”

Narrative Report


My first days as a practice teacher inside the Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Quezon City were not that easy. I had to study harder because I would be teaching COLLEGE
students. I had to establish good rapport to students so I tended to be more serious and strict.

So tendency, the students thought that I was indifferent. I had to adjust a lot on my teaching

voice. I was having a hard time adjusting with modulated voice. Sometimes, I would tend to

had husky voice. I asked my friends how to use my voice very well. I had pieces of advises to

get my air from diaphragm. Luckily, it worked.

Another adjustment I made was to minimize my English speaking. I found out that my

students were having hard time to listen to me if I would speak English. I would remember one

of my students. He said this to me; “Nage-English si Sir, e Tagalog naman itong Rizal.” Then I

realized that the subject was Buhay, Gawain at Mga Sinulat ni Rizal. So definitely, again, I


Happy Battle

The most interesting part of my practice teaching was to make my students SMILE –

making them feel inspire. I quote one of my professors, Dr. Lily G. Mendoza; “Teaching is to

inspire and nothing else.”

I would definitely say that one of my “x-factor” was that I have good looks. I would

easily get my students’ attention. I would call them and give them critical questions but then as

what Sir Karl Abalos taught us, we should guide them to the right answers.

Every time my students would call me “Sir Gef, thank you po!” with exclamation sound.

I felt a different kind of rush inside me. I guess that would be the sweetest music I would ever

I had to come in class prepared like a warrior going for a war. I had to deliver my

lessons so that I would able to share what I have. I quote Mam Sha; “How can you give what

you don’t have.” I always remember that every time I teach.

Surge of Gratitude

Being with the professors I believe the best professors in the institution were simply one

of my greatest achievements in life. More than any knowledge they could give what matters

most to me was that they made me feel that I can be like them someday.

I have always been thankful with the experience I had with them. They did not make

any barrier that would make me think unorthodox instead they made sure that I will always be

their apprentice.

Mam Sha taught me to be equipped technologically. The philosophies that Mam Lily

shared to me will always be remembered. The cool attitude displayed by Sir Ed and the

kindness of Sir Rod too. The authoritative aura of Director Lito and his strong image will be

there too. The creativity of Mam Gina and her good energy inside the class was amazing. The

chance that Sir Art gave me to be with the group of panelist alongside Commissioner Robert

Catli was definitely great.

As I bid farewell to the institution, I would sincerely thank all of them. Simple thank of

gratitude is not enough to everything they gave to me. But one thing is for sure – I will be one

of them.
Gefrey Pateño Marcos
B-27 L-18 Road 10, Brgy. Minuyan IV, San Jose del Monte City Bulacan


Work Experiences

Student Intern

Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Quezon City

June 2010-March 2011

Private Tutor

March-November 2010

Supplies Officer

Department of Education

San Jose del Monte City Division Office

September-March 2008


RDK Tailoring

Cielito Homes, Caloocan City

March-May 2007


Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City

College of Office Administration and Business Teacher Education

Bachelor in Business Teacher Education



San Jose del Monte National Trade School

Major in Drafting



Bagong Buhay A Elementary School



Seminars Attended

Practice Teaching Dialogue

Eurotel, North Edsa, Quezon City

March 26, 2011

Jobstreet Career Congress 2010

SMX Convention Center SM Mall of Asia
Enhancing Teaching Skills toward Professionalism
Polytechnic University of the Philippines- Quezon City
October 20, 2010

Empowering the Youth toward Sustainable Environment

Polytechnic University of the Philippines- Quezon City

February 26, 2006

Building Leaders: Developing Future Leaders in the Workplace

September 03, 2010

Functional Literacy: To Live and Love Well in a Healthy Philippines

December 11, 2007

Personal Information

Age: 20 yrs. Old

Birth date: July 7, 1990

Birth place: Sta. Maria, Bulacan

Religion: Iglesia Ni Cristo

Height: 5’9”

Weight: 50 kls.

Affiliations: Christian Brotherhood International, Future Business Teacher Organization,


Other Skills: Speed typing, Basic HTML, Microsoft Programs, Leadership Skills,

Webpage Tutorial (

Different Learning Styles Applied by the Polytechnic University if the

Philippines Quezon City in teaching General Education Subjects in achieving
their Classroom Management, A.Y. 2009-2010 (University Study)

Mr. PUPQC 2008

Character References

Prof. Artemus G. Cruz, RGC

Head, Guidance Services

Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City

Dr. Lily G. Mendoza, Ph. D.

Head, Research and Development Office

Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City

Bro. Aris T. Esquivel

Locale Minister

Iglesia Ni Cristo

Patag, Sta. Maria, Bulacan