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Information Science and Technology, ISSN: 0976-917X & ISSN: 0976-9188, Vol.

1, Issue 1, 2010, PP-06-08

GPS (Global Positioning System) and its application in protection scheme

Anuashka Sharma*, Aakanksha Girolkar and Ankit Shrivastava


*Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Raipur, G.E. Road, Raipur,
Chhatisgarh, 492010, India

Abstract- This is a new technique for the protection of transmission systems by using Global
Positioning Systems(GPS) and fault generated transients .In this scheme the relay contains a full
transient detection system together with a communication unit which is connected to the power line
through the high voltage coupling capacitor of the CVT(Capaitive Voltage Transformer). Relays are
installed at each busbar in transmission network. These detect the fault generated high frequency
voltage transient signal and record the time instant corresponding to when the initial travelling wave
generated by the fault arises at the busbar. The decision to trip is based on the components as they
propagate through the system.
Keywords- GPS, Fault detection, Transient analysis, Transient wave based protection scheme, fault
current, signal processing

INTRODUCTION
What is GPS:-The GPS is satellite based slower decaying tail. Composite waves have a
navigation system made up of a network of 24 propagation velocity and characteristic
satellites placed into orbit. Current GPS impedance and travel near the speed of light
enables users to determine their 3-D(Three away from the fault location towards line end.
Dimensional) differential position, velocity and They continue to travel throughout the power
time. By combining GPS with current and system until they diminish due to impedance
future computer mapping techniques we will and reflection waves and new power system
be better able to identify and manage our equilibrium is reached. The faults can be
natural resources. GPS satellite circles the located by precisely time-tagging the wave
earth twice a day and transmits signal fronts as they cross a known point typically in
information to earth. GPS receivers take this substations at line ends. Accuracy of 300 m
information and use triangulation to calculate can be obtained with time tagging the waves
the user’s exact location. Essentially the GPS with a resolution of 30m. Fault location can
receiver compares the time a signal was then be obtained by multiplying the wave
transmitted by a satellite with the time it was velocity by the time difference in line ends.
received. The time difference tells the GPS The master station performs the task of time
receiver how far away the satellite is. data collection and calculation.

DETECTION UNIT
Detection of fault current and current
transients:-During a fault on the transmission
line wide band voltage and current waves
travel throughout the transmission line away
from the fault point. When these signals reach
discontinuities on the transmission line some
of the signals are reflected back towards the
fault point. The characteristics of these waves
are determined by several factors such as
position of fault on the line, fault path
resistance and the characteristic impedance of
the transmission line. Relays located at each
substation in the power system independently
monitor the power system. The frequency
Dia. 1 range for monitoring these fault generated
high frequency signals is between 40-80 KHz
Travelling Wave Fault location and the signal processing unit is designed
Faults on the power transmission system accordingly to detect the arrival of a high
cause transients that propagate along the frequency transient characteristic of those
transmission line as waves. Each wave generated by a fault. At these frequencies ,
consists of several frequency components bus bars are dominated by their capacitive
ranging from a few kilohertz to several elements , and as a result, the incoming high
megahertz, having a fast rising front and a

Copyright © 2010, Bioinfo Publications


Information Science and Technology, ISSN: 0976-917X & ISSN: 0976-9188, Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2010
Anuashka Sharma, Aakanksha Girolkar and Ankit Shrivastava

frequency current signal is both inverted and away from the fault point in both directions
reflected .A resistive fault in this frequency along the transmission system with velocity
range will also reflect a current wave of the close to the speed of light. It has been long
opposite polarity. recognized that the actual faulted position can
be determined on line if the transient signals
Fault current transient detector are time tagged at key points on the power
A specially designed transient current detector system network. The global positioning
fed from the primary CTs(Current system, with its ability to provide
Transformers) is employed which extracts synchronization with an accuracy of
high frequency signals associated with the microsecond over the wide area, provides an
fault generated current transients. A simplified ideal tool for performing time tagging of the
block diagram of the detector arrangement is fault generated transients.
shown in the figure (1).The circuit comprises of Basic Principle:-The basic principle of the
an analogue input circuit for signal technique can be demonstrated by referring to
conditioning and a digital circuit for the 400KV, EHV(Electrical High Voltage)
determining the transients. Particular transmission network, shown in figure(2).
emphasis has been placed on the Relays are installed at the bus bars P,Q,R and
development of digital circuit. The detector is S and are responsible for the protection of the
designed to interrogate signals in the range of network . The protection of the network PQR
frequencies from 40-80KHz. Analog circuit and tripping of the breakers associated with
extracts the band of fault generated transient that network is studied. High frequency signals
current signal from the line by acting as a band are generated at the fault point and travel
pass filter. As a result, the response of the outward from that point along the network
scheme is not affected by the power frequency conductors. In time they reach the monitored
short circuit band at the busbar or the precise bus bar are detected by the relays connected
configuration of the source side networks. to them. Each relay record the arrival instant of
the signal generated by the fault. The recorded
Signal Processing unit arrival instant is then code with details of their
The signal is decoupled into its respective identification by the relays and transmits this to
aerial modes by using model transformation. their neighboring relays. All relays are
The signal mixing circuit is fed from the 3 continuously ready to receive the coded
phase CTs continue to form mode2 and messages send by other devices. Data
mode3 signals. There are filters to remove any protocols are used to avoid conflict between
spurious noise. The outputs of the analog information sent by different devices along the
circuit are then passed to the digital circuit. same line. The relays compare the fault
The sampling frequency of the analog to digital transient arrival time recorded at its sight with
A/D converter is 1 MHz and the speed of those send by other relays and determine
propagation of the high frequency transient is whether the fault is within the protected zone.
similar to the speed of light. The digital Appropriate tripping instructions are then send
processing unit includes filters sequence to the relevant local circuit breakers. The
recording, ampldoitude comparison, counters actual location where the fault occurs can be
and decision logic. clearly identified at each relay location by this
method.

Relay design:- A simplified block diagram of


PRINCIPLE AND DESIGNING the relay unit is shown in fig(3). Three CVTs
Basic principle and relay design:- A short connect the transient detector unit to the line
circuit fault on a power transmission line and detect the voltage signal level. The
generates voltages and current signals of communication unit also uses CVTs and a
several frequency range which propagate

Copyright © 2010, Bioinfo Publications 7


Information Science and Technology, ISSN: 0976-917X & ISSN: 0976-9188, Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2010
GPS (Global Positioning System) and its application in protection scheme

hybrid unit to connect the two circuits i.e., ABBREVIATIONS


Transmitter and Receiver circuits. GPS- Global Positioning System
The transient detector is used to detect the CVT-Capacitive Voltage Transformer
fault generated signals and to record the time 3-D- Three Dimensional
tag obtained from the GPS receiver. All the KHz-Kilo Hertz
relays connected to the system receive this CT- Current Transformer
time tag information from the transmitter A/D Convertor- Analog to Digital Convertor
circuit. Previous research has investigated the MHz- Mega Hertz
use of digital filters to detect the high KV- Kilo Volt
frequency signals generated by the fault and EHV- Extra High Voltage
had shown that the accuracy of fault location CB- Circuit Breaker
was a function of the sampling rate used to GPS CLK – Global Positioning System Clock
digitalize the measured signal. The accuracy
was directly related to the sampling rate and REFERENCES
higher the sampling rate, the more accurate [1] http://www.seminarprojects.com
the measureme. Hence continuous sampling [2] http://en.wikipedia.org
has an upperhand i.e., an analog system and [3] http://www.howstuffworks.com
a pass band filter tuned to operate between 40 [4] http://www.gpsmagazine.com
and 80 KHz. The protection technique is [5] http://www.tycho.usno.org
therefore divorced from the power system [6] http://www.google.co.in
frequency. The decision to trip the local [7] Bo Z.Q. Waller G. Lomas, T. Redfern
breaker depends on the comparison between M.A. (2000) Power delivery,IEEE
the times measured by the GPS system at that transations, 15(4), 1163-1168.
location and those measured by other relays.
Unlike the conventional protection scheme,
where each relay associates with one circuit
breaker on that line section, this relaying
scheme protects several lines connected to
the bus bar where it is installed. For e.g., as
shown in fig. the relay at bus bar “R”
responsible for the protection of both line
section , connected to the busbar, by
controlling both circuit breakers CB-RP and
CB-RQ. Therefore the technique offers a
network protection scheme rather than than
one which concentrates on specific units of
plant. This provides several technical
advantages over conventional relaying [1].

CONCLUSION
The positional protection using GPS is a high
speed protection system and offers a high
accuracy in fault location. The protection
system monitors the network to which it is
connected and is not limited to individual unit
plant as in traditional protection scheme.

8 Information Science and Technology, ISSN: 0976-917X & ISSN: 0976-9188, Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2010