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HVAC Systems Duct Design Mark Terzigni Project Manager Technical Services SMACNA

HVAC Systems Duct Design

Mark Terzigni Project Manager Technical Services SMACNA

HVAC Systems Duct Design Mark Terzigni Project Manager Technical Services SMACNA
HVAC Systems Duct Design Mark Terzigni Project Manager Technical Services SMACNA
HVAC Systems Duct Design Mark Terzigni Project Manager Technical Services SMACNA
Fundamentals Velocity – fpm V = Q A Velocity Pressure – in. w.g. p v

Fundamentals

Fundamentals Velocity – fpm V = Q A Velocity Pressure – in. w.g. p v =
Fundamentals Velocity – fpm V = Q A Velocity Pressure – in. w.g. p v =

Velocity

fpm

V =

Q

A

Velocity Pressure

in. w.g.

p v

= ⎛ ⎜ V

4005

2

Fundamentals Static Pressure – Total Pressure – Velocity Pressure Total Pressure (loss) – Darcy Weisbach

Fundamentals

Fundamentals Static Pressure – Total Pressure – Velocity Pressure Total Pressure (loss) – Darcy Weisbach Equation
Fundamentals Static Pressure – Total Pressure – Velocity Pressure Total Pressure (loss) – Darcy Weisbach Equation

Static Pressure

Total Pressure – Velocity Pressure

Total Pressure (loss)

Darcy Weisbach Equation

Fundamentals Static Pressure – Total Pressure – Velocity Pressure Total Pressure (loss) – Darcy Weisbach Equation
Fundamentals Static Pressure – Total Pressure – Velocity Pressure Total Pressure (loss) – Darcy Weisbach Equation
Pressure Changes

Pressure Changes

Pressure Changes
Pressure Changes
Pressure Changes
Design Procedures Arrange outlets/inlets Adjust calculated air quantities for – Heat gain/loss – Leakage Duct

Design Procedures

Design Procedures Arrange outlets/inlets Adjust calculated air quantities for – Heat gain/loss – Leakage Duct
Design Procedures Arrange outlets/inlets Adjust calculated air quantities for – Heat gain/loss – Leakage Duct

Arrange outlets/inlets Adjust calculated air quantities for

Heat gain/loss

Leakage

Duct Equipment (VAV box) Accessories (dampers, sensors, access doors,etc.)

Space pressurization

Design Procedures Select outlet sizes based on manufacturer's data Sketch the system (connect the dots)

Design Procedures

Design Procedures Select outlet sizes based on manufacturer's data Sketch the system (connect the dots) Divide
Design Procedures Select outlet sizes based on manufacturer's data Sketch the system (connect the dots) Divide

Select outlet sizes based on manufacturer's data Sketch the system (connect the dots) Divide the system into sections

Section is any change in flow, size, shape

Size the system using required/preferred method

Design Procedures Calculate the system total pressure loss Layout the system in detail – Space

Design Procedures

Design Procedures Calculate the system total pressure loss Layout the system in detail – Space limitations
Design Procedures Calculate the system total pressure loss Layout the system in detail – Space limitations

Calculate the system total pressure loss Layout the system in detail

Space limitations

Obstructions/coordination concerns

Resize duct sizes to balance Analyze noise levels

Use sound attenuation where necessary

Design Methods Overview Equal Friction – Size ductwork based on a constant pressure loss per

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview Equal Friction – Size ductwork based on a constant pressure loss per unit
Design Methods Overview Equal Friction – Size ductwork based on a constant pressure loss per unit

Equal Friction

Size ductwork based on a constant pressure loss per unit length (.08-.1 in. w.g. per 100 ft.)

Larger sizes require less energy but have a higher initial cost

Smaller sizes require more energy but will have a reduced initial cost.

Practical for simple systems

Duct Calculators

Design Methods Overview Static Regain – Obtain the same static pressure at diverging flows Change

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview Static Regain – Obtain the same static pressure at diverging flows Change duct
Design Methods Overview Static Regain – Obtain the same static pressure at diverging flows Change duct

Static Regain

Obtain the same static pressure at diverging flows

Change duct sizes down stream

Iterative process best handled by computers

Start the process by selecting a maximum velocity in the “root section”

Higher velocities require more energy but have a lower initial cost

Lower velocities require less energy but have a higher initial cost

Design Methods Overview T-method – Calculation intensive (use software) – Considers current building costs, energy

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview T-method – Calculation intensive (use software) – Considers current building costs, energy
Design Methods Overview T-method – Calculation intensive (use software) – Considers current building costs, energy

T-method

Calculation intensive (use software)

Considers current building costs, energy costs and future costs.

The calculation process involves:

condensing the system fan selection (the simulation uses actual fan curves) expanding the system

Design Methods Overview Extended Plenum – 1-6 in. w.g. systems – Duct velocity up to

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview Extended Plenum – 1-6 in. w.g. systems – Duct velocity up to 3000
Design Methods Overview Extended Plenum – 1-6 in. w.g. systems – Duct velocity up to 3000

Extended Plenum

1-6 in. w.g. systems

Duct velocity up to 3000 fpm

Branch velocity should not exceed trunk velocity

Balancing dampers should be used at each branch

Can result in low velocities

Excessive heat gain/loss

Design Methods Overview Extended Plenum – Low operating cost – Easier to balance – Less

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview Extended Plenum – Low operating cost – Easier to balance – Less fittings
Design Methods Overview Extended Plenum – Low operating cost – Easier to balance – Less fittings

Extended Plenum

Low operating cost

Easier to balance

Less fittings

Easy to modify for (tenant changes)

Design Methods Overview Constant Velocity – Used primarily for material conveyance – Maintain sufficient velocities

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview Constant Velocity – Used primarily for material conveyance – Maintain sufficient velocities
Design Methods Overview Constant Velocity – Used primarily for material conveyance – Maintain sufficient velocities

Constant Velocity

Used primarily for material conveyance

Maintain sufficient velocities to suspend material

Converging flows should offset

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview

Design Methods Overview
Design Methods Overview
Design Methods Overview
Design Considerations Stack Effect – Height of the building – Elevator shafts, stairwells, other shafts

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Stack Effect – Height of the building – Elevator shafts, stairwells, other shafts Wind
Design Considerations Stack Effect – Height of the building – Elevator shafts, stairwells, other shafts Wind

Stack Effect

Height of the building

Elevator shafts, stairwells, other shafts

Wind effect

Prevailing wind direction

Shape of building and nearby objects

Location of intakes and exhausts

Design Considerations Inlet and outlet conditions – Fan curves are “ideal” – Inlet conditions to

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Inlet and outlet conditions – Fan curves are “ideal” – Inlet conditions to avoid
Design Considerations Inlet and outlet conditions – Fan curves are “ideal” – Inlet conditions to avoid

Inlet and outlet conditions

Fan curves are “ideal”

Inlet conditions to avoid

Pre-rotation Turbulent flow

Can not be correct by simply adding to the required pressure

Results in a new curve

Design Considerations Inlet and outlet conditions

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Inlet and outlet conditions
Design Considerations Inlet and outlet conditions

Inlet and outlet conditions

Design Considerations Inlet and outlet conditions
Design Considerations Fan system effect

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Fan system effect
Design Considerations Fan system effect

Fan system effect

Design Considerations Fan system effect
Design Considerations Fan system effect Difficult to asses Approximations exist (ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database)

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Fan system effect Difficult to asses Approximations exist (ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database)
Design Considerations Fan system effect Difficult to asses Approximations exist (ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database)

Fan system effect Difficult to asses Approximations exist (ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database) Experience

Design Considerations

Design Considerations

Design Considerations
Design Considerations
Design Considerations
Design Considerations Flex Duct

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Flex Duct
Design Considerations Flex Duct

Flex Duct

Design Considerations Flex Duct
Design Considerations The contractor wants to use a different type of elbow, is that OK?

Design Considerations

Design Considerations The contractor wants to use a different type of elbow, is that OK? –
Design Considerations The contractor wants to use a different type of elbow, is that OK? –

The contractor wants to use a different type of elbow, is that OK?

It depends on the location in the system

What type of fitting is the proposed replacement?

What are the actual losses in the system?

Velocity pressure Loss coefficient

Fittings

Fittings

Fittings
Fittings
Fittings
Comments Avoid using extractors – Poor airflow – Noise Use an elbow for the final

Comments

Comments Avoid using extractors – Poor airflow – Noise Use an elbow for the final branch
Comments Avoid using extractors – Poor airflow – Noise Use an elbow for the final branch

Avoid using extractors

Poor airflow

Noise

Use an elbow for the final branch in a duct run.

Cushion effect

Boot taps

Best performance for cost

Acoustics If it is good for airflow it is usually good for acoustics. Three components:

Acoustics

Acoustics If it is good for airflow it is usually good for acoustics. Three components: –
Acoustics If it is good for airflow it is usually good for acoustics. Three components: –

If it is good for airflow it is usually good for acoustics. Three components:

Source

Path

Receiver

Acoustics

Acoustics

Acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics

Acoustics

Acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics Easy Math

Acoustics

Acoustics Easy Math
Acoustics Easy Math

Easy Math

Acoustics Easy Math
Acoustics Weighting – Human ear is less sensitive to low and high frequencies – More

Acoustics

Acoustics Weighting – Human ear is less sensitive to low and high frequencies – More sensitive
Acoustics Weighting – Human ear is less sensitive to low and high frequencies – More sensitive

Weighting

Human ear is less sensitive to low and high frequencies

More sensitive to mid-frequencies

Acoustics A-Weighting – Usually used for outdoor sound calculations NC – Sound is fitted to

Acoustics

Acoustics A-Weighting – Usually used for outdoor sound calculations NC – Sound is fitted to a
Acoustics A-Weighting – Usually used for outdoor sound calculations NC – Sound is fitted to a

A-Weighting

Usually used for outdoor sound calculations

NC

Sound is fitted to a curve

Based on 8 frequencies

Does not evaluate the overall shape of the curve

Most used method

NC-35

63 Hz – 8K Hz

Acoustics ROOM CRITERIA Mark II (RC) Evaluates the shape Currently ASHRAE’S preferred method

Acoustics

Acoustics ROOM CRITERIA Mark II (RC) Evaluates the shape Currently ASHRAE’S preferred method
Acoustics ROOM CRITERIA Mark II (RC) Evaluates the shape Currently ASHRAE’S preferred method

ROOM CRITERIA Mark II (RC) Evaluates the shape Currently ASHRAE’S preferred method

Acoustics Start with quiet equipment Locate air-handling equipment in less sensitive areas Allow for proper

Acoustics

Acoustics Start with quiet equipment Locate air-handling equipment in less sensitive areas Allow for proper fan
Acoustics Start with quiet equipment Locate air-handling equipment in less sensitive areas Allow for proper fan

Start with quiet equipment Locate air-handling equipment in less sensitive areas Allow for proper fan outlet conditions

Rectangular length 1.5 x largest dimension

Round length 1.5 x diameter

Acoustics Use radiused elbows where possible Larger ductwork reduces velocity and reduces generated noise Avoid

Acoustics

Acoustics Use radiused elbows where possible Larger ductwork reduces velocity and reduces generated noise Avoid
Acoustics Use radiused elbows where possible Larger ductwork reduces velocity and reduces generated noise Avoid

Use radiused elbows where possible Larger ductwork reduces velocity and reduces generated noise Avoid abrupt changes in layout Place dampers away from outlets Flexible connections to equipment

Acoustics Power splits – Ratio of areas L1 = 10 × log (A1 ÷ (A1

Acoustics

Acoustics Power splits – Ratio of areas L1 = 10 × log (A1 ÷ (A1 +
Acoustics Power splits – Ratio of areas L1 = 10 × log (A1 ÷ (A1 +

Power splits

Ratio of areas

L1 = 10 × log (A1 ÷ (A1 + A2))

L2 = 10 × log (A2 ÷ (A1 + A2))

Units dB, applies across all frequencies, straight subtraction

Acoustics Low Frequency Noise – Breakout – Break in – Rectangular Where breakout noise is

Acoustics

Acoustics Low Frequency Noise – Breakout – Break in – Rectangular Where breakout noise is beneficial
Acoustics Low Frequency Noise – Breakout – Break in – Rectangular Where breakout noise is beneficial

Low Frequency Noise

Breakout – Break in

Rectangular

Where breakout noise is beneficial Do not use where break in noise is a concern

Round

Does not allow as much breakout Does not allow as much break in

Thicker liner attenuates lower frequencies

Acoustics Medium-High frequency – Easier to attenuate than low – Lined or double walled duct

Acoustics

Acoustics Medium-High frequency – Easier to attenuate than low – Lined or double walled duct –
Acoustics Medium-High frequency – Easier to attenuate than low – Lined or double walled duct –

Medium-High frequency

Easier to attenuate than low

Lined or double walled duct

Lengthen runs if necessary

Silencers

Acoustics Silencers – Can be very effective at attenuating sound Insertion loss – Pressure drops

Acoustics

Acoustics Silencers – Can be very effective at attenuating sound Insertion loss – Pressure drops –
Acoustics Silencers – Can be very effective at attenuating sound Insertion loss – Pressure drops –

Silencers

Can be very effective at attenuating sound

Insertion loss

Pressure drops

Generated noise

Elbow

Locate in the wall or as close as possible

Do not locate right off of a fan

Acoustics Reactive silencers – Low to no pressure drops Dissipative – No fill use baffles

Acoustics

Acoustics Reactive silencers – Low to no pressure drops Dissipative – No fill use baffles and
Acoustics Reactive silencers – Low to no pressure drops Dissipative – No fill use baffles and

Reactive silencers

Low to no pressure drops

Dissipative

No fill use baffles and “chambers”

Duct Design Questions?

Duct Design

Duct Design Questions?
Duct Design Questions?

Questions?