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Saved by the wind?

the usage of wind and sun to base our energy consumption on nature
A report by Maximilian Vesper
I. Overture



Energy  Production  

Once upon a time there was a living organism that in a electricity and other substancial energy branches in
mysteriously strange way developed in order to harmony with nature.
dominate the world. It once began with bacteria
which later converted and adapted to the Not just because of the most recent incident at the
environment. By then, everything was normal and nuclear power plant Fukushima in Japan, and most
there was nothing to worry but soon after the new people I think will agree, the shares of renewable
emerging species developed and continued adjusting energy in the total generation of energy including but
them to their environmental factors over hundreds of not limited to electricity need to be broadened. If we
years it quickly got out of control. This living take a look on the bare numbers today, in early 2011,
organism spread and just a few thousand years later we have to admit that there is still a desperately long
dominated the world, calling the entire planet their way to go until we achieve the goal we have decided
own. This living organism that made the entire food too late to aim at. Despite the fact that there already
chain and Earths balance in nutrition and raw has been significant changes to where our electricity is
materials suffer from its existance is today entitled coming from we as human beings being responsible to
"human." save our planet from the effects of our miscalculation
and misinterpretation have to do more, obviously, to
Since human existance there always has been a need be able to life in a certain harmony with the nature as
for materials to support the progress of species did earlier in the Earth's reference. But surely
technologization and to continue granting higher this harmony begins with the switching from non-
living standards evolve and become present, in any renewable energy to energy that can be produced or
way supported by nature. The biggest thread to our generated from particles or matter surrounding us that
society is apart from the continiously emerging is not in any way taking a piece out of our atmosphere,
shortage of oil the generation of energy as this has to put it into words.
become a critical point over the past 20 years. Finally,
the in a way ignorant living organisms have realized This raises the question for what has been done
that the way they are producing their energy today is already in terms of generating electricity using
not as efficient and as balanced and as eco-friendly as it renewable energy and this is one of the key questions I
could be and there is a desperate need for a method am trying to answer in a simple way on the following
that is generating the required amount of, primarily, pages.

I. Overture 2
II. Now and then 4
III. Generation of renewable energy 6
a. Usage of the sun 6
b. Usage of the wind 8
IV. Private energy generation 10
V. Epilogue 11
VI. Annex 12
II. Now and then
The United States, Japan and most importantly we did. These three branches are those that were
Germany. These three states I will compare in the discovered the first being a reason for them still having
following text to find out how the shares of renewable the major shares in our energy production. In case the
energy have been broadened over the past 20 years. question of why there is not more of nuclear energy
produced in the United States, there is a simple
Currently, countries and most importantly energy slution for that. Have you seen on a map how large the
companies are looking for ways to generate the largest country itself is? They have so many oil and coal
possible amount of energy for the lowest possible bassins and production sites that is is simply not
price. This is displaying the capitalist thinking of the neccessairy for them to continue building new nuclear
worldwide enterprises. Unfortunately, that thought in power pkants and thanks to major incidents in that
this area has to be eradicated and changed as energy productin branch such as Chernobyl,
continuing this thought could lead to further damage Harrisbourgh and now Fukushima several reactors
to our already polluted Earth and it could lead to the have been taken offline. If we now take a look on
expiration of raw materials meaning an end for our Germany today, we see a smiliar picture reagrding
energy production and the end of possible revenues for fossil fuels and their discovery.
the company. This has been the key argument for
governments and individuals to convince companies
investing in renewable energy - a sustainable way of
generating electricity and warmth.
7,2%   1,6%  

5%   0,8%  
Fossil  Fuels   Nuclear  Energy  
23%   Biomass   Wind  

28%   Energy production Dec. 2010 (source: Bundesministerium

für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit)
Oil   Coal   Gas   Nuclear   Renewable  
Currently, photovoltaic-based energy generation is not
US energy production in 2006 (source: "Many Eyes") even 0,7% of the national energy production and
therefore it is not a part of the graph above. Due to the
If we take a look on the percentages of produced massive coal mines in the Rhineland area Germany
energy in the United States of America (US of A), we discovered a long time ago our energy production
can see that oil is still the number one resource used depends on that area which has been a key factor for
for energy generation. If you think about it and the the French and Belgian invading the Rhine-Ruhr area
development of the methods themselves you might in 1923 to weaken the energy and weapon production
notice that those techniques that were discovered and of Nazi Germany. This dependence on coal, oil and
introduced earlier are still used the most. First, oil was gas (fossil fuels) is still the case for Germany but we
used as petrolium to brighten or lighten rooms and are actually on a good way to broaden our dependence
houses, then we managed to generate energy through on natural, renewable resources. Germany is currently
the oil we found below the surface and we including producing 10,3% of its energy from eco-friendly and
the US of A thought that we are just taking what's renewable resources such as wind, water and the so-
there and simply taking unused substances away won't called biomass. Compared to other states this is a
affect nature in any way. That's the image we kept up pretty good rate. France for example is still generating
since we managed to use coal in terms of energy close to 80% of its energy from nuclear power plants
generation. Years later we noticed that above the oil and barely investing or encouraging their power
there is a sort of bubble containing a gas that was providers to invest into renewable, eco-friendly energy.
previously always either left where it is or for some
reason released to the atmosphere. We found out
throughout tests in chemistry laboratories that this gas
can also be used for energy generation and this is what

Other   is realistic to prognosticate another and thighter
Nuclear  5%   increase in the generation of any kind of renewable
16%   energy due to the continiously occuring protests for
"making the switch" and due to the 2011 Fukushima
Gas   Oil  
10%   52%  
Coal   If we take a look on the evolution of photovoltaic
17%   energy generation throughout the world in megawatt
we can see that the European Union is clearly
Japan energy production (source: Handbook of Energy and progressing. In 2000 the European Union and Japan
Economic Statistics in Japan 2000, pp. 190-196) produced nearly the same amount of sun-light-based
energy and compared to the United States, the EU
While Germany is moving forward, Japan is focusing and Japan produced 4 times more. While in the
on the nuclear energy as they currently have 55 nuclear following years after 2000 Japan increased their
reactors according to the "ZDF Heute Journal" in the production by 300% and becoming the worlds most
country itself and on oil as well as coal energy eco-friendly energy producing state in 2003 according
generation as these technologies have been to the European Photovoltaic Industry Association
implemented years before nuclear electricity the European Union nearly doubled their photovoltaic
generation was even imaginable. Japan is continuing production by 2004 and was generating nearly 7 times
to focus on nuclear power as they are currently the amount of 2004 making the EU producing the
planning to build 5 more reactors around the country most sun-light-based energy. There might be some
because of the fact that this method of generation is doubts now about Germany's participation in that
very efficient, does not rely on nature and can provide area but those will "fly the nest" when you realize that
the required amount of energy to keep the hi-tech in this 700% increase by 2009 mentioned, Germany is
country Japan alive. This is what it is currently like in responsible for generating about 65% symbolizing a
Germany, Japan and the United States of America. positive trend and convincing other governments to
perform similar actions such as increasing supportive
Over the past several years Germany managed to financial benefits for individuals or companies
increase the amount of produced renewable energy investing in the contruction and installation of not
massively. From 1990 to 2009 Germany was able to limited to but including photovoltaic systems. In
increase the amount of giga-watt-hours (GWh) Germany alone we have seen a massive increase in
generated from photovoltaic and wind systems by renewable energy in total from sub 1 percent in 1971 to
more than 500%. more than 10 percent in 2010 and the goal set being to
cover at least 47% of the national energy consumption
While there have been only 71 GWh of electricity with renewable energy has come more than 10% closer
created in 1990 by so-called wind-parks or modern over the past 40 years.
windmills, the amount has risen to 40 000 GWh in
2008 followed by a small drop to 38 639 GWh in 2009 While the modern use of wind and solar power has a
due to the financial crisis and the operating companies fairly short history as its usage started the earliest at
and individuals facing financial problems influencing around the 1930's, the traditional, ancient way of
the usage and expansion of wind-based energy generating power thanks to the wind is obviously
generation. This rise is an increase of more than a half quite old. From 3000 B.C. they used wind as a sort of
thousand percent. With photovoltaic-based energy natural power for their boats. Then from around 2000
generation in Germany there are similar statistics to be B.C. humanity used the earliest built windmills to
proud of. While there were only 1 GWh of electricity grind grain in the area of Babylon and then around the
produced from solar cells, the number has risen to 6 11th century A.D. brought to Europe by crusaders.
578 GWh in 2009 without facing a drop but rather Since 1930 then about 600k windmills provided
another and tighter increase as solar cells are less electricity and water-pumping in suburban areas and
expensive for companies and individuals and due to as wind energy became unpopular the 1970 US oil
the harsh summer in that year making the systems shortage was approaching leading to a boom in US-
even more profitable for the owner. The amount of American wind energy. While wind turbines were able
energy generated from photovoltaic installations is to produce a 150 kW of energy in the mid 1980s, they
that low in Germany because the hours of sun-light are now available in rates from 1 MW to 4 MW (1000
each year would not justify a permanent and broad kW to 4000 kW) and while they were first designed to
installation of these systems throughout the country. supply remote-areas with power in the late 1980s and
early 1990s, about 1995 the industry increased
Experts have published prognosis' years ago on the producing PV cells due to the huge pressure green-
future of renewable energy througout Germany. Every energy compaigns have put on the governments.
year, these expectations have been outnumbered and it

III. Generation of renewable energy
I. Usage of the sun
As we all know, generating energy by using the sun- being hold in place by the protons, positively charged
light requires solar panels that generate energy by particles in the nucleous of the phosphorus. Although
using similar principles to those used in chemical phosphorus is now fine with it, silicon does not really
batteries but in order to understand how these need that additional electron so this generated plate
instruments of power generation (solar panels) are out of silicon and phosphorus is obviously negatively
working, we need to go back to chemistry class as the changed because electrons are generally, in case they
element that has driven the revolutionary invention are not a part of antimatter, negatively charged. We
and evolution of computers is the same element that is can think about that as an impurity but not a negative
used in solar panels and solar cells. It is simply silicon. one as we used to think about it but in this particular
As we know from chemistry classes an atom is always case a solar cell is not going to work without it.
trying to have the maximum number of electrons on
their outter bands which is eight. The silicon atom is To generate some electricity a positive charge is now
unfortunately only carrying four electrons on its outter desperately needed because as you know from a
band by default so if two silicon atoms contact each magnet, positive and negative charges have to be
other they are passing on their four electrons to the together in order to make things work. The required
other one resulting in a very intense bond. Also neither positive chargement is created by bringing a four-
a positive nor a negative charge exists at this point electron pure silicon plate in contact with a chemical
because having eight electrons is purely satisfying the element offering only three electrons such as boron. As
needs of that certain atom. Imagine it the following this results in one electron too less it is positively
way. A silicon atom has four hands symbolizing four charged and, in case you haven't forgot the things
electrons and every of these tiny hands grabs a mentioned earlier about the silicon-phosphorus plate,
neighbours' hand. Then it feels good in that so-called positive and negative charges will seemingly fit
crystalline structure and that results in a stable together and resulting in a perfect "sandwich" but that
connection, or grid, if you like. is not really the case. Just read on and you will know
why. Now, in order to suck some energy out of that
silicon-sandwich wires that are conductive are being
put in it.

When the positively and the negatively charged silicon

plates came into contact, an electric field was created.
The free electrons on the negative side are literally able
to see the holes, specially constructed for them to fit,
on the positively charged side and they sort of "run" for
hell, utterly fast, towards them in order to fill these
gaps but as more and more electrons are approaching
and trying to make their way to the positively charged
side to fill the holes, they form a sort of barrier leading
Barack Obama inspected the solar cells at Nellis Air Force to an equilibrium, a balance between the two sides,
Base 2009 (courtesy: Associated Press, Charles Dharapak) generating an electric field that is comparable to a
diode allowing the electrons to shift to the negatively
As the production of solar cells and solar panels or charged side but not the other way around unless one
photovoltaic panels requires silicon to be delivered as hole needs to be filled. This is where we are now.
plates, you can imagine that it takes years for silicon to Some electrons have made it and some didn't.
become a large purely silicon element such as a plate.
Anyhow, as two silicon-based plates can not generate Now that we have the solar cell itself, we can focus on
power due to the mentioned circumstance that they do what is happening with the rays sent to Earth by the
not have a positive nor a negative charge they are sun. As the sun provides us with all types of energetic
chemically connected to an element that has a positive particles we just need to choose the one that fits best
or negative charge such as phosphorus. This element into our chemical evaluation - which is in this case the
is having five electrons so in combination with the photons that are behaving like a hammer to the solar
earlier mentioned silicon it provides eight electrons panel as it bombards the silicon's electrons that are
resulting in a stable connection plus one additional being pointed to the sky, in detail: in an appropriate
electron which is not able to quit the structure as it is

angle to the sun rays which can be calculated photons rather than the solar cells themselves and
throughout the degree the sun is standing above the during the process of conversion from direct current
horizon. Anyway, you remember the 9th "lonely" (DC) to AC a small percentage of the generated
electron mentioned? That is disconnected from the energy is lost. Seen in a long-term perspective that risk
plate they have just filled the hole in due to the heavy of a lack of efficiency due to pollution can be taken
bombardement of photons coming from the sun. Then down as the switching from fossil fuels or nuclear
this electron is being pulled back to the negatively energy completely to renewable energy ressources
charged plate as there a phosphorus atom needs it to results in approximately 40% less air pollution,
lend a hand and another electron can fill a gap on the according to statistics of the federal bureau of
positively charged plate and this electron waited and environmental affairs of the United States of America.
waited just like girls waiting for a changing cubicle at Although a surplus of energy generated during the day
a clothing store to be free. can be captured and stored in batteries as a backup
and then released later during the night or during
Thanks to the conductive wires we put into that clowdier days, we have to keep in mind that solar
"sandwich" we manage to capture all the voltage systems are not generating energy at night. Even tho
generated by the electric field - that combination is sunlight reaches the Earth by being reflected by the
leading to electricity being generated. Moon during night, it is not enough to be used for the
generation of energy using photovoltaic panels yet.
Photons   Electrons   Voltage   Conversion  

To put it in simple words and to compress all that a

little bit, we can say that photons sent from the sun are
being sort of absorbed by the solar panels and free
electrons are creating a voltage that is being captured.
That electricity is then transferred to ampere metres to
measure the output and then forwarded to several
instruments in order to convert the direct current
(DC) electricity coming from the solar cells or panels
into alternating current (AC) of 120 volt or 240 volt,
depending on the country's electricity system, at a
frequency around 50 Hertz in order to make the PV cell area of 2 squaremiles in Nevada, USA (source:
electricity suitable for common household devices and renewable energy blog on Google's Blogger service)
in order to continue forwarding it and injecting it into
the electricity network where it is flowing to where it Despite the look on all the negative aspects of solar
is needed. That is how energy is being generated by energy there are some brighter sides to get into your
using the sun. mind. For example, solar energy panels will be able to
generate electricity for decades and are fairly
Although the initial costs for building and setting up a maintenance-free as they do not require someone to
solar energy system are pretty high thanks to the add any fuel or refill a tank, they do not smell
conductive wires used in it compared to non- offensively and they have barely any moving parts that
renewable energy generation based on fossil fuels like could be resulting in any fault by the system. Further,
gas, oil and coal, experts expect photovoltaic energy these panels can work independently and do not
systems to become much cheaper over the coming necessarily need to be attached to a power or gas grid.
years as the problem of energy shortages is Further, it contributes in reducing the emission of
prognosticated to be increasing meaning that the price dangerous green house gases and therefore is not
will be more competitive to other energy ressources contributing in any way to global warming as it does
than it is now. Further, to be really efficient a quite not even pollute any kind of gas or liquid such as CO2
large area of space needs to be covered with solar or nitrogen or even mercury like older and non-
panels consisting of solar cells and the factor of renewable types of energy generation which at least
efficiency being the main point for investors to keep partly do release them.
their cash on fossil fuels differs between locations as
this type of energy generation is the most effective with All that might make it reasonable that the percentage
the most hours of sun each day as clouds on the sky are of PV cells installed is increasing by about 48 percent
resulting in a serious drop of produced or generated each year.
energy - but that can actually happen as well in areas
with heavily polluted air as the CO2 then absorbs the

II. Usage of the wind
When we look out on fields in some parts of the world simple installation as it creates the necessairy electrical
we often recognize large modern windmills. These voltage by electromagnetic induction. The simple
wind turbines, how they are actually called, are today generator is consisting of a conductor, typically a coil
responsible for about 1,6% of Germany's energy wire, and a number of magnets surrounding it. As the
production, being above the average but still not rotor and shaft spin, the assembly of magnets are
enough to call our country eco-friendly. What this part beginning to spin in the same direction and this
is about can't be much clearer actually. It is about how rotation of the magnets around the conductor induces
wind turbines work and what is positive or negative voltage into the coil wire. That way the energy is being
about them in case we decide to profit from them generated in a wind turbine.
which parts of us already do.

Before we take a look on the components of a wind 5%  

turbine, lets think about how the wind that is
necessairy for wind turbines to produce energy
actually starts moving. Well, as the sun is shining on
the Earth and heating up land the air masses around
that particular area are absorbing some of the heat and 82%  
then starts rising because as we know from
Geography classes a mass of hot air is lighter than the
Pro   Contra   Undecided  
equivilent amount of cool air as it carries water
particles with it. When the light and heated up air Survey showing sympathy for wind energy (source: ZDF)
masses rise they leave behind a gap and cool air
quickly approaches to fill that space and this rush of air Currently, in Germany about 80% of people asked in a
masses to fill in the gap is wind. survey done by ZDF television think that the amount
of energy generated from wind turbines should be
enlarged whilst only 13 percent are against it and think
that nuclear energy and energy generated by fossil
fuels are doing a good job and can continue to provide
us with electricity and 5% are still undecided in that

The positive thing about that is that no conversion is

needed as it is in the process of photovoltaic energy
generation because a wind turbine is producing an
alternating current (AC) as an electrical current
already. This means there is less energy lost in the
process of reaching the grid network for reaching
Offshore wind park (source: LaCoastPost, Len Bahr) homes across the country. Further, as with the
photovoltaic systems, it does not release any polluting
Now, lets take a look on the parts a wind turbine and harmful gases or liquids leading to the fact that
consists of. Actually, there is not very much to mention this is an even cleaner energy source.
here as it commonly only is made out of three crucial
or essential parts. Part one which most people see first Although another advantage is the price because it is
after recognizing the tower it is built on are the rotor possible to purchase and set up a small or large wind
blades. The usually three rotor blades are simply turbine by anyone from poor farmers to the average
barriers for the wind and as they are turned slightly citizen in the suburb of a large city and even owners of
inverted they are being moved by the wind and by inner-town houses can install small wind turbines on
doing that it transfers its kinetic energy to the rotation the houses roof or use the wind that streams through
process of the rotor blades. As it rotates it sets the the streets by putting a wind turbine in a horizontal
rotor hub and then the second important part of the position towards the street, the wind turbine can be
wind turbine into motion, the shaft, which is attached damaged crucially by heavy storms or lightning but on
to the center of the rotor with the mentioned rotor the other hand as it is not based on any fossil fuels, you
hub and is spinning if the rotors are being moved by can generate energy from an unending source. This
the wind. At the end of the shaft, there is an electrical makes you independent from not only the electricity
generator which is the third and last important part of companies but also from the soil Earth has provided
the wind turbine. Actually, a generator is a rather us to live on. Although there might be many positive

aspects, there are also a few negative sides to consider fact, only the costs of the first few wind turbines would
as these wind turbines create an awful lot of noise. be extremely high as it still has to be seen as a niche
Some turbines create up to 70 decibel of noise. energy ressource that has several competing streams
Further, wind turbines have proven to be fatal for like Biomass and Photovoltaic. If wind energy has
some animals as many birds have hit wind turbine become a so-called mainstream energy resource that is
rotors crushing their bones and therefore killing them helping to provide large amounts of energy for the
plus, some consider wind turbines not to be an nation and the European Union, which is a goal set by
aesthetical bonus for the landscape as most modern European leaders anyway, the costs for the
wind mills or turbines look ugly and do not fit into the construction and installation of wind turbines and the
landscape. Also, those areas that are statistically best appropariate devices to connect them from for
for the construction of wind turbines are mostly far example offshore locations with the power grid on the
away from cities leading to an increase in the cost of mainland will massively decrease, according to
energy transfer. Greenpeace and the minitry of environmental affairs.

This graph on the left is displaying the estimated goal

for the European Union to base its energy
11%   consumption on renewable energy. This is not meant
Renewable  Energy   to be a goal for each and every country but an
Fossil  Fuels   estimated goal of the entire EU. 85 percent of the
Nuclear  Energy   energy required to power all homes across the EU
should be gained from renewable resources and the
shares of nuclear energy and fossil fuels shall be
85%   dropped to 11% and 4%. This estimation was made
before the Fukushima incident which could be leading
to a drastical change on the 11% of nuclear energy
which is currently mostly supported by France and
As we can see, there are positive and genatiove aspects Eastern European countries.
of wind energy and according to an expert who
appeared on "ZDF Reporter" recently, another 30 Reaching this goal seems to be nearly impossible but
offshore windparks would be needed to replace the we are working on it and everyone can help by either
energy currently produced by the 17 nuclear power protesting or making decisions by purchasing power
plants for Germany. Building them would take at an energy supplier that offers stricly clean energy.
another 10 years according to him and it would cost One thing is clear: there is still a long way to go.
approximately the same amount of money as the
nuclear power plants and their maintenance do. But in

IV. Private energy generation
>1  MW:  
21,56ct  per  

<999  kW:  
25,86ct  per  

<99  kW:  
27,33ct  per  

<30  kW:
per  kWh  

These are the minimum revenues for solar cells on

buildings. For free areas of land like a field they have
to pay at least 21,11 cents per kWh. This is because they
are more remote areas that are not that easily to get
Solar plants on US suburb. (source: Reuters) the power from in to the national power grid. But that
is not everything the owner of a solar cell receives
Many private individuals that own a house or a certain thanks to the EEG, the "Erneruerbare Energien
area of space that requires electricity for some reason Gesetz." The government is supporting you by paying
across Germany are currently thinking about installing around 11% of the costs for installing a solar cell on
either a small wind turbine or even a photovoltaic your private rooftop. In previous years that number
system. Currently, there are barely any means of was significantly higher but if you take a look on the
financial support coming from the government to national debts which is fairly high compared to the
individuals planning to install a small wind turbine. GDP you might understand why expenses in that area
Although it cheaper than the photovoltaic electricity have been reduced as well by 2011.
generation, the government won't support you
financially for that. But for PV cells and systems there At least there is a decent amount of cash literally
is a possibility to receive bonuses from the state. Apart pumped into the private sector although by doing that
from the fact that you are already paying less or they encourage people to quit their deals with energy
nothing at all to the power companies if the PV cell is suppliers and therefore reduce the governments tax
running very well, you can even sell energy that your earnings in some parts.
solar cell is producing to a local power supplier and
they will have to pay you for that. They are not even
able to cheat you on that as the German government
set new prices electricity companies have at least to
pay from January 2011 onwards based on the amount
of electricity you sell to them. So these are actually the
minimum revenues per 1000 Watts per hour.

V. Epilogue

Pro   Contra   Undecided  




Even though the genertation of wind and solar energy power grid. If it really is an option everyone has to
seems to be a difficult business, it is currently apart decide for him-/herself.
from water power plants the only solution that brings
us further towards our goal which is creating In the diagram above, we can see that about 72
electricity without harming the nature. Anyway, in the percent of people are supporting the thought of
last 20 years we managed to broaden our dependence reducing the dependence of Germany and the world
on renewable energy by around 10% and the number of on nuclear energy, according to an ARD survey done
installed photovoltaic cells is increasing by more than on 15th of March 2011. This also shows a clear boost of
40 percent each year whilst we still depend on nuclear support for Die Grünen political party according to
energy as more than 20% of German energy latest researches. They currently have 5% more than
production is generated by nuclear power plants and usual.
about 80% in France.

Photovoltaic cells work with the photons that rip off

electrons and therefore uses the voltage to generate
electricity in direct current which is then being
converted to AC, alternate current, whilst wind
turbines work completely mechanical as the rotation of
the blades sets a bunch of magnets into rotation which
then is generating electricity.

In case a private person wants to install and profit

from a photovoltaic cell, the government has worked
out plans in order to support that person financially.
The amount is regulated by the EEG, the
Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz passed in 2004.
Germany is paying as a state around 11 percent of the
costs occuring when purchasing and installing the
solar system plus the law regulates the amount power
supplying companies have to pay for the energy private
individuals are sort of inserting into the national

VI. Annex
"ZDF Frontal21", ZDF television, March 15, 2011
"ZDF Reporter", ZDF television, March 17, 2011
"Are we save enough", The Daily newspaper, March 16th, 2011
"Solar Energy", Roger Harris, Page 38ff.
„Sternstunden der Physik“, Roger G. Newton, Birkhäuser Verlag, Page 173ff.
„Naturwissenschaft“, Detlev Ganten, dtv, Page 144ff.
„Physik“, Kenneth R. Atkins, de Gruyter Verlag, Page 716ff.
"Solar Energy Engineering: Processes and Systems", Soteris A. Kalogirou, Academic Press, Page 12ff.
"Solar Technology: The Earthscan Expert Guide to Using Solar Energy for Heating, Cooling and Electricity
(Earthscan Expert Series)", David Thorpe, Earthscan, Page 12ff.
"Photoelectric Effect", Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, Alphascript Publishing
"Third Generation Photovoltaic Cell", Lambert M. Surhone, Betascript Publishing