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BIOGAS PURIFICATION USING

WATER SCRUBBING SYSTEMS

Dr. Virendra K. Vijay
Centre for Rural Development & Technology
Coordinator‐ Biogas Development and Training Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India
E‐mail: vkvijay@rdat.iitd.ernet.in
INTRODUCTION

• Biogas is clean environment friendly fuel that can be


obtained by anaerobic digestion of animal residues and
domestic and farm wastes, abundantly available in the
countryside.

• Biogas is an important renewable energy resource for rural


areas in India

• Biogas generally comprise of 55-65 % methane, 35-45 %


carbon dioxide, 0.5-1.0 % hydrogen sulfide and traces of
water vapor.

• Average calorific value of biogas is 20 MJ/m3 (4713


kcal/m3).
INTRODUCTION

| Biogas like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cannot be


liquefied under normal temperature and pressure.

| Critical temperature required for liquefaction of methane


is -82.1oC at 4.71MPa pressure, therefore use of biogas is
limited nearby the biogas plant.

| An estimate indicates that India has a potential of


generating 6.38 X 1010 m3 of biogas from 980 million
tones of cattle dung produced annually.

| The heat value of this gas amounts to 1.3 X 1012 MJ. In


addition, 350 million tones of manure would also produce
along with biogas.
ORGANIC WASTES & THEIR ESTIMATED
AVAILABILITY IN INDIA

Sr. Organic Wastes Estimated Quantity


No.
1. Municipal Solid waste 30 million tons/year
2. Municipal liquid waste 12000 million litres/day
3. Distillery (243 units) 8057 kilolitres/day
4. Press mud 9 million tons/year
5. Food & fruit processing wastes 4.5 million tons/year
6. Willow dust 30000 tons/year
7. Dairy industry waste 50-60 million litres/day
8. Paper & pulp industry waste (300 1600 m3/day
mills)

9. Tannery (2000 units) 52500 m3 waste water/day

Source: MNES Report, Renewable Energy in India and business opportunities, MNES. Govt. of India, New Delhi, 2001
BIOGAS PROGRAMMES
On-going Programmes:

• National Biogas and Manure Management


Programme (NBMMP).

• Biogas Based Distributed/ Grid Power Generation


Programme.

5
BIOGAS PRODUCTION PROCESS

Biogas production process (Anaerobic digestion) is a multiple-stage


process in which some main stages are:

Chemical reactions involved in biogas production:
C6H12O6 → 3CO2 + 3CH4
CO2 + 4H2 > CH4 + 2H2O
CH3COOH > CH4 + CO2
THE QUANTITY, RATE AND COMPOSITION OF BIOGAS
GENERATED DEPENDS ON

y The nature and concentration of the substrate,


y Feed rate,
y pH value,
y Bacterial population,
y Temperature, and
y Chemical inducers.
BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FROM
DIFFERENT WASTES
UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS

| Cooking: Biogas can be used in a specially designed burner for cooking


purpose. A biogas plant of 2 cubic metres capacity is sufficient for providing
cooking fuel needs of a family of about five persons.
| Lighting: Biogas is used in silk mantle lamps for lighting purpose. The
requirement of gas for powering a 100 candle lamp (60 W) is 0.13 cubic metre
per hour.
| Power Generation: Biogas can be used to operate a dual fuel engine to
replace up to 80 % of diesel-oil. Diesel engines have been modified to run 100
per cent on biogas. Petrol and CNG engines can also be modified easily to use
biogas.
| Transport Fuel: After removal of CO2, H2S and water vapor, biogas can be
converted to natural gas quality for use in vehicles.
BIOGAS DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING CENTRES
(BDTCS)

| For training and publicity purposes, Eleven Biogas


Development and Training Centres (BDTCs) are
functioning, one each in Assam, Himachal Pradesh,
Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab; Rajasthan, Tamil
Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttarakhand.
| One BDTC has been started in IIT Delhi in 2008.

| Central financial assistance is provided to these Centres


for staff and training courses.
| BDTCs focus on the training of masons and
entrepreneurs to improve quality of construction of
biogas plants and to follow standard specifications &
approved construction techniques.
NEED FOR THE BIOGAS REFINING AND
BOTTLING

| Potential of biogas is not fully utilized and commercialized so far.

| For commercialization, its area of application may widen; from


cooking fuel to vehicle fuel.

| For use as a vehicle fuel, it should be bottled like CNG.

| Before bottling, it should enriched in methane content from 55 %


to 95 %; similar to CNG.
CO2 & H2S REMOVAL PROCESSES FROM BIOGAS

Process Advantage Disadvantage


PSA Economy in production with comparatively Not much scalability in production.
high purity. Capital costs are moderate. Equipment maintenance on the higher
Relatively quick installation and start up. side ,Chemical regeneration is required

Water Simple process, remove both H2S and CO2 High pressure, difficulty in recovery of
Scrubbing using a water stream. CO2
Cryogenic High purity . Capital cost high. Requirement of
large sites. Longer start-up and shut
down process. Limited scalability in
production.

Membrane Fast installation and start up .Production of Economically not viable. Not suitable
output is flexible .Purity and flow rate can for high purity needs. Consumes
vary. relatively more electricity per unit of
gas produced.

Chemical The chemical absorbents are more efficient Regeneration of the solvent requires a
Absorption in low pressure relatively high energy input. Disposal
of by product formed due to chemical
reaction is a problem
THE DESIGNING OF THE PACKED BED SCRUBBER
INVOLVED THE FOLLOWING STEPS:

| Assumptions of basic data


| Solubility data generation

| Material balance and determination of water flow rate

| Selection of packing material

| Determination of column diameter

| Determination of the height of the packed bed column

| Selection of packing support and water distributor


WORKING OF SCRUBBING SYSTEM

| Water scrubbing method is found most suitable


for biogas enrichment in rural areas.

| Water is good solvent for CO2.

| The solubility of CO2 in water is governed by


variation in pressures and temperatures.
SYSTEM OPERATION

| Raw biogas is compressed up to 1.0 MPa


pressure to enhance solubility of CO2 in water.

| Pressurized biogas is sent into bottom section of


the scrubber.

| Packing material is used to enhance the contact


time (interfacial area) between gas and water.

| Pressurizedwater is sprayed from top to absorb


the CO2 from pressurized biogas.
COMPRESSION UNIT

| Multi stage compressor : compression of


methane enriched biogas at 20 MPa Pressure
in cylinder.

| Filters : for moisture removal.

| Cylinders: High pressure, seamless, steel


cylinders that are already in being use for
CNG application.

| Pipe fittings and accessories : G.I.


Biogas
Digester

Biogas (CH4 CO2) Moisture Removal

Single Stage Compressor

Gas Storage Pressure Vessel


Water Tank
Water
Pump Flow Meter Biogas Scrubber Dissolved CO2 in
Water
Enriched Biogas
Gas Storage Pressure Vessel

Moisture Filters

Pressure Reducers
Three Stage Gas
Compressor
High Pressure Cylinders for Storage of Enriched
Gas
BIOGAS ENRICHMENT AND BOTTLING
SYSTEM

1-Biogas plant 11-Safety valve


2-Ball valve 12-Water sprayer NOT TO SCALE
3-Water remover 13-Flange 11
4-Receiver mounted compressor 14-View glass
5-Pressure gauge 15-Water outlet
6-Gas Storage Vessel 16-Water pump
7-Rotameter 17-Gas filter 12 13
14
8-Supporting stand 18-Pressure reducer
9-Reshching rings 19-Three stage gas compressor
10-Scrubber 20-CNG Cylinder
10

20
9 17
5 8
2
6 7
3
1

19

16
18
4
15

Fig.1: Experimental setup for biogas purification and bottling


Enriched Biogas CO2 SCRUBBING SYSTEM

Not to scale
Water In 150
mm Enriched
Biogas
Top Section 500 Water In
mm

Packing
Middle Section 3500
mm
Supporting
Stand

Raw
Biogas
Raw Biogas Bottom Section 800
mm
Water Out
Schematic Diagram of Packed Bed Column
Water Out
SUCCESS CASE STUDIES OF BIOGAS AS AUTOMOTIVE
FUEL

•Rajasthan Go Sewa Sangh, Durgapura, Rajasthan:


•Plant started in 2007 and has been running successfully. A three
wheeler runs on biogas daily about 100 km. and approximate 4 kg
Bio-CNG is required.

•Shri Krishna Goshala, Ghaziabad:


•Plant started in 2009 and has been running successfully.

•Shri Madhav Go Vigyan Anusandhan Sansthan, Bhilwara,
Rajasthan:
•Plant started in 2009 and has been running successfully.
AUTOMOTIVE CAR AND THREE WHEELER
RUNNING ON ENRICHED BIOGAS
COST- ECONOMICS OF THE SYSTEM

| The Cost of Biogas plant (1000 NM3/Day Capacity) is


approx. Rs. 60 lakhs
| Biogas purification and bottling system is approx. Rs. 55
lakhs (excluding the cost of cylinder for gas storage)
| slurry management and processing cost to produce dry
manure is Rs. 20 Lakhs
| other costs like land preparation, civil work, high
pressure gas storage cylinders Taxes, logistic etc. is
appox. Rs.15 Lakhs.
| total initial cost is Rs. 1.5 Crores of the whole system
with annual profit of approx. Rs. 34.125 Lakhs.
POSSIBLE ENTREPRENEURIAL AVENUES

Large Scale/ Community level Biogas Enterprises for

1. Cooking needs- Pipeline supply

2. Electricity Production and Supply

3. Rural sanitation & bio manure production

4. Cylindering of methane available from biogas plant for vehicles


and production of bio manure
CONCLUSIONS

| India has second largest biogas programme in the world at rural and
as well as urban levels.

| Many technologies/models have been successfully developed in


India for biogas programme.

| There is need to develop a sustainable renewable energy programme


on biogas for replacing petroleum products by utilization of biogas
in the country.

| This will help in green energy technology and reducing green house
gases emissions.
| Biogas is a potential renewable energy source for rural India and
other developing countries.

| Biogas generation and subsequent bottling will cater the energy


needs of villages, supply enriched manure and maintain village
sanitation.

| The bottling system will work as a decentralize source of power


with uninterrupted supply using local resources, generate ample
opportunities for employment and income of the rural people.
THANK
YOU