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LPG Sypolt Sys rem

-1. What is L?:;?

LPG stands for liqui=ied ~trolel.L':: oas. The pe troleu:n

gas norma l Ly consis t of propane and bu2ne. :'he i:1ix~e of gas is s tared under high pressure ins ide the c;,1in'::.-;;.::-. .t·s t.:'1e pr es sur e in the cyclinder is so high that the ~~ses ".;;'3 ac cue Ll y become

a liquid. That is the reason ..... hy it Ls C2:":. :=.:: li:;:u.ified

pe zro Leum gas.

2. Va?Orisatian of LPG

:Fig. 1

If the valve in fig. 1 is open~ct. tl"l.e liq:"; d in the LPG cylinder ..... ill turn into gas irimedia tely after the valve. This is called vaoorization 'of LPG~ A certain anoU:1.t of heat is required to cha.nge liqrrld to gas. This heat 5U.St come from the liquid itself or from some external source. In the case of cylinder installation, this is from the a tzo spher-e - the

cy l Lndez' wall pick up heat from the aboosphere and transm.it

it to the liquid. As the cylinder wall is fi..::L'"'CI far a cylinder, it can be seen that there is'a maxiwUlll asount; of gas which can be vapo r-Lzed at a given time.. In other words J each LPG cylinder has a maximum. vaporization t:a te •

• •• /2

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re:ed only a certain amount regulator sot..r.at

cylinder is controlled.

a re~lator on b'"le LPG P"t

gas discharge rate 'W'ill/\.too

The regula tpr cylinder o n l y allow a fixed rate of gc.s wiUn:Jt be used up bo fast.

cons iderat n

its maximum v2'COr,ization ca,Do.city due the cy,linder ava Ll ahLe and ambient cooking appliances are supplied from a than one cylinder:: will be necessary. of cyliI}der size are available

is solely for household is for commercial use. However, some

, supply cylinder s Lz.e less than 14.5 leg and

'~U&~~kG~PiP,ed supply sysbem for res taurant. laboratory

, ,DJaJiuY'uSe SO kg cylinder. ....'hen daily COl\Su~tion is so high

.' '''J~.' .J.i.'lS ~"::'. , .,..,

_ -·tnat':':lnStaI.lation ,of too many 50 kg. cylinder is found to be

nOH.feasIble, a bUlk supply system with fiuqe pressurized tank Wiiiebe:::~sary. Specially designed vCIPJrizer .... '111 be ····~aty,;·for. the bulk storage tank because the surface area

for high vaPJriza lion rate

the appliance could be defined in various ways •. The gas demand .of a cooker carv be expressed i~.abl per hour'or m3/h a' kg/hI and. the gas demand is also

.. '~.....::--.o:.__"'."""''''-I''''''''''''-'''''

~ ..... ~'·ciil.'IecI't-tras~raie-'~-

.-.:"..... -.-

~ ~~ ~ 'L • at~~~;:'.},::,,~p.;L""

. _ .~~c:,.,._ .... :.''".j ~ .... ~~ .. ".J.iI!i-{~ "'"

;"lY. ~ :-_to',a 1. m3/h - 116 tOaD Bb.1/h.

'l'he.·m.ax:1cn.i:nl: vapourzation rate af one 50 kg cylinder l,s

/"

aboti1:.'~OiQQQ BtuIh ~ or, Q .,89=3/h"

_': ,(01';000 . r

.. .. T~:est::baa,te the 1'lW1lher of 50 kg cylinder requ:!..C-ed, we

,

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need' tit~,t:.be .total gas rate of coo~ sppliance~

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, '~. Examp'le -- i

Assuming the following appliance are installed .Ln the kitchen with their r-e.spec t.i.ve gas rate shown, what is the mir..,imum no. of 50 kg cylinder ~qu1red 7

Appliance

. Badn Mc.rie' Fryer

Gas rate (Btu/h) 33,330

109,910

87,300

87,300

~120 ,000

-

LJ

Stove

. BrUer Cooker

Total gas rate

33,330 + 109,910 + 87,300 + 87,300 + 120,000 = 437,810

437,810

No. of 50 kg cylinder required

= -----

80-,000

= 5.4,7

= 6

-

Hence, 6 cylinder will be required. Spare cylinder are usually

'\

provided. The ntmbe.r of spare cyllnder to be provided is usually

.equa L to the number of cylinders required.

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Cylinder Installation Consideration

All 50 leg cylinders' should be stored outslde the dwellings.

The cylinder position shOuld afford ease of access tofacilltate changing and quick renoval in case of necessity. The requirement of Fire Brigade should be ~omplied with.

It 4:£ imperative that cylinders be installed at or' above ground Teve L, never below ground level f in sunken areas or ad jacerrc to open drains or basement access areas where gas might collect.

I t is essential to avoid the following pas i lions for the cylinder :

(a) (b ) Cd

any p:JsiUori that is subject b:l extremes of .tem~ature:

in prox.imi.ty to 'corrosive o~ readUy comb~tible substances. in the proxindty of possible' '~urces 'of 19n1tlon lnthe'"'

'. :. ,. . ... . ..

. ~ . .. '.

event of accidental dlscluirge of 'gas.

. . .- ....

imme~diately adjacent; to a flue terBLtrial or ventilationopefli:ng.

('d)

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...' '_'

<{~f

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< ) ~_l Fi-e,<:b,I-p l l, OJ e

o 0 os-~~~;~ q 9 r

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6. Piped LPG Supply System

The pipework at the downstream of the regulabr is high pressure stage whereas that at t..'le uas trea.";I is t.'le 10'" pres sure

stage which supply directly to the cooking app Li.ance , The pipe length from the cylinder to the regulator lIIUSt be as short as po s s Lc Le , Appropriate size of regulator should be determined according to< the maximum gas rate calculat~d. Pipe sizing_ is .-

usually limited to low pressure stage.

~ ~.I;:. loa4.

R -

ecoJmllended practice permits a 2.5 robar pressure drop

the oul:let of the regula tor and any dr aw-o f'f point when the installation is subjected to the anticipa.ted ruin.imI!m load.

7. Pipe sizing for low pressure stage C Co n~" ~Ft.S)

The common criteria for pipe sizing is to estimate the pipe size so th~t the pressure drop is less than 2.5 Illbar.

~

The relationship between friction rate, gas rate and

pipe size could be related by the following formula
I~f Q2 I
0: 0.587 -5
d '" Friction -_rate, mbar/m

G te 3/h- - _ - -

= as ra ,m . - _- __

~fde· ~~:~-' .~~--: '-:

. _"_ .

'l'beequlValent lengths o.f pipe for f.ittings

.-.0

_. - '~:: d' .~- ..

are as

Elbo~.1Jr Tee Valve

O~6 m

-

1 .. 0 III.

.......

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-,

-~ "-""1

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<, - - '.'~~~' ". . :-: .... i~·.

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~ -. .~- .. , --~-.- .. ",~ ~-.

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Example 2

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Assuming the followings

Gas rate of the coolcer

:::: 80,000 BTIJ/h

_- 3

0.69 III /h

Length of piping from regulator to cooker

No. of bends 6

200 FT or 61 ra

No. 0 f valve = 1

~

_'- What is the pipe size required?

To estimate the pipe size, we need to estimate the allowable friction-rate first.

,

Total equivalent le~th = 6 1 + 6 x 0.6 + 1

= 65.6 m

Permissible friction rate

2.5

=_-

65 .. 6

= 0.038 mbar/m

'lbe next step is to pr-epare a sizing table for various standard pipe size based on tae permissible friction rate.

Pipe Inside Diameter d5 G¥ rate
rom US d on 1Il/h
,
12 1 .. 04 1.264 - D. 2:'1
--,
15 1.3 3.713 - 0..49
I
18 1.6 10.48 0.82'4
22 1.96 28.93
.. - _ ••• /6

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A -typical calculation is illustrated below

-

'- 2

0.587 _3_ d5

0.038 mbar/m

.1-" ··-"'::f i.

._" ,+ .. -

for

15 nmW .• D. pipe, d == 1 .• 3C1ll,

3.713 x 0.038

0.587

.~ .

Q

= 0,.24

3

= 0 •. 49 -m /h

for 18 mIll .. N.B. Pipe, dS

10.48 x 0.038

=

0.587

'"' 0.678

Q '0.824

10.48

._

3 .. 713

Si:r:ce the gas rate is 0.69 m3/h, l8ntin d La; pipe will be adequate.

Example 3 ..

cl:: -C.Oo!::~r rR.- Fr~-?t

l3m- Gat'! mqr,'e

FR

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fol-tmdng :

rate for each appliaoce is as shown in Table :\.

-- ...... Gas 3
App'l Laoce rate ci /h
Cooker (CK) 1.03 ( 120,000 8b.l/h )
I
.. Fryer (FR) 0 .. 75 ( 87,300 Btu/h )
[ Bain ~.a.rie (a'1 ) 0.29 ( 33,330 Btu!h) ,

-1 ~ ~. -:~~- .r :

c .:(''''_.

t~:.( ·t ... · .

~~.oe..;..,..!'_·ti~ ..

Table A

(b) The pipe run is given in Table B.

Section Straight fitting
.. run (m)
(A) b (8) ..lW 't ill 2 (E)
(B) 'to (C) " b (E)
20 1
(C) to (O) 10 J 2 (E)
(D) toBM 10 ], 1 (E) , 1 valve Table B

E : Elbo ....

And we - are required to eatimate the pipe size

1st step 2nd step 3rd step 1 st step

Prepare a sizing table Select pipe size from the sizing table

This is shoen in example 2.

Per;uissible friction rate

0.038 mbar/m

2nd step

Sizing table

fg.71 .Jeo.,-) ~ 4/ . .,

~..,..o:(". = c..f,

S 1- ")'(0<,) -= y. z, S 1o·".a·I_~ - "'f.~

~--- ...

~

- -.

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- .~',.?--_~.- .. - ", ---.;'-. ..

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- ". .. ~

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-

Section G~s rate Pipe size
rn/h mm NB
"
l.()~i o.'1~+o,,;l-'1 -
(A) to (E) =- 2.07 28
0·1S;0.)..'f
(a) to (C) -= '1.04 22
rc: to (D) s: 0.29 15
.'.
CD) teEM = 0.29 1.5
g + .. -cl<. '" 1,°3 ')..2 '.

-
Pipe Inside Diameter dS GJs rate
IMI NB kmJ, d m/h
,
12 1.04 1.2~ 0.28
15 1.3 3.713 0.49
18 1.6 10.43 0.82,(
22 1.96 28.93 1.37
28 2.56 109.95 2.56
~ 3rd step

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Mec!:'lanica.l

to Swimmi~ Pools & Boile~s

ie design of a sw i.rnm i ng pco i Lnvo l ves :::'e =-:'::~.:. :2:;::;_;:'::':' 2.:-:: '. engineering aspects.

~!:,~

'",The architectural aspects are

::",i "a J shape of poo 1

'b) ·'·dimensions of the pool including tr.e vc:':'i,',f de~t c) accessories such as ladders, under~a~er lig~[5 erc,

The engineering aspects are

a) Civil & Structural design of the peol

b). M.echanical & Electr.ical design of the c i r-cu Lat i on sys t eo and accessories for cleaning and ma i n t er.ance

We shall only be. concerned with the i·1ech2. r ri caI 2..'10 e Lec t.r i.ca.l aspects of the design.

Some"general shapes of swimming pools are

:~:1i!~ __ .~.~ .. __ a)Ui{~rectana:l!l ar b);1 sguare"

c}<;! kidney

The depth of a swimming pool generally varies from 3'0" to 12'Ort,

1.2 Pool Circulation System

The pool circulation system maintains a constant circulation and turnover of water in the pool thereby minimizing contamination of the water. The water is filtered, chemically treated ar.d

pumped into the pool thr'ough inlet nozzles and returned back to the pool through ove.rflow channels or skimmer-s .

These systems are shown in the following figures:a) Skimmer System

PIPING

FILTER

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~'*TWI. -=::'-r-f~~"'~~~~~'

. . ~~'t&::J~'7

~. ,irt'1;~ ~ ~

._. 2··t6~~r:hbC-Char.nel System

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PI?ING

, ;/~

. : :.:.-~~ CHLORINATOR r-IJ:_=_=_=>-=_=_=~=_=_::! -=~=~_:...=~=-=-!=s _==.~_=- =5=- =i'_=_~:t -

/ 71

/

/

PUMP

. ,

The §kimmer system is used for smaller pools while the overflow &hannel system is used for larger pools. In both systems, the

pump is con t Lnuous Ly pumping water into the pool( after chlorination

..

and filtering) through the inlets a~d the water is collected by

the skimmer or the overflow channel 2nd balancing tank and sucked back to the pump·suction.

A make-up tank is normally provided(not shown in above figures) to replenish the water in the pool lost by· evaporation and spillage.

1.3 Basic Design Calculations

1 .3.1 Tu.rnover time

The turnover time in hours is the time required to completely replace the water in the pool. It is used to calculate the circulation pump flowrate. In general, turnover time is usually 6 to 8 hours_

ego A pool measures 30 ft. by 50 ft. and varies in depth from 3'0" to 8'0", Calculate the poop flowrate if the turnover is 8 hours.

Solution:- Volume of water = 1/2(8+3)50 x 30

= 8250 cu.ft.x 6.23 = 51391.5 gallon

Pump flowrate

51397.5 8 x 60

= 107.1 1 gpm

.- 2- -

: 1 I , !

of make-up ta::k

J .--~--~~--------~-----

:. :~~-:~.' . -. -

~~ivThe capacity of the mE~e-up tE~~ ~s :~:=~lac2~ from the esci~~:ed

loss of wate~ by evapc~3tion 2r~ S;: __ 2ge.

'-»:~:,,,,,~,eg.· In the example accve , if t r e ::'.-a:::r2.:iOri our:ng t he :=-~: ~s 1 inch, calculate the capac ; ::: c:' ::lake-u: t ank r-equir ec .

Solution

Area of peal = ]0 x -

=

. " ,~.

, " ,~< Capac i ty of make-up ta .. k

= Vo~. c~ ~Ete~ lost = 15(0 x :!~2 x 6.23 = 77'5..3 ga.:.s.

~. 'Area of filter

r:.~' '"" •. ~", -

~:r'~ .. :.,f', ~?:e,

; ~~_:- ._.:~i!'"'-··

-;~: Either cartridge filters or rapis s aric filters are used. The

total filter area is estimated f rcra ~r.2 f i l t er-Lng rate required.

ego

If the pump flowrate 4 19pm per sq.ft. of total filter area

107. 1 v 4

= 26.8 sq , ft.

is 107.1 le~c end filtering rEte of filter area ~s required, then the

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2,. Boilers
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2. 1 General Boilers are 'large pressure vessels used to product high temperature and pressure steam or hot water. They are normally required in hot water supply systems .cr ir>.stallations requiring high temperature ~d pressure steam such-as palm oil mills.

2.2 Construction of 80iler

The figure below shows the basic construction of a steam boiler:-

Gauges Steam Main .

+

Flue Gas Out

Steam Burner

r:

r:

r:

.-~-=-"".::>-

'----/ Combus tion Chamber

I

---f !

-:_-~

Water

Oil or gas is fed to the burner which burns the fuel inside the combustion chamber-Lor- flame chamber). Water inside the outer

chamber surrounding the flame chamber is then heated up until. it boils and changes into steam which is di.stributed by the steam main.

The f!l;l:le gas produced by combustion of the fuel is fed into tubes, commonly known as fi're tubes, and this tubes are passed several times round the water chamber in order that heat f.rom the hot flue gas

can be tapped off. The flue gas then flows out of the boiler through a chimney.

(See Figure .A - Fire Tube Boilers)

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FIGURE A - FIRE TUBE BOILERS

Another type of boiler called the water tube boiler has the water flowing inside the tubes and the gas outsid.e in the chamber.

2:3 ~,yout or Boiler installation

A typical layout of boiler installation is as f'o l Lo v ls:-

Daily Fuel Oil Tank

Steam Outlet

Boiler

Fuel Supply Pipe

'----@-!

Feed water Pump

Feed Iota ter Tank

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Cold Water

Supply

Softener