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MIMO SYSTEMS

Multi-input Multi-Output Systems


(MIMO)

02/04/2010 CAB 4523 – Multivariable Process Control 1


Objectives

End of the chapter, you should be able to


explain
MIMO SYSTEMS

• MIMO systems - Definitions


• Process Interactions
• Multiloop control
• Control loop interaction
• Stability considerations

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Introduction

• In many practical control problems typically a


number of variables must be controlled, and a
number of variables can be manipulated
MIMO SYSTEMS

• These problems are referred to as multiple-input,


multiple-output (MIMO) control processes
• For almost all important processes, at least two
variables must be controlled:
• Product quality
• Throughput

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Physical examples
MIMO SYSTEMS

• Note "process
interactions"
between controlled
and manipulated
variables.
• Each manipulated
variable can affect
both controlled
variables.

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In-line blending system

• Two streams containing species A and B,


MIMO SYSTEMS

respectively, are to be blended to produce a


product stream with the mass flow rate w and
composition x, the mass fraction of A

• Adjusting either manipulated flow rate, wA or wB,


affect both w and x .

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The distillation column

• Adjusting either reflux flow rate R or steam flow rate S


MIMO SYSTEMS

will affect both distillate composition xD and bottoms


composition xB

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The gas-liquid separator

• Adjusting gas flow rate G will have a direct effect on


pressure P and a slower, indirect effect on liquid level
h because changing the pressure in the vessel will
MIMO SYSTEMS

tend to change the liquid flow rate L and this affect h


• In contrast, adjusting the manipulated variable L
directly affects h but has only a relatively small and
indirect effect on P

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Process Interactions

• When significant process interactions are


present, the selection of most effective
configuration may not be obvious
MIMO SYSTEMS

• In the blending problem, suppose that a


conventional feedback control strategy,
consisting of two PI controllers, is to be used
• This control system is referred to as multiloop
control system because it employs two single
loop feedback controllers

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Questions that arise

• Should the composition controller adjust wA, and


the flow controller adjust wB, or vice versa?
MIMO SYSTEMS

• How can we determine which of these two


multiloop control configurations will be more
effective?

• Will control loop interactions generated by the


process interactions cause problems?

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MIMO Control
MIMO SYSTEMS

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Definitions
• Multiloop control: Each manipulated variable
depends on only a single controlled variable, i.e., a
set of conventional feedback controllers
MIMO SYSTEMS

• Multivariable Control: Each manipulated variable


can depend on two or more of the controlled
variables
– Examples: decoupling control, model predictive
control

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Definitions

• In this chapter we will be concerned with


characterizing process interactions and selecting
MIMO SYSTEMS

an appropriate multiloop control configuration


• If process interactions are significant, even the best
multiloop control system may not provide
satisfactory control
• In these situations there are incentives for
considering multivariable control strategies

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Multiloop Control Strategy

• Typical industrial approach


• Consists of using n standard FB controllers (e.g.
PID), one for each controlled variable
MIMO SYSTEMS

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Control system design

1. Select controlled and manipulated variables


MIMO SYSTEMS

2. Select pairing of controlled and manipulated


variables
3. Specify types of FB controllers

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Control system design - Example: 2 x 2
system
MIMO SYSTEMS

Two possible controller pairings:


U1 with Y1, U2 with Y2 …or
U1 with Y2, U2 with Y1

Note: For n x n system, n! possible pairing configurations

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Block diagram analysis
Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)

Two controlled variables and two manipulated


variables - 4 transfer functions required
MIMO SYSTEMS

Y1 ( s) Y1 ( s)
GP11( s), GP12 ( s)
U1 ( s ) U 2 ( s)
Y2 ( s) Y2 ( s)
GP 21( s), GP 22 ( s)
U1 ( s ) U 2 ( s)

Thus, the input-output relations for the process can


be written as
Y1 ( s ) GP11( s )U1 ( s ) GP12 ( s )U 2 ( s )
Y2 ( s ) GP 21( s )U1 ( s ) GP 22 ( s )U 2 ( s )

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Block diagram analysis
Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)

Or in vector-matrix notation as
MIMO SYSTEMS

Y ( s ) GP ( s )U ( s )

where Y(s) and U(s) are vectors

Y1 ( s ) U1 ( s)
Y (s) , U ( s)
Y2 ( s ) U 2 (s)

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Block diagram analysis
Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)
• Suppose that a conventional multiloop control
scheme consisting of two FB controllers is to be used
MIMO SYSTEMS

• The two possible control configurations are shown in


Fig. 18.3
• Note that the transfer functions for the FCE’s and the
sensor transmitters have been omitted for simplicity.
Also the disturbance variables are omitted

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MIMO SYSTEMS

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Block diagram analysis
Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)

Note:
MIMO SYSTEMS

• A change in U1 has two effects on Y1


• a direct effect
• an indirect effect via the control loop interactions

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Control-loop interactions
• Process interactions may induce undesirable
interactions between two or more control loops
Example: 2 x 2 system
MIMO SYSTEMS

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Control-loop interactions

• Control loop interactions are due to the


presence of a third feedback loop
MIMO SYSTEMS

• For the 1-1/2-2 configuration, this hidden


feedback loop contains G c1 , Gc 2 , G p12 and G p 21, as
shown in Fig. 18.4
• Problems arising from the control loop
interactions are
• Closed -loop system may become
destabilized
• Controller tuning becomes more difficult
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Block diagram analysis
Example

For the multi-loop control configuration the transfer


function between a controlled and a manipulated variable
MIMO SYSTEMS

depends on whether the other feedback control loops are


open or closed!
Example: 2 x 2 system, 1-1/2 -2 pairing
From block diagram algebra we can show
Y1 ( s )
U1 ( s)
GP11( s ), (second loop open)
If both loops are closed, then the contributions from the
two loops are added together:
Y1 G p11U 1 G p12U 2

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Block diagram analysis
Example
If the second feedback controller is in the automatic
mode with Y2sp 0 , then
G p 21U 1
MIMO SYSTEMS

Y2
1 Gc 2 G p 22

The signal to the first loop from the second loop is


G p12U 2 G p12G c 2 Y2

Substituting the above two equations, we get


Y1 ( s ) GP12GP 21GC 2
GP11 (second loop closed)
U1 ( s) 1 GC 2GP 22

Note that the last expression contains G c 2 .

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Example - Wood and Berry pilot-scale
distillation column

The empirical model of the system is given by

12.8e s 18.9e 3s
MIMO SYSTEMS

X D ( s) 16.7 s 1 21s 1 R( s)

X B ( s) 6.6e 7 s 19.4e 3s S ( s)
10.9s 1 14.4s 1

Controller pairing: xD – R and xB – S


PI controllers designed based on ITAE tuning method
for set point changes are used.

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Example - Wood and Berry pilot-scale
distillation column
MIMO SYSTEMS

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Closed-loop Stability

• Let us evaluate the effect of control loop interactions.


Example: 2 x 2 system, 1-1/2 -2 pairing
• The expressions relating the controlled variables and
MIMO SYSTEMS

set points are


Y1 ( s ) 11 ( s )Ysp1 ( s ) 12 ( s )Ysp 2 ( s )
Y2 ( s ) 21 ( s )Ysp1 ( s ) 22 ( s )Ysp 2 ( s )

where the closed-loop transfer functions are:


G c1G p11 G c1G c 2 (G p11G p 22 G p12 G p 21 ) G c 2 G p12 G c1G p 21
12 21
11
(s) (s) ( s)

G c 2 G p 22 G c1G c 2 (G p11G p 22 G p12 G p 21 )


22
( s)

(s) (1 Gc1G p11 )(1 Gc 2 G p 22 ) Gc1Gc 2 G p12G p 21

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Closed-loop Stability
Important conclusions:
• A set point change in one loop causes both
controlled variable to change
MIMO SYSTEMS

• The stability of the systems depends on the stability


of the characteristic equation
(1 Gc1G p11 )(1 Gc 2 G p 22 ) Gc1Gc 2 G p12G p 21 0

• Thus, the stability of the system depends on both


controllers and all four transfer functions

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Closed-loop Stability

Special Case:
• Either G p12 0 or G p 21 0
MIMO SYSTEMS

• The characteristic equation reduces to


(1 Gc1G p11 )(1 Gc 2 G p 22 ) 0

• The stability of the closed loop system merely


depends on the stability of the two individual feedback
control loops and their characteristic equations
(1 Gc1G p11 ) 0 (1 Gc 2 G p 22 ) 0

• Either G p12 0 or G p 21 0, the third FB control loop is broken

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Conclusions

You have learnt:


• MIMO Systems
MIMO SYSTEMS

• Process interactions
• Control loop interactions
• Block diagram analysis
• Stability

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