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□ By manipulating the visual stimuli, we can manipulate the likelihood factor

and try to observe what kind of visual input makes it more probable that the
camouflaged object is present rather than absent

□ Possible experiment idea ---> manipulation (no grey dots)

Propositions requiring empirical justification

Since no contours are perceived when one of the grey dots appears slightly outside of the
rectangle, it can be concluded that the grey dots alone do not suffice for the perception of
○ Do the grey circles alone suffice for contours?
 Prediction: no
Test ---> 5 trials with the grey discs completely taken away with everything else

It is likely that discs alone would not suffice for contours and that it is necessary to have the
vertical dot pair move outwards in order for the contours to be perceived
- Because without the small circles, the visual system can easily infer that the occlusion is taking
place because the grey circles are blocking it from the observer but the appearance of the small
circles brings in a new element that might lead to the perception of the contours
○ Do the contours still appear even if the small circles are not present?
○ Prediction: no
Test ---> 5 trials with the small circles missing

Also ---> as soon as the grey dot pairs (horizontal and vertical) leave the rectangle, the discs
occlude the sides and this occluding is simultaneous with the grey dots leaving the rectangle
The visual system might attribute the occlusion to the smaller dots instead of the discs --->
- Probably due to the cues given by the small circles (to be shortly discussed)

Do the contours still appear if the movement of the small circles does not correspond with
the occlusion done by the grey discs?

Test ---> 5 trials where the small circles leave the triangle when no occluding is taking
place (grey discs)

- If the predictions are confirmed ---> Then discs and small circles are necessary yet neither alone
sufficient for the illusory contours to be perceived
– The discs occlude while the small circles represent the
object to which the occlusion is attributed

We need some more answers!!! --- then…

- We need to test the hypothesized heuristics responsible for the grouping of the four circles

○ Although this theoretically creates four separate groups of entities, it is probable that the
similarity and proximity cues are grouping the four grey discs and four small circles together.
- Similarity

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- Similarity
- If objects look similar, they are grouped together
- The four grey discs look alike and can therefore be grouped together in that
respect, and the four small circles look alike and can therefore be grouped
together in that respect
 Moreover ---> the four small circles have the same velocity and it is
slightly faster than the velocity at which the grey discs move --- providing
further separation and grouping

Test ---> Colour match one pair of grey discs with one pair of small circles and
vice versa (5 trials)
 Prediction: Disc/circle similarity should reduce the intensity of the
contours because the similarity heuristic would work against the grouping
of the small circles to some degree

- Proximity
- Closer objects are grouped together
- The four small circles are much closer together than the four grey discs, which
leads to the grouping of the four circles
 What's happening to the grey discs?
◊ It is indeed likely that this cue is working against their being
grouped together as a single object, given their distance from one

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