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ATM Networks


Submitted to:
Mr. Shivam
Submitted By:


Q1. What is VC temporal connectivity? Could a VC be connected:

a) Permanently? b) Dynamically on a per-call basis?
Ans1. A real time VC is established through a variable number of VPs. Subject to the VP’s
having adequate bandwidth to fulfill the temporal QoS requirement of the VC. Upon receipt of
call setup request for a VC, the control intelligence in the source node must find VC route that
can meet the end-to-end delay requirement while not jeopardizing any of the existing guarantees
to other established VCs that also use some of the VPs on the route.
VCs are established/terminated dynamically with time and since the number of all possible
routes between a given pair of source/destination nodes may be very large, it is difficult, if not
impossible, to find an optimal VC route which satisfies the above criteria and, at the same time,
minimizes the call blocking probability for future call setup requests.

Q2. Why is there 3-way Handshaking in establishment of a point-to-point SVC in ATM

while call release involves 2-way Handshaking?
Ans2. Call establishment involves a 3-way handshake while call release involves 2-way
This difference in both the situation is attributed to the fact that in 3-way handshaking:
• It is required for proper parameter negotiation.
• Since the traffic-contracting phase in ATM warrants proper parameter negotiation, a three
way handshake for call establishment is justified.
For call release, the 2-way handshake is involved for two reasons:
• First, releasing a call requires no negotiation, and hence a 2-way handshake is optimal.
• Second, it is mandatory on the part of an end system to clear a call on receiving a call-
clearing message.
Thus a very few option s are available to an end system than to accept a release request
and clear the call.

Q3. How a party is added and dropped in a Point-to-Multipoint connection?

Ans3. Point to multipoint call establishment is same as point to point signaling procedures. Once
a point to multipoint call is established, subsequent parties are added to the root using the ADD
PARTY message.
During the connection establishment phase, the connection parameters are fixed by the root and
the first party.
Adding party to point-to-multipoint connection:
 The root sends an ADD PARTY message towards the N-UNI.
 N-UNI forwards this ADD PARTY message to the leaf.
(This message is converted into a SETUP message by the N-UNI at the leaf side before
forwarding it towards the leaf. It is done to allow the leaf to be a part of point-to-
multipoint call even if it cannot support Q.2971 procedures.)
 The leaf responds to this SETUP message by sending CALL PROCEEDING,
ALERTING and CONNECT messages in that order but not necessarily all.
 ALERTING and CONNECT, both are sent back except CALL PROCEEDING.
 In response to CONNECT message, the N-UNI sends a CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE
message to acknowledge the successful addition of the leaf.
 The N-UNI at the root side converts ALERTING into PART ALERTING and
CONNECT into ADD PARTY ACKNOWLDEGE before forwarding it to root.
 After receiving the ADD APRT ACKNOWLEDGE the procedure is complete and the
leaf becomes the part of the point-to-multipoint call.

Dropping a party from point-to-multipoint connection:

Leaves can be dropped either by the root or by the leaves themselves
 If a root wants to drop a leaf,
• It sends a DROP PARTY message towards the concerned leaf.
• The N-UNI on receiving this DROP PARTY message, responds back with a
DROP PARTY ACKNOWLEDGE message after freeing its resources for that
• N-UNI also forwards DROP PARTY message, towards the leaf.
• At the leaf side, the N-UNI converts the DROP PARTY message into a
RELEASE message and forwards it to the leaf.
• Leaf responds with a RELEASE COMPLETE message and frees its resources.


Q4. Discuss the meanings of IDI and of the DSP if AFI = (39, 47 or 45).
Ans4. AESA format is based on the generic Network Service Access Point format.
An NSAP address is divided into two parts
a) Initial Domain Part (IDP): It identifies a particular network-addressing domain that is a
part of global network-addressing domain.
It is divided into two parts:
i) Authority and Format Identifier (AFI): It specifies the authority controlling the
IDI and the format of IDI.
ii) Initial Domain Identifier (IDI): It specifies the controlling the assignment of the
domain specific part.
b) Domain Specific Part (DSP): The meaning and format of DSP is controlled by the
authority that is specified by the IDI field.
In ATM, the generic NSAP format is of 20 octets in length. Four different AESA formats are
specified by the ATM forum:
i) The Data Country Code (DCC) AESA format: The DCC format has AFI=0*39
ii) The International Code Designator (ICD) AESA format: The ICD format has
iii) The E.164 AESA format: The E.164 format has AFI=0*45
iv) The Local AESA format: The Local AESA format has AFI=0*49.

Thus, AFI-45 implies that the IDI is based on the E.164 address format.
ASI=47 implies that the IDI is based on the ICD format.
ASI=39 implies that the IDI is based on the ACC format.

Q5. What are the three functions with the help of which Routing is accomplished? Discuss
Address summarization.
Ans6. The three functions to accomplish routing are:
1) Initialization
2) Database synchronization
3) Address Summarization

Address Summarization:
Address summarization is the process of using a single reachable address prefix to represent a
collection of end system systems and/or node address that begin with the same prefix.
For example: If M.N.1 and M.N.2 are two address prefixes reachable via a given node, the
summarized address is M.N.
This example implies that in order to achieve address summarization, the higher order bits of the
summarized address must be the same. To ensure this, there must exist an order in which the
address are distributed i.e. the distribution must not be random.

Features of Address Summarization:

 Address summarization also makes network management easier because you do not need
to manually enter every AESA into the source nodes.
 Instead, you define a PNNI address prefix, which summarizes all destinations that share
that prefix.
 Address summarization does not preclude the use of non-conforming addresses. For
example, if network management dictates the use of a specific non-conforming ATM
address for a destination, that address can be manually entered at the switch, and PNNI
will advertise a route to that device.
 The non-conforming address is called a foreign address. The support of foreign addresses
makes PNNI more flexible, but keep in mind that excessive use of foreign addresses does
impact switch performance.
When a call is placed to a destination address, PNNI refers to the destination addresses and
prefixes in the routing tables or topology database. After the best route is chosen to the
destination switch, the destination switch selects the appropriate destination interface by
searching internal address tables for the longest prefix match.
When a switch and its interfaces are configured with prefixes that enable PNNI to quickly locate
the destination interface, PNNI routing is most efficient.

Important thing to be kept in mind:

 Although address summarization does make network management easier and routing
more efficient, it can be misused and make PNNI routing less efficient.
• Consider the case where the same address prefix is assigned to multiple nodes.
This is a valid configuration, but it can lead PNNI to unnecessarily reroute
connections as it attempts to locate the correct node.
A better design would use the longest possible prefix to represent all the interfaces on a node,
and then a longer prefix on each interface that uniquely defines each interface.

Q6. What are various Security management functions done in OSI Management
Ans6. The security management functions in OSI management framework

1. Authorization: Authorization is finding out if the party, once identified, is permitted to

have the resource. This is usually determined by finding out if that party is a part of a
particular group, if that party has paid admission, or has a particular level of security
2. Authentication: Authentication is any process by which you verify that the party is who
they claim they are. This usually involves a username and a password, but can include
any other method of demonstrating identity, such as a smart card, retina scan, voice
recognition, or fingerprints.
3. Access Control: Access control is a much more general way of talking about controlling
access to a web resource. Access can be granted or denied based on a wide variety of
criteria, such as the network address of the client, the time of day, the phase of the moon,
or the browser which the visitor is using.

Various other security management functions can be as follows:

1. Fault: The goal of fault management is to recognize, isolate, correct and log faults that
occur in the network. Fault management is concerned with detecting network faults,
logging this information, contacting the appropriate person, and ultimately fixing a
problem. Errors primarily occur in the areas of fault management and configuration
management. A common fault management technique is to implement an SNMP based
network management system.
2. Configuration: The goals of configuration management are to gather/set/track
configurations of the devices. Configuration management is concerned with monitoring
system configuration information, and any changes that take place. This area is especially
important, since many network issues arise as a direct result of changes made to
configuration files, updated software versions, or changes to system hardware. A proper
configuration management strategy involves tracking all changes made to network
hardware and software. Examples include altering the running configuration of a device,
updating the IOS version of a router or switch, or adding a new modular interface card.

3. Performance: The goal is to both prepare the network for the future, as well as to
determine the efficiency of the current network. Performance management is focused on
ensuring that network performance remains at acceptable levels. This area is concerned
with gathering regular network performance data such as network response times, packet
loss rates, link utilization, and so forth. This information is usually gathered through the
implementation of an SNMP management system, either actively monitored, or
configured to alert administrators when performance move above or below predefined

4. Security: The goal of security management is to control access to assets in the network.
It uses firewalls to monitor and control external access points to one's network. Security
management is not only concerned with ensuring that a network environment is secure,
but also that gathered security-related information is analyzed regularly. Security
management functions include managing network authentication, authorization, and
auditing, such that both internal and external users only have access to appropriate
network resources. Other common tasks include the configuration and management of
network firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and security policies such as access lists.

5. Accounting: The goal is to gather usage statistics for users. Accounting management is
concerned with tracking network utilization information, such that individual users,
departments, or business units can be appropriately billed or charged for accounting