Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

57 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- 6. Gas Turbine Power Plant
- COMPRESOR CATERPILLAR
- Sullair
- EKOM DK 50 DM
- GAS TURBINE START-UP.ppt
- MANUAL DE GENERADORES DE GAS SOLAR
- Api standards.pdf
- BS_EN_ISO_10628_2_2012.pdf
- 318uk06_17 Vito 72 dpi.pdf
- Process Compressors en 2013
- Me 2403 Power Plant Engineering - Iat - 2
- Fuel Superheating Paper
- Shell Corena SP150
- Utility Comnparison
- SCR-UK-Oil-Injected-Belt-Drive-Compressors.pdf
- Copelametic Tandem Compressors
- 0995402
- ASME2003_Station_38019 (1)
- DESIGN AND MODELING OF AXIAL MICRO GAS TURBINE
- Performance of jet engines

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Sanjay, Mukul Agarwal, Rajay

Abstract-- In this work the energy and exergy analysis of a hybrid turbines has improved the efficiency of the simple-cycle

operation more than 40%. Thermodynamic cycle

gas turbine cycle has been presented. The thermodynamic developments, such as recuperation, mixed air steam

characteristic of Brayton-diesel cycle is considered in order to turbines (MAST) are among the possible ways to improve

establish its importance to future power generation markets.

the performance of gas turbine based power plants at

feasible costs. Significant work in the field of advanced gas

Mathematical modeling of Brayton-diesel cycle has been done at turbine based cycles has been done by Abdallah, H. and

component level. Based on mathematical modeling, a computer code Harvey, S [1], Alabdoadaim, M et.al [2], Arrieta, F. R. P

[3], Yadav R [4], Bianchi, M [5] , Chiesa. et al.[6] ,

has been developed and the configuration has been subjected to

Gabbrielli [7], Jonsson [8], Kuchonthara [9],

thermodynamic analysis. Results show that, at any turbine inlet Heppenstall[10], Horlock [11], Waldyr [12], Lukas [13],

temperature (TIT) the plant specific work initially increases with Poullikkas, A [14], etc. After reviewing recent technical

papers by leading researchers Brayton-diesel cycle has been

increase of pressure ratio (rp,c), and but at very high values of rp,c, it

identified for detailed study.

starts decreasing. For a fixed value of rp,c (more than 10) with the

increase in TIT, plant efficiency and specific work both increase. II. NOMENCLATURE

The cycle is best suited for applications where power requirement

cp = specific heat…………..(kJ-kg-1.K-1)

ranges between 700-900 kJ/kg. The exergy analysis shows that gt = gas turbine

maximum exergy loss of around 27% occurs in during combustion h = specific enthalpy………(kJ.kg-1)

in the plant. ΔH r = lower heating value……(kJ.kg-1K-1)

Index Terms— Diesel cycle, exergy, exergy loss, gas turbine cycle, m = mass flow rate……….. (kg.s-1)

hybrid. Q = heat added/ removed during process

I. INTRODUCTION rp = cycle pressure ratio

p = pressure………………..(bar)

With the increasing population of the world, the energy T = temperature……………(K)

consumption will increase rapidly. While as the fossil fuels are TIT = turbine inlet temperature (K) = combustor exit

depleting and one can imagine the future energy crisis unless temperature

some alternate cheap energy resources are developed. The W = specific work………(kJ.kg-1)

increasing energy demand and depletion of fossil fuel resources

inevitably necessitate for the optimum utilization of exhaustible Greek symbols

fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resources. In this effort, a

hybrid gas turbine based power cycle has been conceived for ε = effectiveness ………..(%)

achieving maximum utilisation of thermal energy associated with η = efficiency………………(%)

the gas turbine exhaust. γ = ratio of specific heat at constant pressure and

constant volume

In regard to the simple-cycle gas turbine technology, the υ = specific volume ………(m3kg-1)

major driver to enhance the engine performance has been the

increase in process conditions (temperature and pressure) through Subscripts

advancements in materials and cooling methods. On-going

development and near term introduction of advanced gas a = air , ambient

b = blade

Dr. Sanjay . is with the National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur

c = compressor, coolant,

INDIA in the Mech. Engg. Deptt. (phone: +91-657-2373813; fax: +91-

657-2373813; e-mail: nit.sanjay@gmail.com ). C = compression (Diesel Cycle)

Mukul Agarwal, is with the Tata Consultancy Services, INDIA(e-mail: comb = combustor

mukul.agarwal@tcs.com). dc = diesel cycle

Rajay, is with the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. At Haridwar, INDIA as

Senior Engineer (email: rajay.bhel@gmail.com )

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II

WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

Combustion

chamber Fuel

Compressor

Alternator

Turbine

Air inlet

Exhaust

Heat

exchanger

Diesel engine

Alternator

e = exit

E = expansion (Diesel Cycle) The configuration identified for parametric study is built up

f = fuel of various types of components. Preheating of the inlet air

g = gas of a diesel engine can sufficiently improve its performance.

gen = alternator The gas turbine exhaust can be applied in order to increase

gt = gas turbine the temperature of the air, which is extracted from the

he = heat exchanger compressor and fed into the diesel engine. Subsequently,

i = inlet, stage of compressor the engine outlet flow expands through the low-pressure

in = inlet stage of the gas turbine as illustrated in Fig. 1. Main

j = coolant bleed points components of this cycle are gas turbine, gas-to-gas heat

net = difference between two values exchanger and diesel engine. The turbine exhaust is used to

p = pressure heat up the air bled from the compressor, which goes into

plant = brayton-diesel cycle plant diesel engine for further power generation. Modeling of all

z = cooled row stage these components/elements that constitute the cycle

configuration has been done. Modeling of these

Acronym components are based on mass and energy balance across

the control volume boundary of each of these components.

C = Compressor Modeling the various elements of a cycle and derived

CC = Combustion chamber governing equations is detailed in the following section.

GT = Gas turbine

A. Modeling of Components

compressor, combustor, and cooled gas turbine has been

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II

WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

V4

important equations of the model.

Expansion ratio, re = (7)

T

V3

Enthalpy of air/gas, h = ∫ c p (T ) dt (1)

V

rc = 3

To

Compressor work, Wc = Cut –off ratio, (8)

m e he + (∑ mc , j hc , j − m c ,i hc ,i ) + m dc hdc

V2

(2)

It is seen that rk=re.rc (9)

Energy balance of combustor :

m f .ΔH rη comb = (m g ,e hg ,e − m a.in ha.in ) comb (3) γ −1

T4 ⎡ V3 ⎤ 1

The gas turbine work is the sum of the work done by all rows of

Process 3-4 =⎢ ⎥ = γ −1 (10)

bladings having open loop air-cooled blades. T3 ⎣V4 ⎦ re

W gt

= Σm g.i (hg.az − hg.bz ) cooled + Σm g.i (hg.i − hg.e ) uncooled

(4) T2 p 2V2 V2 1

where ‘cooled’ and ‘uncooled’ in the equation represent rows of Process 2-3 = = = (11)

blade requiring cooling and rows of blade not requiring cooling. T3 p3V3 V3 rc

Heat exchanger is used to transfer heat from the heated stream to

the colder stream flowing through it. The energy balance γ −1

equation of heat exchanger gives: T1 ⎡V2 ⎤ 1

Process 1-2 =⎢ ⎥ =

[ ] [ ]

γ −1

m h ⋅ c p ,h ⋅ ε he (The,h )i − (The,h )e = m c ⋅ c p ,c ⋅ (The,c )i − (The,c )e T2 ⎣ V1 ⎦ rk

(5) So

where ‘h’ stand for hot stream and ‘c’ stands for colder stream. 1 T3 1

T1 = T2 . γ −1

= . (12)

B. Diesel Engine Cycle rk rc rk γ −1

Diesel engine works on diesel cycle comprises of two isentropic,

As we know that

one isochoric and one isobaric process. For 1 kg of air in the

cylinder, the efficiency analysis of the cycle can be made as Thermal efficiency

given below. Q2 m ⋅ cv (T4 − T1 ) T −T

The efficiency may be expressed in terms of any two of the η = 1− = 1− = 1− 4 1

following three ratios

Q1 m ⋅ cP (T3 − T2 ) γ (T3 − T2 )

(13)

(10) in (13)

γ

T

V=c

1 r −1

1

WE η Diesel = 1 − . γ −1 . c (14)

Q1 γ rk rc − 1

WC

Q2

For predicting the performance of the Brayton-diesel-cycle,

a computer code based on the modeling of various cycle

components discussed in the previous section has been

developed.

s

For predicting the performance of the Brayton-diesel-cycle,

Fig. 2. T-s representation of ideal Diesel cycle mathematical modeling of various cycle components has

been discussed in previous section. Based on this modeling

a computer code in C++ language has been developed.

V1 Results have been obtained for input data listed in Table I.

Compression ratio, rk = (6) and the results obtained have been plotted using graphic

V2 package ORIGIN 6.0. Based on results of exergy analysis, a

Sankey diagram has been drawn for the cycle. The exergy

distribution quantifies the losses in various elements of the

cycle. The results (Design Monograms and Sankey

diagrams) have been discussed.

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II

WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

830

Component Parameters 825

Gas property cp= f(T)

820

Enthalpy h= ∫ cp(T) dT

Ambient condition Ta=288K 815

Inlet section ∆ploss=1 percent of entry 800

pressure 795

Compressor Isentropic efficiency (ηc)=86%

790

Mechanical efficiency

(ηm)=98% 785

ηcc=98% 775

(LCV)f=42000 kJ/kg 0 10 20 30 40 50

Cycle pressure ratio

Fuel inlet pressure = 110% of

Fig. 4. Effect of rp,c on plant specific work at TIT=1500K

compressor exit pressure

Gas turbine Isentropic efficiency (ηt)=86%

Mechanical .

efficiency(ηm)=98%

Exhaust pressure=1.08 bar 45

Heat exchanger ∆ploss=2% of entry pressure

Effectiveness(εrec)=92%

Temperature gain in Heat

Overall plant efficiency, %

44

exchanger=100K

Diesel engine Compression ratio=5 43

Cut off ratio=2.5

Alternator Efficiency (ηalt)=98.5%

42

41

45.0 4540

3530

44.5

25

40

Overall plant effeciency (%)

44.0 20 0 10 20 30 40 50

Cycle Pressure ratio

43.5 15 Fig. 5 Effect of rp,c on plant efficiency at TIT=1500K

43.0

42.5

10

Results show that at TIT less than 1600K and upto rp,c=15,

00K

42.0

the specific work increases with increase in rp,c. At values

=14

1500

41.5

TIT

TIT, till value of rp,c is less than 20, beyond which specific

1600

K

1700

41.0

1800

40.5 plant efficiency increases with increase in rp,c upto a certain

40.0 rpc=5

value, when after the plant efficiency curve loops back.

This design monogram can be used to select the operating

39.5 parameters for the brayton-diesel cycle plant depending on

740 760 780 800

Specific work(kJ/kg)

820 840 860 880

required plant capacity.

Fig. 3. Influence of TIT and rp,c on plant efficiency Most of the gas turbines today operate at a TIT of 1500K,

and specific work Brayton-Diesel cycle hence performance of the configuration at this value of TIT

is shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. Fig. 4 shows the effect of

pressure ratio on plant specific work for the configuration.

Fig. 3. shows the variation of specific work and plant efficiency The graph shows the range of pressure ratio over which the

with pressure ratio (rp,c) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). cycle can operates and also the optimized value of specific

work for the selected TIT. Fig. 5 shows the effect of

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II

WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

graph shows the range of pressure ratio over which the

cycle operates and also the optimized value of plant The brayton-diesel cycle is a gas turbine hybrid cycle and

efficiency for the selected TIT. its thermodynamic analysis has been carried out to ascertain

Fig. 6. shows the exergy flow at rp,c =25 and TIT=1700K its potential as a energy conversion system. From the

among various components of the configuration. Diesel analysis following conclusions can be drawn:

engine has the exergy of about 52.4% while gas turbine 1) Brayton-Diesel cycle provides the maximum

exergy is about 8.55% because the bleeding from the available energy (about 60%)

compressor has been done at 5 bar, so mass flow of 2) Braton-Diesel cycle gives maximum work output

working fluid through the diesel engine is very large in between 840-875 kJ/kg.

comparison of gas turbine. Exergy loss in combustion Thus the cycle is found to be useful as a energy conversion

chamber of Brayton cycle is about 3.10%, because in cycle and performance in the above mentioned range.

turbine working fluid handled is lesser than in Diesel

engine. Also the combustion process in Diesel engine

exhibits an exergy loss of about 22.70%. This configuration

has lower exhaust gas exergy loss (about 2.33%), because

the exhaust gas heat has been recovered considerably well

in the heat exchanger at the exit of turbine. Unaccounted

exergy losses are about 4.61%.

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II

WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

1. Abdallah, H. and Harvey, S.,( 2001) “Thermodynamic and cycle design,” EPRI Report AP-4450, Research

analysis of chemically recuperated gas turbines,” Int. J. Project 2620-2, February 1986.

Therm. Sci. Vol 40, pp. 372-384. 14. Poullikkas, A., “An overview of current and future

2. Alabdoadaim, M. A., Agnew, B., and Potts, I., (2006) sustainable gas turbine technologies,” Renewable and

“Performance analysis of combined Brayton and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9, pp409-443, 2005

inverse Brayton cycles and developed configurations,” 15. Sanjay, Onkar Singh, B.N Prasad, 2008, “Influence of

Elsevier, Applied Thermal Engineering, 26, pp. 1448- Different Means of Turbine Blade Cooling on the

1454. Thermodynamic Performance of Combined Cycle”

3. Arrieta, F. R. P. and Lora, E. E. S.,(2005) “Influence Applied Thermal Engg.

of ambient temperature on combined cycle power plant [doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.01.022]

performance,” Applied Energy, 80, pp 261-272. 16. Y. Sanjay, Onkar Singh and B.N. Prasad, Energy and

4. R Yadav, Pawan K .Dwivedi. (2004) “Thermodynamic exergy analysis of steam cooled reheat gas–steam

evaluation of Humidified air turbine (HAT) cycles”, combined cycle, Applied Thermal Engineering 27

ASME paper No. GT2004 – 54098. (2007) 2779 -90.

5. Bianchi, M., Montenegro, G., Peretto, and Spina, P. R., [doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.03.011]

(July 2005) “A feasibility study of inverted Brayton 17. Sanjay, Onkar Singh, B.N Prasad, “Thermodynamic

cycle for gas turbine repowering,” Journal of Modeling and Simulation of Advanced Combined

Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, Vol. 127, pp. Cycle for Performance Enhancement”, Proc. IMechE

599-605. Vol. 222 Part A: J. Power and Energy,

6. Chiesa, P., Lozza, G., Macchi, E., and Consonni, S., [DOI: 10.1243/09576509JPE593]

“An assessment of the thermodynamic performance of

mixed gas-steam cycles: Part B-Water-injected and

HAT cycles,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine

and Power, Vol. 117, pp 499-508, July 1995 (ASME

Paper No. 94-GT-424).

7. Gabbrielli, R. and Singh, R, (October 2003)

“Thermodynamic performance analysis of new gas

turbine combined cycles with no emissions of carbon

dioxide,” (ASME Paper No. 2002-GT-30117), Journal

of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, Vol. 125,

pp 940-946,

8. Jonsson, M. and Yan, J., (2005) “Humidified gas

turbines – a review of proposed and implemented

cycles,” Energy, 30, pp. 1013-1078.

9. Kuchonthara, P., Bhattacharya, S., and Tsutsumi, A.,(

2003) “Combination of solid oxide fuel cell and several

enhanced gas turbine cycle,” Journal of Power Sources,

124, pp. 65-75.

10. Heppenstall, T.,( 1998) “Advanced gas turbine cycles .

for power generation: a critical review,” Applied

Thermal Engineering, 18, pp 837-846.

11. Horlock, J. H., “The evaporative gas turbine (ECT)

cycle,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-408, 1997

12. Waldyr L. R. Gallo.,”A comparison between the heat

cycle and other gas turbine based cycles: efficiency,

specific work and water consumption.

- 6. Gas Turbine Power PlantHochgeladen vonManoj Sunchauri
- COMPRESOR CATERPILLARHochgeladen vonErick Peña Gonzalez
- SullairHochgeladen vonmaocaleirl
- EKOM DK 50 DMHochgeladen vonMr.SD
- GAS TURBINE START-UP.pptHochgeladen vonHeryanto Syam
- MANUAL DE GENERADORES DE GAS SOLARHochgeladen vonJuvenal Segundo Chavez Acosta
- Api standards.pdfHochgeladen vonVarun Savani
- BS_EN_ISO_10628_2_2012.pdfHochgeladen vonGiedrius Ratautas
- 318uk06_17 Vito 72 dpi.pdfHochgeladen vonplasticos_jfm6580
- Process Compressors en 2013Hochgeladen vonsandip Thorat
- Me 2403 Power Plant Engineering - Iat - 2Hochgeladen vonBIBIN CHIDAMBARANATHAN
- Fuel Superheating PaperHochgeladen vonSDP02
- Shell Corena SP150Hochgeladen vonsteve@air-innovations.co.za
- Utility ComnparisonHochgeladen vonrohitkush
- SCR-UK-Oil-Injected-Belt-Drive-Compressors.pdfHochgeladen vonBryan Sellote
- Copelametic Tandem CompressorsHochgeladen vonjosecevmsp
- 0995402Hochgeladen vonmisho14660
- ASME2003_Station_38019 (1)Hochgeladen vondigeca
- DESIGN AND MODELING OF AXIAL MICRO GAS TURBINEHochgeladen vonEnrique Martinez
- Performance of jet enginesHochgeladen vonAhmed Hamed
- AnirbanSarkar[12_0]Hochgeladen vonvikalp shri
- CFD Analysis of Oil Flooded Twin Screw CompressorsHochgeladen vonFrancis Lin
- Lab_manual_REFRIGERATION_AIR_CONDITIONING_2161908_.pdfHochgeladen vonGetachew Tikue
- Turbine Compressor Centaur-40 Databook.pdfHochgeladen vonLenaldy Nuari Garnoko
- refHochgeladen vonzhyhh
- Gas Compressor BasicspdfHochgeladen voneducator56
- Ass,Assv,Assw,TrsHochgeladen voncassindrome
- 228 Top Compressors Gas Turbines and Jet Engines Question and AnswersHochgeladen vonKarim Mosawi
- 7a2a526c-bea2-4912-ba37-2e68f09b3295-150401120044-conversion-gate01Hochgeladen vonAnonymous NR3qZ30
- Wpoviaa 01 EnHochgeladen vonvikramchowdary

- A Biological Theory of Knowledge and Application in the Real WorldHochgeladen vonribozymes
- ECOS07_T02Hochgeladen vonSoufi Badr
- asl2017Hochgeladen vonAnonymous TX2OckgiZ
- 15-019.pdfHochgeladen vonBembi Tri Erlambang
- Energabcy and Exergy Analysis of a Steam Power Plant in JordanHochgeladen vonVikas Yadav
- JJMIE-116-09_modified Exergoeconomic Analysis for Unit Gt14 of South Tripoli Gas Turbine Power PlantHochgeladen vonElzimar Freitas
- Evaluation_of_alternatives_for_microalga.pdfHochgeladen vonIlirea
- hexano2.pdfHochgeladen vonsebasramirezt
- Thermoeconomic Evaluation of three pass fire tube industrial boilerHochgeladen vonynadeem611
- Chap_8_lecture.pptHochgeladen vonMuhammadAizat
- Absorption chiller technologiesHochgeladen vonMohamed Riyaaz
- AbstractHochgeladen vonJabin Joe
- Thermoeconomic AnalysisHochgeladen vonSantiago Del Rio Oliveira
- PM3E-SyllabusHochgeladen vonrampotayah
- Ramadan Youssef Sakr Moustafa_Lecture 3-1st-2nd Laws on CombustionHochgeladen vonAbhinash Kumar
- 0-S-PP-Chap6Hochgeladen vonAdib Nawawi
- Project [Exergy Analysis of Steam Power Plant]Hochgeladen vonShashi Bhushan Patel
- MTech Thermal SciencesHochgeladen vonHunter NoVa
- Chen 2011Hochgeladen vonSyaiful Nasution
- 3.19.1ExergyandThermodynamicAnalysis 1Hochgeladen vonlilisacas
- Application of Thermoeconomics to the Design And1983Hochgeladen vonAlvaro Ochoa
- Calculating Exergy in Flowsheeting SimulHochgeladen voncarlos alderetes
- An Exergy Analsysis of Various components Of Packaged Air Conditioining system to Improve Its Coefficient Of PerformanceHochgeladen vonIJSTE
- EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF SOLAR COOKER USING BLACK COATED AND ALUMINIUM COATED BOXHochgeladen vonAnonymous vQrJlEN
- polymers-06-00327Hochgeladen vonChemist Famsmay
- Design and Off-Design Models of a Hybrid Geothermal-solar PowerHochgeladen vonEmre Kcngl
- Development of an Integrated Hybrid Solar Thermal Power System With Thermoelectric Generator for Desalination and Power ProductionHochgeladen vonDairo Ruiz Logreira
- Towards better styrene distillation scheme.pdfHochgeladen vonAntonela Porta
- B51EQ1 - APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS ENTROPY AND AVAILABILITYHochgeladen vonRashad Bryant
- Iraqi 92990Hochgeladen vonSam Al-Mimar