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Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II

WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

Energy and Exergy Analysis of Brayton-Diesel Cycle


Sanjay, Mukul Agarwal, Rajay

Abstract-- In this work the energy and exergy analysis of a hybrid turbines has improved the efficiency of the simple-cycle
operation more than 40%. Thermodynamic cycle
gas turbine cycle has been presented. The thermodynamic developments, such as recuperation, mixed air steam
characteristic of Brayton-diesel cycle is considered in order to turbines (MAST) are among the possible ways to improve
establish its importance to future power generation markets.
the performance of gas turbine based power plants at
feasible costs. Significant work in the field of advanced gas
Mathematical modeling of Brayton-diesel cycle has been done at turbine based cycles has been done by Abdallah, H. and
component level. Based on mathematical modeling, a computer code Harvey, S [1], Alabdoadaim, M et.al [2], Arrieta, F. R. P
[3], Yadav R [4], Bianchi, M [5] , Chiesa. et al.[6] ,
has been developed and the configuration has been subjected to
Gabbrielli [7], Jonsson [8], Kuchonthara [9],
thermodynamic analysis. Results show that, at any turbine inlet Heppenstall[10], Horlock [11], Waldyr [12], Lukas [13],
temperature (TIT) the plant specific work initially increases with Poullikkas, A [14], etc. After reviewing recent technical
papers by leading researchers Brayton-diesel cycle has been
increase of pressure ratio (rp,c), and but at very high values of rp,c, it
identified for detailed study.
starts decreasing. For a fixed value of rp,c (more than 10) with the
increase in TIT, plant efficiency and specific work both increase. II. NOMENCLATURE
The cycle is best suited for applications where power requirement
cp = specific heat…………..(kJ-kg-1.K-1)
ranges between 700-900 kJ/kg. The exergy analysis shows that gt = gas turbine
maximum exergy loss of around 27% occurs in during combustion h = specific enthalpy………(kJ.kg-1)
in the plant. ΔH r = lower heating value……(kJ.kg-1K-1)
Index Terms— Diesel cycle, exergy, exergy loss, gas turbine cycle, m = mass flow rate……….. (kg.s-1)
hybrid. Q = heat added/ removed during process
I. INTRODUCTION rp = cycle pressure ratio
p = pressure………………..(bar)
With the increasing population of the world, the energy T = temperature……………(K)
consumption will increase rapidly. While as the fossil fuels are TIT = turbine inlet temperature (K) = combustor exit
depleting and one can imagine the future energy crisis unless temperature
some alternate cheap energy resources are developed. The W = specific work………(kJ.kg-1)
increasing energy demand and depletion of fossil fuel resources
inevitably necessitate for the optimum utilization of exhaustible Greek symbols
fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resources. In this effort, a
hybrid gas turbine based power cycle has been conceived for ε = effectiveness ………..(%)
achieving maximum utilisation of thermal energy associated with η = efficiency………………(%)
the gas turbine exhaust. γ = ratio of specific heat at constant pressure and
constant volume
In regard to the simple-cycle gas turbine technology, the υ = specific volume ………(m3kg-1)
major driver to enhance the engine performance has been the
increase in process conditions (temperature and pressure) through Subscripts
advancements in materials and cooling methods. On-going
development and near term introduction of advanced gas a = air , ambient
b = blade
Dr. Sanjay . is with the National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur
c = compressor, coolant,
INDIA in the Mech. Engg. Deptt. (phone: +91-657-2373813; fax: +91-
657-2373813; e-mail: nit.sanjay@gmail.com ). C = compression (Diesel Cycle)
Mukul Agarwal, is with the Tata Consultancy Services, INDIA(e-mail: comb = combustor
mukul.agarwal@tcs.com). dc = diesel cycle
Rajay, is with the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. At Haridwar, INDIA as
Senior Engineer (email: rajay.bhel@gmail.com )

ISBN:978-988-18210-1-0 WCE 2009


Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II
WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

Combustion
chamber Fuel

Compressor

Alternator

Turbine

Air inlet

Exhaust

Heat
exchanger

Diesel engine

Alternator

Fig. 1. Schematic of a Brayton-Diesel cycle

III. BRAYTON-DIESEL- CYCLE CONFIGURATION


e = exit
E = expansion (Diesel Cycle) The configuration identified for parametric study is built up
f = fuel of various types of components. Preheating of the inlet air
g = gas of a diesel engine can sufficiently improve its performance.
gen = alternator The gas turbine exhaust can be applied in order to increase
gt = gas turbine the temperature of the air, which is extracted from the
he = heat exchanger compressor and fed into the diesel engine. Subsequently,
i = inlet, stage of compressor the engine outlet flow expands through the low-pressure
in = inlet stage of the gas turbine as illustrated in Fig. 1. Main
j = coolant bleed points components of this cycle are gas turbine, gas-to-gas heat
net = difference between two values exchanger and diesel engine. The turbine exhaust is used to
p = pressure heat up the air bled from the compressor, which goes into
plant = brayton-diesel cycle plant diesel engine for further power generation. Modeling of all
z = cooled row stage these components/elements that constitute the cycle
configuration has been done. Modeling of these
Acronym components are based on mass and energy balance across
the control volume boundary of each of these components.
C = Compressor Modeling the various elements of a cycle and derived
CC = Combustion chamber governing equations is detailed in the following section.
GT = Gas turbine
A. Modeling of Components

Modeling of various elements like working fluid/gas,


compressor, combustor, and cooled gas turbine has been

ISBN:978-988-18210-1-0 WCE 2009


Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II
WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

done in the earlier work [15,16,17]. Following are a few of the


V4
important equations of the model.
Expansion ratio, re = (7)
T
V3
Enthalpy of air/gas, h = ∫ c p (T ) dt (1)
V
rc = 3
To
Compressor work, Wc = Cut –off ratio, (8)
m e he + (∑ mc , j hc , j − m c ,i hc ,i ) + m dc hdc
V2
(2)
It is seen that rk=re.rc (9)
Energy balance of combustor :
m f .ΔH rη comb = (m g ,e hg ,e − m a.in ha.in ) comb (3) γ −1
T4 ⎡ V3 ⎤ 1
The gas turbine work is the sum of the work done by all rows of
Process 3-4 =⎢ ⎥ = γ −1 (10)
bladings having open loop air-cooled blades. T3 ⎣V4 ⎦ re
W gt
= Σm g.i (hg.az − hg.bz ) cooled + Σm g.i (hg.i − hg.e ) uncooled
(4) T2 p 2V2 V2 1
where ‘cooled’ and ‘uncooled’ in the equation represent rows of Process 2-3 = = = (11)
blade requiring cooling and rows of blade not requiring cooling. T3 p3V3 V3 rc
Heat exchanger is used to transfer heat from the heated stream to
the colder stream flowing through it. The energy balance γ −1
equation of heat exchanger gives: T1 ⎡V2 ⎤ 1
Process 1-2 =⎢ ⎥ =
[ ] [ ]
γ −1
m h ⋅ c p ,h ⋅ ε he (The,h )i − (The,h )e = m c ⋅ c p ,c ⋅ (The,c )i − (The,c )e T2 ⎣ V1 ⎦ rk
(5) So
where ‘h’ stand for hot stream and ‘c’ stands for colder stream. 1 T3 1
T1 = T2 . γ −1
= . (12)
B. Diesel Engine Cycle rk rc rk γ −1
Diesel engine works on diesel cycle comprises of two isentropic,
As we know that
one isochoric and one isobaric process. For 1 kg of air in the
cylinder, the efficiency analysis of the cycle can be made as Thermal efficiency
given below. Q2 m ⋅ cv (T4 − T1 ) T −T
The efficiency may be expressed in terms of any two of the η = 1− = 1− = 1− 4 1
following three ratios
Q1 m ⋅ cP (T3 − T2 ) γ (T3 − T2 )
(13)

p=c Now substituting the values from equation ( 7) , (8) , (9) ,


(10) in (13)
γ
T
V=c
1 r −1
1
WE η Diesel = 1 − . γ −1 . c (14)
Q1 γ rk rc − 1

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


WC
Q2
For predicting the performance of the Brayton-diesel-cycle,
a computer code based on the modeling of various cycle
components discussed in the previous section has been
developed.
s
For predicting the performance of the Brayton-diesel-cycle,
Fig. 2. T-s representation of ideal Diesel cycle mathematical modeling of various cycle components has
been discussed in previous section. Based on this modeling
a computer code in C++ language has been developed.
V1 Results have been obtained for input data listed in Table I.
Compression ratio, rk = (6) and the results obtained have been plotted using graphic
V2 package ORIGIN 6.0. Based on results of exergy analysis, a
Sankey diagram has been drawn for the cycle. The exergy
distribution quantifies the losses in various elements of the
cycle. The results (Design Monograms and Sankey
diagrams) have been discussed.

ISBN:978-988-18210-1-0 WCE 2009


Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II
WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

Table I. Input data for analysis for Brayton-Diesel Cycle


830
Component Parameters 825
Gas property cp= f(T)
820
Enthalpy h= ∫ cp(T) dT

Plant Specific work (kJ/kg))


Ambient condition Ta=288K 815

Pa=1.013 bar 810

Relative humidity=60% 805


Inlet section ∆ploss=1 percent of entry 800
pressure 795
Compressor Isentropic efficiency (ηc)=86%
790
Mechanical efficiency
(ηm)=98% 785

Combustor ∆ploss=2% of entry pressure 780

ηcc=98% 775

Fuel Natural gas 770


(LCV)f=42000 kJ/kg 0 10 20 30 40 50
Cycle pressure ratio
Fuel inlet pressure = 110% of
Fig. 4. Effect of rp,c on plant specific work at TIT=1500K
compressor exit pressure
Gas turbine Isentropic efficiency (ηt)=86%
Mechanical .
efficiency(ηm)=98%
Exhaust pressure=1.08 bar 45
Heat exchanger ∆ploss=2% of entry pressure
Effectiveness(εrec)=92%
Temperature gain in Heat
Overall plant efficiency, %

44

exchanger=100K
Diesel engine Compression ratio=5 43
Cut off ratio=2.5
Alternator Efficiency (ηalt)=98.5%
42

41
45.0 4540
3530
44.5
25
40
Overall plant effeciency (%)

44.0 20 0 10 20 30 40 50
Cycle Pressure ratio
43.5 15 Fig. 5 Effect of rp,c on plant efficiency at TIT=1500K
43.0

42.5
10
Results show that at TIT less than 1600K and upto rp,c=15,
00K

42.0
the specific work increases with increase in rp,c. At values
=14

of TIT higher than 1600K, specific work increases with


1500

41.5
TIT

TIT, till value of rp,c is less than 20, beyond which specific
1600

K
1700

41.0
1800

work reduces with increase in TIT. At any TIT value of the


40.5 plant efficiency increases with increase in rp,c upto a certain
40.0 rpc=5
value, when after the plant efficiency curve loops back.
This design monogram can be used to select the operating
39.5 parameters for the brayton-diesel cycle plant depending on
740 760 780 800
Specific work(kJ/kg)
820 840 860 880
required plant capacity.
Fig. 3. Influence of TIT and rp,c on plant efficiency Most of the gas turbines today operate at a TIT of 1500K,
and specific work Brayton-Diesel cycle hence performance of the configuration at this value of TIT
is shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. Fig. 4 shows the effect of
pressure ratio on plant specific work for the configuration.
Fig. 3. shows the variation of specific work and plant efficiency The graph shows the range of pressure ratio over which the
with pressure ratio (rp,c) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). cycle can operates and also the optimized value of specific
work for the selected TIT. Fig. 5 shows the effect of

ISBN:978-988-18210-1-0 WCE 2009


Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II
WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

Fig. 6. Exergy flow diagram for Brayton-Diesel cycle

pressure ratio on plant efficiency for the configuration. The V. CONCLUSIONS


graph shows the range of pressure ratio over which the
cycle operates and also the optimized value of plant The brayton-diesel cycle is a gas turbine hybrid cycle and
efficiency for the selected TIT. its thermodynamic analysis has been carried out to ascertain
Fig. 6. shows the exergy flow at rp,c =25 and TIT=1700K its potential as a energy conversion system. From the
among various components of the configuration. Diesel analysis following conclusions can be drawn:
engine has the exergy of about 52.4% while gas turbine 1) Brayton-Diesel cycle provides the maximum
exergy is about 8.55% because the bleeding from the available energy (about 60%)
compressor has been done at 5 bar, so mass flow of 2) Braton-Diesel cycle gives maximum work output
working fluid through the diesel engine is very large in between 840-875 kJ/kg.
comparison of gas turbine. Exergy loss in combustion Thus the cycle is found to be useful as a energy conversion
chamber of Brayton cycle is about 3.10%, because in cycle and performance in the above mentioned range.
turbine working fluid handled is lesser than in Diesel
engine. Also the combustion process in Diesel engine
exhibits an exergy loss of about 22.70%. This configuration
has lower exhaust gas exergy loss (about 2.33%), because
the exhaust gas heat has been recovered considerably well
in the heat exchanger at the exit of turbine. Unaccounted
exergy losses are about 4.61%.

ISBN:978-988-18210-1-0 WCE 2009


Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol II
WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

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ISBN:978-988-18210-1-0 WCE 2009