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A squirrel cage induction motor is a constant speed device. It cannot operate for any length of
time at speeds below those shown on the nameplate without danger of burning out.

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S„  = synchronous revolutions per minute.


120 = constant
F = supply frequency (in cycles/sec)
P = number of motor winding poles

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Full-load motor torque is calculated to determine the required braking torque of a motor.
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T = full-load motor torque (in lb-ft)


5252 = constant (33,000 divided by 3.14 x 2 = 5252)
HP = motor horsepower
rpm = speed of motor shaft

c  hat is the braking torque of a 60 HP, 240V motor rotating at 1725 rpm?

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ork is applying a force over a distance. Force is any cause that changes the position, motion,
direction, or shape of an object. ork is done when a force overcomes a resistance. Resistance is
any force that tends to hinder the movement of an object.If an applied force does not cause
motion the no work is produced.

To calculate the amount of work produced, apply this formula:

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 = work (in lb-ft)


F = force (in lb)
D = distance (in ft)

c  How much work is required to carry a 25 lb bag of groceries vertically from street
level to the 4th floor of a building 30' above street level?

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Torque is the force that produces rotation. It causes an object to rotate. Torque consist of a force
acting on distance. Torque, like work, is measured is pound-feet (lb-ft). However, torque, unlike
work, may exist even though no movement occurs.

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c hat is the torque produced by a 60 lb force pushing on a 3' lever arm?
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Full-load torque is the torque to produce the rated power at full speed of the motor. The amount
of torque a motor produces at rated power and full speed can be found by using a horsepower-to-
torque conversion chart. hen using the conversion chart, place a straight edge along the two
known quantities and read the unknown quantity on the third line.

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c hat is the FLT (Full-load torque) of a 30HP motor operating at 1725 rpm?

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Electrical power is rated in horsepower or watts. A horsepower is a unit of power equal to 746
watts or 33,0000 lb-ft per minute (550 lb-ft per second). A watt is a unit of measure equal to the
power produced by a current of 1 amp across the potential difference of 1 volt. It is 1/746 of 1
horsepower. The watt is the base unit of electrical power. Motor power is rated in horsepower
and watts.
Horsepower is used to measure the energy produced by an electric motor while doing work.

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Eff = efficiency / HP = horsepower / V = volts / A = amps / PF = power factor

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Example
To Find Use Formula
Given Find  
'  240V x 20A x 85%
'  I X E X Eff.
HP 240V, 20A, 85% Eff. HP 746
746
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3 10HP x 746
3 = HP x 746 10HP, 240V,
I I 240V x 90% x 88%
E X Eff x PF 90% Eff., 88% PF
3(16

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Dec 1, 2004 12:00 PM, By Mike Holt, NEC Consultant

29 Comments | Related Content Share184

Add this information to what you know about delta transformers and you may be ready to solve
power quality problems

Find more articles on: Transformers

Last month's Code Calculations article covered transformer calculation definitions and some
specifics of delta transformer calculations. This month we turn our attention to the differences
between delta and wye transformers and to wye transformer calculations. e'll close by looking
at why it's so important to know how to perform these calculations, but you'll likely see the
reasons as we go.

In a wye configuration, three single-phase transformers are connected to a common point


(neutral) via a lead from their secondaries. The other lead from each of the single-phase
transformers is connected to the line conductors. This configuration is called a ³wye,´ because in
an electrical drawing it looks like the letter Y. Unlike the delta transformer, it doesn't have a high
leg.
)) iring arrangements can have a considerable effect on output voltage.

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) The ratio of a transformer is the relationship
between the number of primary winding turns to the number of secondary winding turns ² and
thus a comparison between the primary phase voltage and the secondary phase voltage. For
typical delta/delta systems, the ratio is 2:1 ² but for typical delta/wye systems, the ratio is 4:1
() above).

If the primary phase voltage in a typical delta/delta system is 480V, the secondary phase voltage
is 240V. If the primary phase voltage in a typical delta/wye system is 480V, the secondary phase
voltage is 120V.

Delta and wye transformers also differ with regard to their phase voltage versus line voltage and
phase current versus line current. In a delta transformer,

EPhase=ELine and ILine=IPhase×¥3.

In a wye transformer,

IPhase=ILine and ELine=EPhase×¥3.

These differences affect more than just which formulas you use for transformer calculations. By
combining delta/delta and delta/wye transformers, you can abate harmonic distortion in an
electrical system. e'll look at that strategy in more detail after addressing wye transformer
calculations.
)) As this example shows, the line and phase currents are equal in a wye transformer.

, 

c0 c c  c ) In a wye transformer, the 3-phase and single-phase
120V line current equals the phase current (IPhase = ILine) () on page C20).

Let's apply this to an actual problem. hat's the secondary phase current for a 150kVA, 480V to
208Y/120V, 3-phase transformer ()( on page C20)? ILine=150,000VA÷(208V×1.732)=416A,
or IPhase=50,000VA÷120=416A

To find wye 3-phase line and phase voltages, use the following formulas:

EPhase=ELine÷¥3
ELine=EPhase×¥3

Since each line conductor from a wye transformer is connected to a different transformer
winding (phase), the effects of 3-phase loading on the line are the same as on the phase ()
on page C21). A 36kVA, 208V, 3-phase load has the following effect:

Line power=36kVA
ILine=VALine÷(ELine×¥3)
ILine=36,000VA÷(208V×¥3)=100A
Phase power=12kVA (any winding)
IPhase=VAPhase÷EPhase
IPhase=12,000VA÷120V=100A

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*c cc9) Before you can properly size a delta/wye transformer,
you must make sure that the secondary transformer phases (windings) or the line conductors are
balanced. Note that balancing the panel (line conductors) is identical to balancing the transformer
for wye transformers. Once you balance the wye transformer, you can size it according to the
load on each phase. The following steps will help you balance the transformer:
)() Note the four-fold increase in phase current when working with a delta/wye transformer.

›  : Determine the loads' VA ratings.

›  : Put one-third of the 3-phase load on Phase A, one-third on Phase B, and one-third on
Phase C.

›  : Put one-half of the single-phase, 208V load on Phase A and Phase B, or Phase B and
Phase C, or Phase A and Phase C.

)) In this example, note that the line and phase power and current are the same, since each
line conductor from a wye transformer is connected to a different transformer winding.

›  : Place 120V loads (largest to smallest): 100% on any phase.

Now consider the following wye transformer sizing example: hat size transformer (480V to
208Y/120V, 3-phase) would you need for the following loads: 208V, 36kVA, 3-phase heat strip;
two 208V, 10kVA, single-phase loads; and three 120V, 3kVA single-phase loads?
a) three single-phase, 25kVA transformers
b) one 3-phase, 75kVA transformer
c) a or b
d) none of these

Phase A=23kVA
Phase B=22kVA
Phase C=20kVA

The c* sums up the kVA for each phase of each load. Note that the phase totals (23kVA,
22kVA, and 20kVA) should add up to the line total (65kVA). Always use a ³checksum´ like this
to ensure you have accounted for all items and the math is right.

If you're dealing with high-harmonic loads, the maximum unbalanced load can be higher than the
nameplate kVA would indicate. Matching the transformer to the anticipated load then requires a
high degree of accuracy if you want to get a reasonable level of either efficiency or power
quality.

One approach to such a situation is to supply high-harmonic loads from their own delta/delta
transformer. Another is to supply them from their own delta/wye and double the neutral. The
approach you choose will depend on the characteristics of your loads and how well you lay out
your power distribution system.

For example, you might put your computer loads (which have switching power supplies) on a
delta/delta transformer, which you would feed from a delta/wye transformer. This would greatly
reduce the presence of harmonics in the primary system, partly due to the absence of a neutral
connection. But the behavior of the delta/delta transformer itself, combined with the interaction
of delta/delta and delta/wye, will also cause a reduction in harmonics. Notice the word ³might´
in the question of whether to implement this kind of design. Grounding considerations can make
it an undesirable approach, depending on the various loads and the design of the overall electrical
system. Keep in mind that this is one of the many ways to mix and match transformers to solve
power quality problems.

Due to uptime or power quality concerns with complex loads, you may need to mix and match
transformer configurations as in the previous example. And that's something you can't do unless
you understand both delta and wye calculations.

Another issue is proper transformer loading. As a rule of thumb, 80% loading is a good target. If
you overload the transformer, though, it goes into core saturation and output consists of distorted
waveforms. The clipped peaks typical of saturated transformers cause excess heating in the
loads. This issue of transformer loading means you're going to have to perform the transformer
calculations just to get basic power quality and reasonable efficiency.

So it's important not to oversimplify your approach to transformer selection. It's usually best to
do all the calculations using the nameplate kVA. Then, design the distribution system as though
all loads are linear. hen that's done, identify which loads are high harmonic, such as electronic
ballasts, computer power supplies, and motors with varying loads. At this point, you can
efficiently work with a transformer supplier to develop a good solution.

Now that you understand delta and wye transformer calculations, you can see how important
they are to being able to do a quality installation any time you're specifying transformers or
considering adding loads to existing transformers. This ability is also important if you're trying to
solve a power quality problem or a problem with ³unexplained´ system trips. You may wish to
sharpen this ability by purchasing an electrical calculations workbook or taking on this kind of
work in your electrical projects.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electric Traction

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* Lower running cost of locomotives and multiple units


* Higher power-to-weight ratio, resulting in
o Fewer locomotives
o Faster acceleration
o Higher practical limit of power
o Higher limit of speed
* Less noise pollution (quieter operation)
* Lower power loss at higher altitudes
* Lack of dependence on crude oil as fuel

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* Significant cost of electrification


* Increased maintenance cost of the lines
* Overhead wires further limit the clearance in tunnels