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TUGAS KIMIA FISIKA LANJUT

Dosen Pengampu : Dr. Kasmadi IS, MS

Disusun oleh :
SUPRIYANTO
NIM : 0402510082

PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA


PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN IPA (KIMIA)
UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG (UNNES)
Tahun Akademik 2010/2011
7.37 At 25 °C and 1 atm pressure, the data are :
Substance H2 (g) C (graphite) C6H6 (l) C2H2(g)
∆H combustion (kJ /mol)
o
–285.83 –393.51 –3267.62 –1299.58
a) Calculate the ∆H° of formation of liquid benzene.
b) Calculate ∆H° for the reaction 3 C2H2(g) C6H6(l).

ANSWER :
a. {H2(g) + ½ O2 (g)  H2O (g) ∆H°= –285.83 kJ/mol } x 3
{C (s) + O2 (g)  CO2 (g) ∆H°= – 393.51 kJ/mol } x 6
6CO2 (g) + 3H2O (g)  C6H6(l) + /2O2 (g) 15
∆H°= +3267.62 kJ/mol
3H2(g) + 6C(s)  C6H6 (l)
∆Hf° C6H6 = (3)(–285.83) +(6)(–393.51) + 3267.62
= –857.49 – 2361.06 + 3267.62
= 49.07 kJ/mol

b. {C2H2(g) + 5/2O2  2CO2(g) + H2O ∆H°= –1299.58 kJ/mol } x 3


6CO2 (g) + 3H2O  C6H6 (l) + /2O2
15
∆H°= +3267.62 kJ/mol
3C2H2 (g)  C6H6(l)
∆Hreaksi = (3)(–1299.58) + 3267.62
= –3898.74 + 3267.62
= –631.12 kJ/mol

7.38 For the following reactions at 25 °C


∆H° (kJ/mol)
CaC2(s) + 2H2O (l)  Ca(OH)2(s) + C2H2(g) –127.9
Ca(s) + ½ O2(g)  CaO –635.1
CaO(s) + H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2(s) –65.2
The heat of combustion of graphite is –393.51 kJ/mol, and that of C2H2(g) is –1299.58 kJ/mol.
Calculate the heat of formation of CaC2(s) at 25°C.

ANSWER:
∆H° (kJ/mol)
Ca(OH)2(s) + C2H2(g)  CaC2(s) + 2H2O (l) +127.9
Ca(s) + ½ O2(g)  CaO –635.1
CaO(s) + H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2(s) –65.2
{C(s) + O2  CO2(g) –393.51} x 2
2CO2(g) + H2O(l)  C2H2(g) + 5/2O2(g) +1299.58
Ca(s) + C(s)  CaC2(s)
∆Hf° CaC2(s) = (127.9) +(–635.1) + (–65.2) + (2)(–393.51) + (1299.58)
= –59.84 kJ/mol
7.39 A sample of sucrose, C12H22O11, weighing 0.1265 g is burned in a bomb calorimeter. After the
reaction is over, it is found that to produce an equal temperature increment electrically, 2082.3
joules must be expended.
a) Calculate the heat of combustion of sucrose.
b) From the heat of combustion and appropriate data in Table A-V calculate the heat of
formation of sucrose.
c) If the temperature increment in the experiment is 1.743°C, what is the heat capacity of the
calorimeter and contents ?

ANSWER:
0.1265 𝑔𝑟
a. Mol sukrosa = = 3.699 x 10-4 mol
342
2082.3
ΔHcombustion C12H22O11 = – = – 5676.4 kJ/mol
3.669 𝑥 10 −4

b. Reaksi pembakaran: C12H22O11(s) + 12O2(g)  12CO2(g) + 11H2O(g)


ΔHcombustion C12H22O11 = (12ΔHf CO2 + 11ΔHf H2O) – (ΔHf C12H22O11 + 12ΔHf O2)
–5676.4 = {(12)(–393.51) + (11)(–285.83)} – (ΔHf C12H22O11 + 0)
–5676.4 = (–4722.12 – 3144.13) – ΔHf C12H22O11
–5676.4 = –7866.25 – ΔHf C12H22O11
ΔHf C12H22O11 = 5676.4 –7866.25
= – 2188.85 kJ/mol
𝑇2
c. ∆𝐻 = 𝑇1 𝑝
𝐶 𝑑𝑇

ΔH = Cp ΔT
2082.3 = Cp (1.743)
2082.3
Cp =
1.743

= 1194.66 joule/K

7.40 If 3.0539 g of liquid ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH, is burned completely at 25°C in a bomb calorimeter,
the heat evolved is 90.447 kJ.
a) Calculate the molar ∆H° of combustion for ethyl alcohol at 25°C.
b) If the ∆Hf° of CO2(g) and H2O(l) are –393.51 kJ/mol and –285.83 kJ/mol, calculate the ∆Hf°
of ethyl alcohol.

ANSWER:
3.0539 𝑔𝑟
Q = – 90.447 kJoule  Mol C2H5OH = = 0.0664 𝑚𝑜𝑙
46

−90.447
a. Harga ΔHcombustion C2H5OH = = –1362.2 kJ/mol
0.0664

b. C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g)

ΔHcombustion = {2ΔHf CO2 + 3ΔHf H2O} – ΔHf C2H5OH

–1362.2 = 2(–393.51) + 3(–285.83) – ΔHf C2H5OH

= (–787.02 – 857.49) – ΔHf C2H5OH

ΔHf C2H5OH = (–787.02 – 857.49) + 1362.2

= – 1644.51 + 1362.2

= – 282.31 kJ/mol
7.41 From the data at 25 °C :
Fe2O3(s) + 3C(graphite)  2Fe(s) + 3CO(g), ∆H° = 492.6 kJ/mol ;
FeO(s) + C(graphite)  Fe(s) + CO(g), ∆H° = 155.8 kJ/mol ;
C(graphite) + O2(g)  CO2(g), ∆H° = –393.51 kJ/mol ;
CO(g) + ½ O2(g)  CO2(g), ∆H° = –282.98 kJ/mol.
Compute the standard heat of formation of FeO(s) and of Fe2O3(s).

ANSWER:
Fe(s) + CO(g)  FeO(s) + C(graphite) ∆H° = –155.8 kJ/mol
C(graphite) + O2(g)  CO2(g) ∆H° = –393.51 kJ/mol
CO2(g)  CO(g) + ½ O2(g) ∆H° = +282.98 kJ/mol
Fe(s) + ½ O2(g)  FeO(s)

∆Hf° FeO(s) = (–155.8) + (–393.51) + (282.98)


= –266.33 kJ/mol

2Fe(s) + 3CO(g)  Fe2O3(s) + 3 C(graphite) ∆H° = – 492.6 kJ/mol


{C(graphite) + O2(g)  CO2(g) ∆H° = –393.51 kJ/mol } x 3
{CO2(g)  CO(g) + ½ O2(g) ∆H° = +282.98 kJ/mol } x 3
2Fe(s) 3
+ /2 O2(g)  Fe2O3(s)

∆Hf° Fe2O3(s) = (– 492.6) + (3)(–393.51) + (3)(282.98)


= –824.19 kJ/mol

9.12 Between O°C and 100°C liquid mercury has Cp/(J/K mol) = 30.093 – 4.944 x 10-3T. If one mole of
mercury is raised from 0°C to 100 °C at constant pressure, calculate ∆H and ∆S.

ANSWER:
Karena reaksi dilaksanakan pada tekanan tetap, dan Cp sebagai fungsi temperatur sehingga rumus
yang dipakai adalah:
𝑇2
∆𝐻 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑑𝑇
𝑇1
𝑇2
∆𝐻 = (30.093 − 0.004944𝑇)𝑑𝑇
𝑇1
= 30.093(T2–T1) – ½(0.004944)(T22 – T12)
Karena T1 = (0 + 273.15)= 273.15°K dan T2 = (100 + 273.15) = 373.15°K
= 30.093(100) – ½ (0.004944)(373.15 – 273.152) 2

= 3009.3 – ½ (0.004944)(6429.5)
= 3009.3 – 159.635
= 2849.665 joule/mol
𝑇2 𝐶
𝑝
∆𝑆 = 𝑑𝑇
𝑇1 𝑇
373.15
(30.093 − 0.004944𝑇)
∆𝑆 = 𝑑𝑇
273.15 𝑇
373.15 𝑑𝑇 373.15
= 30.093 273.15 𝑇
+ 0.004944 273.15
𝑑𝑇
373.15
= 30.093 𝑙𝑛 + 0.004944 (373.15 – 273.15)
273.15

= (30.093)(0.31196) + 0.4944
= 9.882 joule/K mol
9.16 One mole of an ideal gas, initially at 25 °C and 1 atm is transformed to 40°C and 0.5 atm. In the
transformation 300 J of work are produced in the surroundings. If C v = 3/2R, calculate Q, ∆U, ∆H,
and ∆S.

ANSWER:
∆U = Cv ∆T
= 3
/2R (313 – 298)
= 22.5R
= (22.5)(8.314)
= 187.065 joule/mol
Menurut Hukum I termodinamika ∆U = Q – W, sehingga
∆U = Q–W
187.065 = Q – 300
Q = 187.065 + 300
= 487.065 joule/mol

∆H = Cp ∆T padahal Cp – Cv = R  Cp = R + Cv
= (R + Cv) ∆T
= (R + 3/2R) ∆T
= (5/2R)(15)
= 37.5R
= (37.5)(8.314)
= 311.775 joule/mol

T2 𝑃2
∆S = Cp ln − 𝑛𝑅 ln
T1 𝑃1
T2 𝑃2
= (R+Cv) ln − 𝑛𝑅 ln
T1 𝑃1
313.15 0.5
= (R +3/2R) ln − 1 (𝑅) ln
298.15 1

= ( /2R) ln(1.050) – (R) ln(0.5)


5

= (5/2R)(0.04879) + 0.6932R
= 0.815175R
= (0.815175)(8.314)
= 6.777 joule/K mol
9.18 Consider one mole of an ideal gas, Cv = 3/2R, in the initial state : 300 K, 1 atm. For each
transformation, (a) through (g), calculate Q, W, ∆U, ∆H, and ∆S ; compare ∆S to Q/T.
a) At constant volume, the gas is heated to 400 K.
b) At constant pressure, 1 atm, the gas is heated to 400 K.
c) The gas is expanded isothermally and reversibly until the pressure drops to ½ atm.
d) The gas is expanded isothermally against a constant external pressure equal to ½ atm until the
gas pressure reaches ½ atm.
e) The gas is expanded isothermally against zero opposing pressure (Joule expansion) until the
pressure of the gas is ½ atm.
f) The gas is expanded adiabatically against a constant pressure of ½ atm until the final pressure is
½ atm.
g) The gas is expanded adiabatically and reversibly until the final pressure is ½ atm.

ANSWER:
a. Pada keadaan Volume konstan dan suhu 400 K, rumus yang digunakan adalah
∆U = Cv ∆T
= ³/2R (400–300)
= 150R
= (150)(8.314)
= 1247.1 joule/mol
∆U = Qv  Qv = 1247.1 joule/mol
Menurut Hukum I Termodinamika ∆U = Q – W, padahal pada kondisi volume tetap, harga
∆U = Q sehingga 1247.1 = 1247.1 – W
W = 0 joule/mol
∆H = Cp ∆T padahal Cp – Cv = R  Cp = R + Cv
= (R + Cv) ∆T
= (R + 3/2R) (400–300)
= (5/2R)(100)
= 250R
= (250)(8.314)
= 2078.5 joule/mol

𝑇2
𝐶𝑣
∆𝑆 = 𝑑𝑇
𝑇1 𝑇
3
𝑇2 𝑅
∆𝑆 = 2 𝑑𝑇
𝑇1 𝑇
400
= 3/2R ln
300

= (1.5R)(0.287)
= 0.4305R
= (0.4305)(8.314)
= 3.579 joule/K mol

b. Pada keadaan Tekanan konstan dan suhu 400°K. sehingga rumus yang digunakan adalah
∆H = Cp ∆T sedangkan Cp – Cv = R  Cp = R + Cv
= (R + 3/2R)(400 – 300)
= (5/2R)(100)
= 250R
= (250)(8.314)
= 2078.5 joule/mol
∆H = Qp  Qp = 2078.5 joule/mol
Untuk mencari W pada tekanan tetap, kita bantu dengan harga ∆U pada volume tetap sbb:
∆U = 1247.1 joule/mol
∆U = Qp – W
1247.1 joule/mol = 2078.5 joule/mol – W
W = 2078.5 – 1247.1
= 831.4 joule/mol
𝑇2 𝐶
𝑝
∆𝑆 = 𝑑𝑇
𝑇1 𝑇

 Cp = R + Cv  Cp = R + /2R = /2R
3 5
sedangkan Cp – Cv = R
5
400 𝑅
∆𝑆 = 2 𝑑𝑇
300 𝑇
400
= 5
/2R ln
300

= (5/2R)(0.2877)
= 0.719R
= (0.719)(8.314)
= 5.979 joule/K mol

c. Karena gas diekspansi pada suhu tetap (isotermal) dan reversibel sehingga tekanannya turun
menjadi ½ atm, maka
T2 𝑃2
∆S = 𝐶𝑝 ln − 𝑛𝑅 ln
T1 𝑃1
P2
∆S = − nR ln
P1
0.5
= − (1)(8.314) ln
1

= –{(8.314)(–0.693)}
= 5.763 joule/K mol

𝑄𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑒𝑙
∆S =
𝑇
𝑄𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑒𝑙
5.763 =
300

Qreversibel = (5.763)(300)
= 1728.9 joule/mol
∆U = Cv ∆T, tetapi karena T2 dan T1 sama, maka ∆T = 0, sehingga ∆U = 0
∆H = Cp ∆T, tetapi karena T2 dan T1 sama, maka ∆T = 0, sehingga ∆H = 0
Menurut Hukum I Termodinamika :
∆U = Q – W, padahal ∆U = 0, sehingga 0 = Q – W atau Q = W  W = 1728.9 J/mol
𝑄 1728 .9
Perbandingan antara = = = 5.763 joule/K mol
𝑇 300

d. The gas is expanded isothermally against a constant external pressure equal to ½ atm until the
gas pressure reaches ½ atm
T2 𝑃2
∆S = 𝐶𝑝 ln − 𝑛𝑅 ln
T1 𝑃1
P2
∆S = − nR ln
P1
0.5
= − (1)(8.314) ln
1

= –{(8.314)(–0.693)}
= 5.763 joule/K mol
∆U = Cv ∆T, tetapi karena T2 dan T1 sama, maka ∆T = 0, sehingga ∆U = 0
∆H = Cp ∆T, tetapi karena T2 dan T1 sama, maka ∆T = 0, sehingga ∆H = 0
Menurut persamaan ∆U = T∆S – P∆V atau ∆U = T∆S – W
0 = (300)(5.763) – W
0 = 1728.9 – W
W = 1728.9
Menurut Hukum I Termodinamika : ∆U = Q – W , sehingga Q = 1728.9
𝑄 1728.9
= = 5.763
𝑇 300

e. The gas is expanded isothermally against zero opposing pressure (Joule expansion) until the
pressure of the gas is ½ atm
T2 𝑃2
∆S = 𝐶𝑝 ln − 𝑛𝑅 ln
T1 𝑃1
P2
∆S = − nR ln
P1
0.5
= − (1)(8.314) ln
1

= –{(8.314)(–0.693)}
= 5.763 joule/K mol
∆U = Cv ∆T, tetapi karena T2 dan T1 sama, maka ∆T = 0, sehingga ∆U = 0
∆H = Cp ∆T, tetapi karena T2 dan T1 sama, maka ∆T = 0, sehingga ∆H = 0
W=0 maka Q=0
𝑄
=0
𝑇

f. The gas is expanded adiabatically against a constant pressure of ½ atm until the final pressure is
½ atm
Pada proses adiabatik, maka harga Q = 0
𝑄
=0
𝑇
g. The gas is expanded adiabatically and reversibly until the final pressure is ½ atm.
Pada proses adiabatik, maka harga Q = 0
𝑄
∆𝑆 = =0
𝑇

𝑄
=0
𝑇

Soal Q W ∆U ∆H ∆S Q
/T
a. 1247.1 0 1247.1 2078.5 3.579 -
b. 2078.5 831.4 1247.1 2078.5 5.979 -
c. 1728.9 1728.9 0 0 5.763 5.763
d. 1250 1250 0 0 5.763 5.763
e. 0 0 0 0 5.763 0
f. 0 ? ? ? ? 0
g. 0 ? ? ? 0 0