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Squares and Cubes
Number (x) Square (x ") Cube (x ")
2-2- z.« \\ 1 1 1 !Ji -:: \. Lf
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4 16 64
5 25 125
6 36 216
7 49
8 64
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11 121
12 144
13 169
14 196
15 225
16 256
17 289
18 324
19 361
21 441
22 484
23 529
24 576
25 625
3D '100
Fractions and Percentage:
Fraction Decimal Percentage
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1/3 0.33 33 113
2/3 0.66 662/3
1/4 0.25 25
3/4 0.75 75
1 15 0.2 20
2/5 0.4 40
3/5 0.6 60
4/5 0.8 80
1/6 0.166 162/3
5/6 0.833 832/3
1 18 0.125 121/2
3/8 0.375 37 1 12
5/8 0.625 621 12
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COUNTING, PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

MUL TIPUCATION PRINCIPLE

Consider the 3 letter words that can b-e made from the letters WORD if no letter is repeated. These can be listed by means of a tree diagram.

There are:

4 ways of choosing the 15t letter 3 ways of choosing the 2nd letter 2 ways of choosing the 3rd letter number of words = 4 x 3 x 2 = 24

This is an illustration of the multiplication principle ie. if several operations are carried out in a certain order, then the number of ways of performing all the operations is the product of the numbers of ways of performing each operation. Ie. - .j\O - t>4- vJO>'1C -To o .. qj_J2.N C\.£ek

ofL o'ij€J}.-s"

The principle is equivalent to filling in pigeonholes:

1st letter

D

2nd letter 3rd letter

D

D

o~ R
w~ 0
R -=::::::::::: 0
0
o -=::::::::::: 0
R
W -==:::::::: R
o~ 0
R -==:::::::: w
0
D -==:::::::: w
R
w -=::::::: 0
R~ 0
o~ w
0
o -.c::::::::::: w
0 w-==::::::::~

w O-==::::::::R

R~W o

4 x 3 x 2 = 24 [0, tJ.;. \. _

No\{_~ l~ Of£.N'O\{-.DV\ $\)\01..\\0. {\V,leG &4- 21/l0 0revo.fiOVi- s~v:t:I.

ADDITION PRINCIPLE

Consider the 3 letter words starting or finishing with 0 that can be made from the letters WORD if no letter is repeated. Now words starting or finishing with 0 are mutually exclusive ie. they do not overlap, Therefore we can find the number starting with 0 and the number finishing with 0 and add the two numbers.

starting with 0

finishing with 0

1 st letter 2nd letter 3rd letter

o

1 st letter 2nd letter 3rd letter

o

D

1

D

D

3

x

3 x 2

= 6

number of words starting or finishing with 0 = 6 + 6 = 12

D

x

2 x 1

= 6

This is an illustration of the addition principle ie. if two operations are mutually exclusive (ie. they do not overlap), then the number of ways of performing one operation or the other is the sum of the numbers of ways of performing each operation.

FACTORIAL NOTATION

In applying the multiplication principle, factorial notation can be useful ego the number of 6 letter words that can be made from the letters FACTOR is 6! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1.

tJok: 0 ~ :: j__; '::_ .i.

4- ~ ?fl,>{.._3 ~ 21-:1.

"TOGETHER" ARRANGEMENTS

In this type of problem, we need to count arrangements where some of the objects must remain together. The multiplication principle applies and we use a "treat as one" technique.

Eg. 3 science, 4 mathematics and 5 history books are arranged on a shelf. How many arrangements are possible if the books from each subject are to be together?

treat the books for each subject as one book: number of arrangements = 3!

~O+E " t~-I;- bWev(A'f~ S;VlLd VV1l~'V? 1S4 2&\p\ OVlC s:~vt:c ~tc_ ....

number of ways of arranging the science books = 3! number of ways of arranging the mathematics books = 4! number of ways of arranging the history books = 5!

total number of arrangements = 3! x 3! x 4! x 5! = 103680

ARRANGEMENTS INVOLVING IDENTICAL OBJECTS

Consider the number of arrangements of the letters EMPLOYEE. If all 8 letters were different, then the number of arrangements would be 8! but this number involves counting arrangements more than once. Eg, The 8! arrangements includes 6 versions of EEEMPLOY:

E1E2E3 MPL OY E1E3E2M PLO Y E2E1E3 MPL OY

E2E3E1MPLOY E3E1E2MPLOY E3E2E1 MPLOY

Similarly every arrangement occurs 6 times in the total of 8! (6 is the number of arrangements of the 3 E's ie, 3!).

number of distinct arrangements = ~ = 6720 3!

This idea can be extended to problems where more than one type of object is repeated: number of distinct arrangements of the letters MISSISSIPPI = ~ = 34650 4!4!2!

CIRCULAR ARRANGEMENTS

Consider the different arrangements when 4 people sit in a circle. There are 3! arrangements (not 4! as might be expected) as it does not matter where the first object is placed.

In general, n objects can be arranged in a circle in (n-l)! ways. lW\f\.£.V\ cA~~ k. QVl~(}CLtvv\ se (U!V&lYl~QMtI Otve_

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PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

Choosing objects from a collection of different objects can be done in several ways. Two particular ways are given the names permutation and combination.

Choosing r objects without repetition from n different objects such that order matters is called a permutation and the number of such permutations is denoted by liP,..

Choosing r objects without repetition from n different objects such that order does not matter is called a combination and the number of such combinations is denoted by lIC, ..

Example of permutations:

How many ways can a committee of 3 be selected from 7 people A,B,C,O,E,F,G so that there is a president, a vice-president and a secretary? Using the multiplication principle:

pres. vice-pres. sec.

o 0 D

7

x

6 x 5

:::: 210

7 71 n1

Ij ::::: 7 x 6x 5::::: - and in general lip::::: .

4! r (n-r)!

NB. Permutation problems are usually best done using the multiplication principle rather than permutation notation.

Example of combinations:

How many ways can a committee of 3 be selected from 7 people A,B,C,D,E,F,G so that 'each member of the committee is equal? The number of perm_utations 210 is too large because every combination occurs 6 times in the 210 permutations. Eg. The following 6 permutations each give rise to the same combination (6 is the number of arrangements of 3 objects ie. 31):

ABC ACB BAC BCA CAB CBA

7C _ 7 x 6 x5 71 d i I lIC = n!

• . 3 - = - an In genera

31 3!41 r r!(n -r)1

SPECIAL COMBINATIONS

Choosing 7 from 7 so that order does not matter can only be done 1 way: :. 7C7::::: 1 and in general IJCn = 1

Choosing 0 from 7 so that order does not matter can only be done 1 way: :. 7CO::::: 1 and in general "Co = 1

This leads to the conclusion that O!· must be given the value 1 because 7 C7 ::::: ~ ::::: 1. 710!

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COMBINATIONS - INCLUSIONS / EXCLUSIONS

Consider the number of ways a committee of 3 can be selected from 7 people A,B,C,D,E,F,G (order does not matter) if:

B must be included (select 2 from A,C,D,E,F,G) 6C2

D must be excluded (select 3 from A,B,C,E,F,G) 6C;

C and E cannot be chosen together

What is the justification for the last answer?

CHOOSING SETS OF OBJECTS WITH DISTINCT SUBSETS

In these problems, find the number of ways of choosing each subset and then use the multiplication principle. Eg. 6 people are chosen (order does not matter) from 5 Oueenslanders, 4 Tasmanians and 3 Victorians:

2 from each state are chosen:

number of ways of choosing 2 Oueenslanders = 5C2

number of ways of choosing 2 Tasmanians = 4 C2 number of ways of choosing 2 Victorians = 3 C2

total number of ways = 5C2x4C2X3C2

at least 3 Oueenslanders are chosen:

number of ways of choosing 3 Oueenslanders and 3 others = 5C3 x7 C3

number of ways of choosing 4 Oueenslanders and 2 others = 5C4X7 C2 number of ways of choosing 5 Queenslanders and 1 others = 5CSX 7C1 total number of ways = SC3x7C3+5C4 X7C2 +SC5X7C[

at least one Queenslander is chosen:

number of ways of choosing without restrictions = 12C6

number of ways of choosing with no Oueenslanders = 7 C6 total number of ways = 12C6-7 C6

PASCAL'S TRIANGLE

In each space, write the number of shortest possible routes to that space. These numbers form Pascal's triangle.

Suppose that you start from the top of the triangular arrangement of spaces shown on the attached sheet.

Can you see the pattern which takes you from one row to the next? Justify this pattern in terms of the shortest route problem.

The shortest route problem can be used to explain why each row can be written as combinations ego the last row is:

Each number in Pascal's triangle (except those on the outside) can be found by adding the pair of numbers immediately above. This recurrence relationship can be written as:

n C + It C == II + 1 C

r r-1 r

As well as justifying this recurrence relationship in terms of the shortest route problem, it can be derived in other ways:

• algebraically by writing "C,. = (n! ) etc. r! n+r !

• by considering the selection of r objects from two collections - collection A containing n objects and collection B containing one object.

Consider sloping rows of Pascal's triangle. In turn, they give:

• ones {1,1,1,1,1, }

• natural numbers {1,2,3,4,5, }

• triangle numbers {1,3,6,1 0,15, }

• tetrahedral numbers {1,4,lO,20,35, }

What is the connection between natural numbers, triangle numbers and tetrahedral numbers? How do triangle numbers and tetrahedral numbers get their names? What is the nth triangle number and the nth tetrahedral number as a combination? Write these combinations as algebraic expressions in n .

BINOMIAL THEOREM

Consider the binomial expansion:

(x + y)8 == (x + y)(x + y)(x + y)(x+ y)(x + y)(x + y)(x + y)(x + y)

The number of X5y3 in the expansion is the same as the number of ways of selecting 5 x 's from the 8 available ie. 8cs . This leads to the binomial theorem for binomial expansions (x + r)" where n is a positive integer. The theorem gives the coefficients as combinations. Eg. for n = 8 :

(x+ y)8

=8Cgx8+8C7 x7y+8C6x6y2+8CS XSi+8C4 x4/+8C3 x3/+8C2 x2l+8cj x / +8co l = x8 + 8x7 y+ 28x6y2 + 56x5y3 + 70x4l + 56x3y5 + 28x2l +8xy7 + i

From the earlier work on Pascal's triangle, we can also say that the coefficients of a binomial expansion are given by the appropriate row of Pascal's triangle. Substituting x = y = 1 in the

binomial theorem shows that the sums of the rows of Pascal's triangle are powers of 2.

5

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Probability can be studied in conjunction with set the: Wltr; p (A n B) =- 0

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two events A and B, . VV"~ A II G).= (\R) P{ (6)

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P(A0B) represents the probability of A AND B OCCll: '/

probability of A OR B occurring.

Mutual Exclusive Events -Vl.ot \

Events A and B are mutually exclusive if they have no events in common. In other words, if A occurs B cannot occur and vice-versa. On a Venn Diagram, this would mean that the circles representing events A and B would not overlap.

If, for example, we are asked to pick a card from a pack of 52, the probability that the card is red is 112 . The probability that the card is a club is IA. However, if the card is red it can't be a club. These events are therefore mutually exclusive.

If two events are mutually exclusive, P(Af\B) = 0, so

peA) + PCB) = P(AVB) : MdA>"DV\ i.._v._Le_

Independent Events ~ VU)T VV\ 0{y1._O\.Uv] e.'(c;\/~At 'tV' f

Two events are independent ifthe first one does not influence the second. For example, if a bag contains 2 blue balls and 2 red balls and two balls are selected randomly, the events are:

a) independent if the first ball is replaced after being selected

b) not independent if the first ball is removed without being replaced. In this instance, there are only three balls remaining in the bag so the probabilities of selecting the various colours have changed.

Two events are independent if (and only if):

P(AllB) = P(A)P(B)

This is known as the multiplication law.

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Conditional Probability

Conditional probability is the probability of an event occurring, given that another event has occurred. For example, the probability of John doing mathematics at A-Level, given that he is doing physics may be quite high. P(AIB) means the probability of A occurring, given that B has occurred. For two events A and B,

P(M·.B) = P(AIB)P(B)

and similarly P(ArlB) = P(BIA)P(A).

If two events are mutually exclusive, then P(AIB) = 0 .

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Circles - angles formed by radii, chords, tangents, secants

http://regentsprep.orglRegents/mathb/5 A 1 ICirc1eAngles. h

Angles Formed by Radii, Chords, Tangents, Secants

Formulas for Working with Angles in Circles

(Intercepted arcs are arcs "cut off" or "lying between" the sides of the specified angles.)

There are basically five circle formulas that you need to remember:

1. Central Angle:

A central angle is an angle formed by two intersecting radii such that its vertex is at the center of the circle.

Central Angle == Intercepted Arc

<AOB is a central angle.

Its intercepted arc is the minor arc from A to B. m<AOB = 800

2. Inscribed Angle:

An inscribed angle is an angle with its vertex "on" the circle, formed by two intersecting chords.

Inscribed Angle == !.Intercepted Arc 2

lof3

<ABC is an inscribed angle.

Its intercepted arc is the minor arc from A to C. m<ABC = 500

16/0512006 11 :31 A

Circles - angles formed by radii, chords, tangents, secants

3. Tangent Chord Angle:

An angle formed by an intersecting tangent and chord has its vertex "on" the circle.

Tangent Chord Angle = !_ I ntercepted Arc

2

http://regentsprep.orgIRegents/mathb/5 A L'Circle.Angles.h

o

'00

(

O/\'ff .)

\ \

\

<ABC is an angle formed by a tangent and chord.

Its intercepted arc is the minor arc from A to B. m<ABC = 60°

4. Angle Formed Inside of a Circle by Two Intersecting Chords:

When two chords intersect "inside" a circle, four angles are formed. At the point of intersection, two sets of vertical angles can be seen in the comers of the X that is formed on the picture. Remember: vertical angles are equal.

Angle Formed Inside by Two Chords = ! Sum of Intercepted Arcs

2

B

Once you have found ONE of these angles, you automatically know the sizes of the other three by using your knowledge of vertical angles (being equal) and adjacent angles forming a straight line (adding to 180).

<BED is formed by two intersecting chords.

Its intercepted arcs are ED and CA . [Note: the intercepted arcs belong to the set of vertical angles.]

1 1

m <BED::::; 2 (70 + 170) ;:;; 2 (240) ;:;; 1200

also, m<CEA = 120° (vetical angle) m<BEC and m<DEA = 60° by straight line.

5. Angle Formed Outside of a Circle by the Intersection of:

IITwo Tangents" or "Two Secants" or "a Tangent and a Secant".

The formulas for all THREE of these situations are the same:

Angle Formed Outside = !._ Difference of Intercepted Arcs 2

(When subtracting, start with the larger arc.)

20f3

16/05/2006 11:31 A

Circles - angles formed by radii, chords, tangents, secants

http://regentsprep . orglRegents/mathb/5 Al ICircleAngles. h

Two Tangents:

<ABC is formed by two tangents intersecting outside of circle O.

The intercepted arcs are minor arc AC and major arc

AC. These two arcs together comprise the entire 260

circle.

m <AB C=]_ (260 - 100) = 80° 2

A

Special situation for this set up: It can be proven that <ABC and central <AOC are supplementary. Thus the angle formed by the two tangents and its first intercepted arc also add to 180°.

B

Two Secants:

<ACE is formed by two secants intersecting outside C

of circle O.

The intercepted arcs are minor arcs BD and AE. 800

1 m <ACE=2 (80 - 20) = 30°

a Tangent and a Secant: <ABD is formed by a tangent and a secant intersecting outside of circle O.

The intercepted arcs are minor arcs AC and AD. 1

m <ABD=-(lOO - 30) = 35° 2

A

1000

B

30f3

Back to Math Home Page

Roberts

Back to Circle Anqles

Copyright ©2001-2006 Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center

16/05/2006 11:31 A

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